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3  1833  01077  1183 



Douglas  and  Grant  Counties 






With  Biographical  Sketches  of  Representative  Citizens  and 
Genealogical   Records  of  Many  of  the  Old  Families 



977   to/  1916 

B.  F.  BOWEN    &   COMPANY,  Inc. 
D    '^'  X-  Indianapolis,  Indiana 



To  those  whose  hands  planted  the  first  homes  in  Douglas  and  Grant 
counties;  whose  love  of  religion  and  education  established  the  first  churches 
and  schools ;  whose  desire  for  good  government  led  to  the  organization  of 
civil  townships  and  the  selection  of  worthy  public  officials;  whose  wish  for 
material  jn-osperity  has  caused  the  building  of  mills  and  factories  and  the 
opening  of  \irgin  tracts  of  land  to  culti\ation — to  those  who  are  gone,  as 
well  as  to  the  many  pioneers  still  liA'ing,  is  tliis  record  of  their  achievements 



.\11  life  and  achievement  is  e\-olution;  present  wisdom  comes  from  past 
experience,  and  present  commercial  prosperity  has  come  only  from  past  exer- 
tion and  sacrifice.  The  deeds  and  moti\es  of  the  men  who  have  gone  before 
have  been  instrumental  in  shaping  the  destinies  of  later  communities  and 
states.  The  development  of  a  new  country  was  at  once  a  task  and  a  privi- 
lege. Jt  required  great  courage,  sacrifice  and  prixation.  Compare  the  pres- 
ent conditions  of  the  people  of  Douglas  and  Grant  counties,  ^Minnesota,  with 
what  thicy  were  six  tlecades  ago.  From  a  trackless  wilderness  and  \irgin 
land,  they  have  come  to  be  centers  of  prosperity  and  civilization,  with  millions 
of  wealth,  systems  of  railways,  educational  and  religious  institutions,  varied 
industries  and  immense  agricultural  and  dairy  interests.  Can  anv  thinking 
person  lie  insensible  to  the  fascination  <)f  the  study  which  discloses  the  aspira- 
tions and  efforts  of  the  early  ]>ioneers  who  so  strongly  laid  the  foundation 
u])on  which  has  l;ecn  reared  the  magnificent  prosperity  of  later  days?  To 
perpetuate  the  stnry  of  these  jjcople  and  to  trace  and  record  the  social, 
religious,  educational,  political  and  industrial  jirogress  of  the  community 
from  its  first  incejition,  is  the  function  ol  the  local  historian.  A  sincere 
purpose  to  preser\e  facts  and  jiersonal  memoirs  that  are  deserving  of  per- 
petuation, and  which  unite  the  present  to  the  past,  is  the  motive  for  the 
present  publication.  The  publishers  desire  to  extend  their  thanks  to  those 
who  hax'e  so  faithfully  labored  to  this  end.  Thanks  are  also  due  to  the 
citizens  of  Douglas  and  Grant  counties,  for  the  uniform  kindness  with  which 
they  ha\-e  regarderl  this  iindertaking,  and  for  their  many  services  rendered 
in   the  gaining  of  necessary   information. 

In  placing  the  "History  of  Douglas  and  .Grant  Counties,  Minnesota," 
before  the  citizens,  the  publishers  can  conscientiously  claim  that  they  have 
carried  out  the  plan  as  outlined  in  the  ]>rospectus.  luery  biographical'  sketch 
in  the  work  has  been  submitted  to  the  part}-  interested,  for  correction,  and 
therefore  any  error  of  fact,  if  there  be  any,  is  solely  due  to  the  person  for 
whom  the  sketch  was  prepared.  Confident  that  our  effort  to  please  will 
fully  meet  the  approbation  of  the  public,  we  are. 






A  portion  of  Minnesota  Originally  Included  in  Louisiana  Purchase — Indian 
Cessions  and  Treaties — Territorial  Government  Established — Boundaries — 
Governor  Alexander  Ramsey — Eirst  Territorial  Legislature — The  Historic 
Council  with  the  Indians  at  Traverse  des  Sioux — The  Treaty — Indian 
Hunters  Cause  Trouble — Townsite  Speculation — Constitutional  Convention — 
l-'irst  State  Lesislature— A<lniissi<in  of  Minnesota  as  a  State— Aid  to  Rail- 
roads—  l-inancial  String  iu\  —  direst  Among  the  Indians — Massacre  of 
1S')2 — Punishment  of  the  Indians — Sul)sequent  Treaties — A  Period  of  Rapid 
Development — Trouble  Because  of  the  State  Issue  of  Railroad  Bonds — Settle- 
ment of  the  Ouestion  and  Activity  in  Railroad  Building — Diversified  Farm- 
ing Interests — Population  Statistics — Military  Record — Xame — Geograpliy — 
Area — Rivers — Lakes — Elevations — Climate — Chronological  History  of  the 


Location  of  the  County — Area — Surface  Features — Xatural  Drainage — 
Lakes — Topography — Moraines — Drift  and  Glacial  Deposits — Altitudes — 
Soil — Timber — Geological  Structure — Mean  Elevation  Due  to  Underlying 
Formations — Building    Stone — Lime — Aboriginal    Earthworks. 


TRAGEDY    72 

White  Men  in  Minnesota  Prior  to  the  Discovery  by  Columbus — The  Record 
— Conflicting  Views  as  to  the  Authenticity  of  the  Rune  Stone  Found  in 
Douglas  County — The  Discovery — Topography  of  Surroundings — Examina- 
tion of  Stone  l)y  Experts — Details  of  the  Inscription — References  to  the 
Topography  of  the  Region — Where  was  Vinland? — Cliaracteristics  of  the 
Stone — Discussion  of  Its  .Authenticity — Rune  Books — Review  of  tlie  Find- 
ing of  the  Stone  and  Xotes  on  the  Record  Given  by  the  Inscription — Lin- 
guistic Objections — Collateral  Evidence — Resolutions  Adopted  by  the 
Museum  Committee  of  the  Minnesota  State  Historical  Society — Investiga- 
tions of  Prof.   George  T.    Flom — Bibliography. 


Great  Xatural  Beauty  of  the  Park  Region  of  Minnesota — Lack  of  .\l)Solute 
Proof  of  Some  Early  Historical  Statements— The  Old  Red  River  Trail— The 


Kinkaid  Brothers  and  Their  Settlement  at  Alexandria — Gradual  Growth  of 
the  New  Settlement — Other  Early  Settlements — The  First  County  Govern- 
ment— Development  of  the  County — Effect  of  News  of  the  Indian  Uprising 
on  the  Early  Settlement — Echoes  of  Pioneer  Days — Henry  Gager's  Stage 
Station — Mosquitoes  in  Pioneer  Times — Brandon  Township's  First  Home- 
stead— First  School  Houses — Pioneer  Reminiscences — Primitive  Ways  of 
Agriculture — Early  Days  of  the  Railroad — Conditions  in  the  Pioneer  Schools 
— Quick  and    liffective   Remedy   for   Frostbites. 


Causes  for  the  Sioux  Outbreak  of  1862 — Story  of  the  Trouble — Every 
Frontier  Dwelling  a  Charnel  House — Siege  of  Ft.  Ridgely — Suppression  of 
The  Sioux — Battles  of  Birch  Coulie  and  Wood  Lake — Pitiful  Scenes  at  Camp 
Release — Punishment  of  the  Guilt}' — Effect  in  Douglas  County  of  the 
Uprising — Tragic  Death  of  .\ndrew  Austin — The  Old  Stockade  at  Alex- 


First  Civil  and  Judicial  Relations — Legislative  Act  Creating  the  County — 
Boundaries — First  Meeting  of  the  County  Board — County  Buildings — Court 
House  History — Jails — Population  of  Douglas  County— Naturalization  Rec- 
ords— County   Financial   Statement. 


First  Officers — Roster  of  County  Commissioners — Auditors — Treasurers — 
Registers  of  Deeds — Sheriffs — County  Attorneys — Judges  of  Probate — Sur- 
veyors— Coroners — Clerks  of  the  Court — Court  Commissioners — Superin- 
tendents of  Schools — Douglas  County  in  the  Legislature — I^egislative 
Apportionments,   with    Roster  of   Senators   and    Representatives. 

Civil  and  Congressional  Townships — Osakis  Township — Creation — Settle- 
ment— Officials — Alexandria  Township — Creation — First  Officials — Settle- 
ment— Present  Officials— Holmes  City  Township — Created — First  Election 
— Settlement  and  Land  I-jitries — Pioneer  Life,  a  Reminiscence — Early  Events 
— Present  Officials — Brandon  Township — Created — Settlement — Officials — 
— Moe  Township — Creation  of — Settlers — Officials — Lake  Mary  Township — 
Establishment — Name — Settlement — Officials — Leaf  Valley  Township — Crea- 
tion— Settlement — Officials — Millerville  Township^Created — Settlement — 
Officials — Evansville  Township — Established — First  Homesteads — Officials — 
Orange  Township — Established — Land  Entries — Officials — Ida  Township — 
Established — Early  Homesteaders — Officials — Carlos  Township — Created — 
Settlement — Officials — Urness  Township — First  Settlers — Officials — Hudson 
Township — Established — Early  Settlers — Present  Officers — Belle  River 
Township — Establishment  and  Name — Land  Entries — First  Settlers — Early 
Conditions — Indian  History  and  Tradition — Present  Officers  of  the  Town- 
sliip — Solem  Township — Creation  and  Name — Settlers — Present  Officers — 
Miltona  Township — Creation — Settlement — Officials — La  Grand  Township — 
Establishment — Settlement — Present  Officers — Spruce  Hill  Township — 
Establishment  and  First  Election — Present  Officers. 



Early  Conditions  Favorable  to  the  Development  of  Farms — Timber  and 
Water  Supply — Location  of  Douglas  County — Surface  Features — Land  and 
Water  Area — Timber — Soil — Climate — Farms  and  Principal  Crops — Corn 
Prizes — Potato  Culture — Fruits — Live  Stock — Dairying — Rural  Mail  Deliv- 
ery— Telephones — Good  Roads — Douglas  County  Agricultural  Association — 
— Douglas    County   as    a   Summer   Resort — Registered   Farm    Names. 


Wonderful  Transformation  in  Transportation  System — Blazing  of  the  First 
Roads — Military  Trails — Government  Road  Surveys — The  First  Railroads  and 
Later    Lines    Which   Have    Entered   the   County — County   Roads. 


The  Little  Log  School  Houses  of  Pioneer  Days — High  Value  Placed  on 
Education  by  Early  Settlers — Minnesota's  Splendid  Educational  System — 
The  County's  School  System  Epitomized — Alexandria  City  Schools  and 
Some  of  the  Early  Teachers — Clerks  of  the  School  Districts — Teachers  of 
Douglas   County. 


First  Religious  Services  in  the  Homes  of  the  Early  Settlers — The  Itinerant 
Preacher — First  Church  Organizations — A  List  of  the  Seventy-three 
Churches  Incorporated  in  Douglas  County — Methodist  Episcopal  Churches- 
Congregational  Churches — Norwegian  Lutheran  Churches — Swedish  Luthe- 
ran Churches — Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  Churches — Swedish  Baptist 
Church — German  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church — Catholic  Churches — Episco- 
pal Church — Church  of  Christ,  Scientist — Seventh-day  .\dventist  Church — 
Presbyterian    Church. 


.\n  Account  of  the  Various  Papers.  Past  and  Present,  Which  Have  Been 
Influential   in   the   Advancement   of   Douglas    County. 


First  x\ttorneys  in  Douglas  County — Later  Attorneys — Douglas  County 


Self-reliance  of  Early  Settlers  in  Times  of  Sickness — The  First  Physicians 
in  Douglas  County — .Alexandria  Physicians — Osakis  Physicians  and  Those 
Elsewhere   in    the    County — Doctors   of   Dental   Surgery. 


High   Interest   Rate   in   Early  Days— A   Record   of   the   Banks   at  -Alexandria, 

Osakis,  Evansville,  Brandon,  Carlos,  Garfield,  Nelson,  Kensington.  Forada, 
Melba   and   MillerviUe. 


Soldiers  Monument — Douglas  County's  Loyalty  in  tlic  Civil  War — Grand 
Army  of  the   Republic — -The   Spanish-.American   War. 


The    Spirit    of    Fraternity    Among   the    Pioneers— The    First    Lodges    in    the 

County — IndepL-ndent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows — Ancient  Order  of  United 
Workmen — Knights  of  Pythias — Modern  Woodmen  of  America — Scandi- 
navian Mutual  Aid  Association  Siloah — Independent  Order  of  Good  Temp- 
lars— Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union — Ancient  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons — Brotherhood  of  American  Yeomen — Modern  Brotherhood  of  Amer- 
ica— Douglas    County    Humane    Society. 


Beautiful  for  Location — Modern  Improvements — In  the  Days  of  the  Begin- 
ning— Subsequent  Development — The  City  Government — Elections  and  Offi- 
cials of  the  City — The  Postoffice — Commercial  and  Industrial  Concerns — 
Tlie   Commercial   Club — Free   Public   Library. 


Epitomized  History  of  Osakis,  Touching  Its  Location,  Early  Record,  First 
Events,  Business  Interests,  Public  L'tilities,  Manufacturing  Industries,  Church 
and  Fraternal  Societies,  Commercial  Club.  Postoffice,  Educational  Advan- 
tages and  Homes — Evansville,  Brandon,  Holmes  City,  Nelson,  Garfield, 
Melby,    Forada,    Miltona,    Millersville,    Carlos   and   Kensington. 


Home-coming  Week  at  Alexandria — Memories  of  Other  Days,  a  Cluster  of 
Reminiscences — William  Everett  Hicks,  the  Man  Who  Started  Alexandria 
Going — Senator  Knute  Nelson.  Alexandria's  "Grand  Old  Man" — Alexandria's 
First  Village  President — F'irst  Commercial  -Association  Incorporated — The 
Celebrated  Paulson  Case — Reminiscences  by  a  F'irst  Settler — .An  Early  Trav- 
eler's Impressions — An  Impressionist's  View  of  Alexandria — Something 
About  Mules  and  Mule  Drivers — Glimpses  of  Claim-stakes  and  Claim- 
shanties — The  .Approach  to  Alexandria — Hospitality  of  the  Wilderness — The 
Sims    Brothers — Old    People's    Home — Early    Daj'S    Near    Nelson. 



Location — Area — Surface  Features — Drainage — Lakes  —  Elevations  —  Soil  — 
Timber — Geological  Structure — Lake  .Agassiz — Building  Stone— Lime— Bricks 
— .Aboriginal    Earthworks. 


Settlement  Deferred  Because  of  the  Indian  L'nrest  in  the  Early  Sixties — 
Causes  of  the  Outbreak — First  Bloodshed — .Ambuscade  at  Redwood  F'erry — 
-Attack  on  New  Ulm — Battle  of  Birch  Coulie  and  at  Wood  Lake — Events  in 
Grant  County  During  the  Outbreak — The  Old  Stockade — Expeditions 
Through    Grant    County. 


Edward  (Iriffin,  the  l-"irst  White  Resident  of  Grant  County — Some  of  the 
I'irst  Settlers— Pioneer  Conditions— Settlement,  by  Townships,  and  Interest- 
ing   Incidents    in    Connection    Therewith. 


Legislative  Act  Estaljlishing  the  County — Locating  the  County  Seat — Name 
of  the  County — First  Commissioners  and  Some  of  Their  Early  Acts — Com- 
missioner Districts  Estalilished — The  Second  Board — First  County  Court 
House — County-seat  Contest — The  Present  Court  House — Population  Statis- 
tics— Naturalization    Statistics — Countj-     Finances. 


County  Commissioners — Auditors — Treasurers — Registers  of  Deeds — Sher- 
iffs— County  Attorneys — Judges  of  Probate — Surveyors — Coroners — Clerks 
of  the  Court — Court  Commissioners — Superintendents  of  Schools — Grant 
County   in    the    Legislature — Senators   and    Representatives — Apijortionnients. 


An  Account  of  the  Organization,  First  Elections,  I'irst  and  Present  Officers, 
and  Other  Interesting  l-'acts  in  the  Townships  of  Lien.  Logan,  Elk  Lake, 
Pelican  Lake,  Elbow  Lake,  Pomnie  de  Terre,  Erdahl,  Stony  Brook,  Land, 
Rosevillc,  Maesville.  Gorton,  Delaware,  Lawrence,  Sanford  and  North 


Pioneers  I'avored  by  Wonderfid  Natural  Resources — Getting  Started  on  the 
Pioneer  F"arm — Some  Early  Difficulties — E\olution  of  F'arm  Machinery — 
Tree  Planting — Diversified  Farming — Statistics  of  Production — Modern 
F'arm  Conditions — County  .Agricultural  Agent — Farmers'  Clubs — Recorded 
I'arni    Names — Grant   County   .Agricultural   .Association. 


Trails,  the  First  Routes  of  Travel— The  First  Roads— Old  Stage  Routes- 
Trend  of  Early  Settlement— Laying  Out  the  Early  Wagon  Roads— State 
Highway    Commission — Railroads   in    Grant   County. 


High  Ideals  of  the  Pioneers — First  School  Houses — Scliool  Districts  Estab- 
lished— Sketch  of  the  F^arly  Schools  by  a  Pioneer — Some  of  the  Early  School 
Houses — Pioneer  School  Conditions — Teachers  of  189() — Development  of 
School  System — .Aims  of  the  Modern  Seliool — Teachers  for  1916 — School 
District   Officers — F'inancial   Statement. 


Synod  Lutheran  Churches — Rev.  Gullik  M.  Erdahl— Swedish  livangelical 
Lutheran  Churches — Xorwcgian  United  Lutheran  Church — Presbyterian 
Church — Rev.  James  Godward — Methodist  Churches — Catholic  Churches — 
Seventh-Day   .Adventist   Church — Other   Church    Incorporations. 


Story  of  Journalistic  Efforts  Which  Have  .Api)eared  in  Grant  County  and  of 
the   Papers   Xow   in    Existence   Here. 


Early  Judicial  Jurisdiction  of  Grant  County— Judges — .Attornevs — Story  of 
the    F'irst    Court    Session. 


Sharp  Contrast  Between  Early  Conditions  and  Those  of  Today — First  Physi- 
cians in  the  County — Physicians  Who  Have  Practiced  at  Herman,  Elbow 
Lake.  Ashbj-,  Wendell,  Barrett  and  Hoffman — Grant  Comity  Dentists- 
Veterinary    Surgeons. 


High  Interest  Rates  in  Early  Days — .\  Brief  History  of  Each  of  the  Finan- 
cial Institutions  in  Herman.  Elbow  Lake,  Hoffman,  Ashby,  Wendell,  Nor- 
cross,    Barrett   and    Erdahl. 


Grand   Army   of  the    Republic — Many    Veterans   Among   the    Early   Settlers. 


Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons — Order  of  the  Eastern  Star — -Knights 
of  Pythias — Independent-  Order  of  Odd  Fellows — Modern  Woodmen  of 
-America — Brotherhood   of   American   Yeomen — Degree    of   Honor. 


Platted — Location — Selection  as  County  Seat — First  Election — Municipal 
Officers — Slow  Early  Growth — Postoffice — Schools — Business  Directory — 
Creamery    Interests — Telephones — Concert    Band. 


Herman — Settlement — Platting — First  Officers — Present  Officers — Schools — 
Community  Social  Club — Band — Business  Interests — Hoffman — Beginning 
of — First  Business  Men — First  and  Present  Officers — Education — Religious 
Organizations — Ladies'  Band — Present  Business  Interests — Wendell — Begin- 
ning of  and  Early  Events — Postoffice — Incorporation — First  and  Present 
Officers — Schools — Public  Improvements  —  Business  Directory  —  Ashby  — 
Early  Records  Destroyed — Officers — Schools — Postoffice — First  Merchants 
— Present  Business  Interests — Barrett — Original  Plat — Incorporation — First 
and  Present  Officers — Manufacturing  Industries — Postoffice — Business  Inter- 
ests— Norcross — Hereford — Erdahl — Pommc    dc    Terrc — Cancstorp. 


County-seat  Contest — "A  Crow  Feast" — "An  Eventful  Day" — "News  from 
Grant  County" — Ancient  Stone  Carving — Indian  Scare  of  1876 — Grant  County 
Old   Settlers'   Association — .\   Pioneer   of   Pioneers — Thomas   C.    Hodgson. 





Aboriginal     Earthworks     71 

Acreage    of    Farms    197 

Agricultural    Association    201 

Agriculture,  Development  of 194 

Agriculture,     Primitive     137 

Alexandria — 

Attractiveness    of    300 

Banks     , 280 

Beginning   of   301 

Business   Interests   309 

Churches__224,   221,   229,   230,   231, 
2li,  235,   246,  247,  251,   253,  254,  262 

City    Buildings    308 

City    Government    302 

Elections     304 

First    Merchants    301 

Growth    of    126,  302 

High    Schoof 217 

Home-coming    Week    331 

Impressionist's   View  of 349 

Improvements     300 

Incorporation   as   Village    303 

Indian    Scare    148 

Kinkaid,    Alexander    125 

Lawyers     212 

Library    312 

Lodges    287,    291,   292,    294,  296 

Lot   Sales    126 

Mail    Routes,    Early    126 

Mayors    307 

Merchants    309 

Newspapersi     265 

Officials,  Roster  of 304 

Old   People's    Home   357 

Physicians     275 

Population     158,  300 

Alexandria — Con. 

Postofficc     History    ■ 126,  308 

President,  First   Village 343 

Reminiscences    333,  346 

Roster   of   Officials    304 

Schools    218 

Settlement    124,    127,   132 

Stockade    134,  150 

Townsitc   Company 126 

Village    Council    303 

Alexandria   Township — 

Altitude     66 

Churches    227 

Officers,    First    153,  173 

Officers,    Present    174 

Organization     153,   173 

I'opulation     158 

Settlement     ._ 173 

Topography    65 

Altitudes    in    County    65 

Altitudes    in    the    State    49 

Ancient    I'Vce   and   Accepted   Masons  295 
Ancient   Order   of   l"nited    Workmen  292 

Animals,    Farm    201 

Apportionments,    Legislative   169 

Area   of   County   59 

Area   of  the   State   47 

Attorneys    272 

Auditors,    County    153,  164 

Austin,    Andrew,    Death    of   149 


Banks   and    Banking    280 

Baptist    Church 221,    228,    229,  230 

Belle    River   Township — 

Altitude    65 

Churches    234.  259 


ricllc    River    Township — Con. 

Indians     189 

Mills.     Early    189 

Officers    - 190 

Organization    lh8 

Population    158 

Settlement     188 

Bench    and    Bar    272 

l!,iuvolcnt    Snciities     l.._-287.  291 

Kethcsda     Society     2i2 

lUnmdaries   of    eounty   152 

Banks    283 

Business    Interests    324 

Churches   230,  234,  325 

Incorporation     324 

Indian    Scare    149 

LaVvyers    273 

Lodges    292 

Xewspapers    269,  271 

Officials    324 

riiysicians     278 

Population    159 

Schools    324 

Settlement      130.  323 

Stage    Station,    Early   323 

Brandon   Township — 

Birth,    First    133 

Gager,    Henry    133 

Homestead,    First    135 

Officers     179 

Organization    178 

Population     158 

Settlement    133,  179 

Building    Stone     71 


Banks    283 

Piusiness    Interests    329 

Churches    234,    252,  259 

Plat   329 

Popiulation    159,  329 

Carlos  Township — 

Altitude    66 

Churches    232,  2ii 

Officers    185 

Organization    185 

Population    159 

Carlos    Township — Con. 

Settlement     185 

Topography    65 

Catholic    Church   232.   233,   234,  254 

Cereal   Crops   198 

Chippewa   (see    Brandon)   __130.   134,   149 

Chippewa    Township    66 

Chiropractor     279 

Chronolo.gical   History  of  Minnesota     50 

Church   of   Christ,   Scientist   263 

Churches   224 

Claim-stakes    and    Claim-shanties 351 

Clerks  of  the  Court 153,  167 

Clerks   of  School   Districts 221 

Climate   of   Minnesota    49 

Conimissioners,   County 161 

Commissioners,    County.    I'irst 129 

Commissioners.    Court    167 

Congregational  Church__224,  227.  231.  238 

Constitution   of  State   39 

Corn   as   a    Crop 199 

Coroners     153,   167 

County  .\ttorncys   153,   166 

County  Auditors   153,   164 

County    Boundaries   152 

County    Buildings    153 

County    Coiumissioners,     h'irst 129 

County    Commissioners,    Roster   of 16! 

County    h'inances    161 

County  Government,   First 129 

County   Offices,    First   154 

County   Officials,   Roster   of 161 

County    Organized    152 

County    Roads    214 

County  School  Superintendents 168 

County   School   System    217 

County  Surveyors 153,   166 

County   Treasurers   153,  164 

Courcurs   des    Bois,   the   211 

Court,   Clerks   of  the   153,   167 

Court    Commissioners    167 

Court    House    History    154 

Creameries    200 

Croiis,    I'arm    198 


Daughters    of    Rebekah    297 

Dentists     278 

Diversified    I'^arniing    Interests    46 


Doctors    27S 

Douglas   County   Agricultural   Ass'u.  201 

Douglas    Count}-    Humane    Society—  299 

Drainage     195 


Early    Days    near    Xclson    357 

I"larly    I'^aniilies    127 

Early   Settlement   of   Count}' 123 

ICarthworks     71 

Education 216 

r.lection.    Eirst   in    County    129 

l'"piscoi)al    Cliurch    262 

l-Aangelical   Association   229,  231 

ICvangclical    Lutheran    Church    

227,  229,  230,   2M.  234,  253 

Evansville — 

Ranks    •- 282 

I'lusincss     Interests    323 

Churches    226.  229, 

231,  2ii.  234.   246,   247,   248,   264,  i22 

Improvements   i22 

Incorporation    322 

Indian    Scare    149 

Lawyers  27i 

Location    321 

Lodges    295,  ?,22 

Newspapers    271 

Officials    i2?, 

Paulson  Case 345 

Physicians  278 

Population    159 

Settlement     130 

Stage  Station,   I'.arly   322 

Evansville    Township — 

.Altitude    66 

Churches    248,  250 

Officers    184 

Organization    183 

Population    1,59 

Settlement     184 


air    Association    201 

amilies.  Early 127 

arm    Acreag:e    197 

arm    .Knimals    201 

arm    Xames,   Registered   204 

I'armers    Clubs    201 

h'arming   Interests,    Diversified 46 

Farms,    Number   of   197 

I'^inancial    Statement,    County    161 

First   County   Government   129 

F6rada 159,  264,  284,  328 

Fraternal    Orders    287     "M 

F>eemasonry     295 

Free    Methodist   Church    230,  231 

hVostbites,    Pioneer    Cure    for 139 


Banks    2i^3 

liusiness     Interests    327 

Churches     234,  327 

Name     327 

Officials     327 

Population     159 

Postoffice     327 

Geography   of   the    State 47 

Geology    of    Douglas    County 59,     66 

German   Evangelical   Luth.   Church__  252 

Grains     19,s 

Grand    -Army    of   the    Republic 287 

Gregory,    P.    L.    129.   152 

Growing    Season    197 

tirowth  of  the  State 44 


Hicks,    William    E.    340 

Holmes   City — 

Business    Interests    325 

Churches-.  230,  234,   248,  251,  252,  325 

Indian    Scare    149 

Location     325 

Lodges     293 

Settlement    132 

Holmes  City  Townshiij — 

Altitude    66 

Churches    247.  248 

Officers    178 

Organization    ; 153,   174 

Pioneer    Life    175 

Population    159 

Recollections   of  178 

Settlement    124,  174 

Topography     65 

Home-coming,    A    331 


Hospitality.     Early     355 

1 1  udson  Township — 

.\ltitiide    66 

Officers     187 

Organization     187 

Population    159 

Settlement     130,  187 

Topography    65 

Humane    Society    299 

Ida    Township — 

Altitude     66 

Churches    227,    228.    231,  248 

Moraines    64 

Officers     185 

(Organization     185 

Population    159 

Settleniient    128,   185 

Incorporated    Churches    224 

Incorporated    Towns    314 

Independent   Order   of   Good   Temp- 
lars      293 

Independent   Order  of   Odd   Fellows 

291,    292,  296 

Indian   Hunters,  Trouble   with 37 

Indian    Outbreak    140 

Indian    Treaties    33 

Indian    I'nrest    40 


Jail     History    156 

Judges    ^T^ 

Judges   of   Probate 130,    152,    153,  166 

Judiciary    of    Douglas    County 273 

Kensington — 

Banks    284 

Business    Interests    329 

Churches    233 

Location    329 

Plat    329 

Population    159 

Kensington   Rune   Stone   Tl 

Kinkaid     Brothers     124,   125 

Knights    of    Pvthias    292 


LaGrand  Township — 

Altitude    -I 66 

Churches    230 

Officers    192 

Organization    192 

Population     159 

Settlement     192 

Topo.graphy-    65 

Lake    Mary   Township — 

.Altitude    66 

Officers     181 

Organization    181 

Population     159 

Settlement    181 

Topography     65 

Lakes    of    Minnesota 48 

Lakes  of  the   County   59 

Land   Area   195 

Lawyers    272 

Leaf   \'alley   Township — 

Altitude    66 

Churches    226,  230 

Officers    - 181 

Organization    181 

Population    159 

Settlement     181 

Legal    Profession   272 

Legislative    Apportionments    169 

Legislators     168 

Lime   71 

Live     Stock    201 

Location   of   County   59 

Location    of    Douglas    County 194 

Lodges    287.  291 

Lund  Township — 

Altitude    66 

Churches    228,    232,    248,  249 

Officers    191 

Moraines    63 

Organization    191 

Population    159 

Settlement     191 


Masonic    Order    295 

Massacre    of    1862 42 

Medical    Profession    275 


Melby    284,  328 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church  224,  226,  235 

Military   Annals    286 

Military   Record   of  State 46 

Military   Trails    212 


Banks    284 

Business    Interests    329 

Churches    233,  257 

First   Things   329 

Plat   329 

Population    159 

Millerville    Township — 

Altitude    65 

Moraines    63 

Officers    .: 183 

Organization    182 

Population    159 

Settlement    135,  182 

Miltona    328 

Miltona   Township — - 

Altitude   --     66 

Officers 191 

Organization    190 

Population    159 

Settlement    191 

Modern   Brotherhood  of  America—  298 

Modern   Woodmen   of  America 293 

Moe   Township — • 

Altitude    66 

Churches   227,   228,   230,   233,  246 

Moraines 63 

Officers    180 

Organization    179 

Population    159 

Settlement     180 

Moraines    63 

Mosquitoes    133,   134 


Name   of  the   State   47 

Xationality   of   Citizens   197 

Naturalization     Records     159 

Nelson — 

Banks  284 

Business   Interests   326 

Early    Days    357 

First   Things   325 

Incorporation    325 

Nelson — Con. 

Plat    325 

Postoffice    325 

Population     159 

School 326 

W.  C.  T.  U 326 

Nelson.   Senator   Knute   342 

Newspapers    265 

Norwegian-Danish   Evan.   Luth.  Ch._  228 

Norwegian   Evangelical   Church 226 

Norwegian    Evan.    Luth.    Church 

. 227,    229,  230 

Norwegian    Lutheran   Church   246 


Officers,    First   County   129 

Officials   of   County   162 

Ohnian,    Olaf    72,    76,    86,  88 

Old   People's   Home   357 

Old    Red   River   Trail 124 

Orange    Township — 

Altitude    66 

Commercial   -Association   344 

Officers    184 

Organization    184 

Population    159 

♦     Settlement    184 

Topography    65 

Organization   of   County   152 

Organization  of  Townships 172 

Osakis — 

Band   344 

Banks   281 

Business    Interests    315 


224,   227.  229,   231,   232,   255,   264,  319 

Commercial    Club    319 

Creamery     318 

Farmers    Co-operative   Assn 344 

First    Events    315 

Fires    315 

High    School    217 

Homes,  A  City  of 321 

Improvements   317 

Incorporation     315 

Lawyers    273 

Location    314 

Lodges. 289,  295,  319 

Mail    Service    320 



Manufacturing   Industries 318 

Xante    '- 314 

Xewspapcrs    271 

Officials    315 

Physicians  276 

Plat 314 

Population   159,  317 

PostofFicc 320 

Professional  Interests 315 

Public     L'tilitics    318 

Schools     320 

Settlement   130,  314 

Osakis   Township — 

Altitude    66 

Churches 228,  248 

Xame    172 

Officers.  First 153,   172 

Officers,  Present 173 

Organization 153,   172 

Population    159 

Settlement 172 

Ti>i)Ography   65 

Osteopathy     279 


Patriarchs    Militant    296 

Paulson  Case,  the  Ccleliratcd 345 

Physicians 275 

Pioneer  Days,  Echoes  of 132,   136 

Pioneer   Schools,   Conditions   in 138 

Population    of    County 158,   197 

Population   of  the   State    46 

Potatoes 199 

Precipitation 197 

Presbyterian  Church 231,  234.  264 

PresSi   the   265 

Probate   Judges    130,    152,    153,   166 

Products,  Farm 198 


Railroad   Honds 39 

Railroad,   the    First   213 

Railroads,    Early   Days   on .138 

Rainfall 197 

Red   River  Trail -_.   124 

Registered   h'arm   Xanies 204 

Ue-isters  of  Deeds 129,  152.  153,   1(6 

Related   State   History 33 

Religious    Societies   224 

Reminiscences 132,    136.   333,  346 

Representatives 168 

Rivers  4« 

Roads,  County ,_  214 

Roster   of   County   Officials 161 

Rune   Stone,   Kensington 12 

Rural   I"ree   Delivery 201 

Scandinavian   Christian   Free   Church  233 
Scandinavian     Evan.     Luth.     Church 

228.    Ill 

Scandinavian   Free   Church  of  God--  233 

Scandinavian   Mut.   Aid  .^ssn 293 

School   Districts,    Clerks   of 221 

School   Houses,   First 136 

School    Superintendents,    County 168 

Schools  216 

Schools.    Pioneer,    Conditions    in 138 

Senators,   State  168 

Settlement  of  County 123 

Seventh-Day  Adventist  Church  -_231,  263 

Sheriffs 129,  152.  153,  165 

SherifT's    Residence    1.58 

Sidelights     331 

Sims     Brothers    356 

Sioux    Indians,    Murders    by 43 

Siou.x    Outbreak    140 

Soil   66,   196 

Soldiers    Monument    286 

.Solem    Township — 

.\ltitudc    66 

Churches   227,  229,  248 

Moraines     63 

Officers    190 

Organization 190 

Population 159 

Rime  Stone 72 

Settlement 190 

Spanish-.American   War   289 

Spruce  Hill  Township — 

Altitude    65 

Churches 228,  231.  234,  248,  249 

Moraines 63,     67 

Officers 193 

Organization 192 


Spruce   Hill  Townshii.— 

Population 159 

Settlement 192 

Stage   Routes,    Early   212 

State  Constitution 39 

State  Senators 168 

Stockade.  Old 140 

Summer  Resorts 203 

Superintendents  of  School 168 

Surface  Features 59 

Surveyors,  County 153,  166 

Swedish    Raptist    Church__-229,  230, 

234,  251 

Swedish     Evangelical    Cliurch 

225,   228,   229,  232 

Swedish    Evan.    Luth.    Church 

229,  230.  231,  2.«,  234,  2.50 

Swedish   Lutheran  Church _- 247 


Teachers  of  Douglas  County 223 

Temperature 196 

Terminal  Moraines 67 

Territorial   Government 34 

Timber 66,  195 

Topography  of  the  County 63 

Towns 314 

Township  Organization 172 

Townsite   Speculation   38 

Trading  Posts 211 

Trails,  Early  124 

Trails,  the  First       211 

Transportation 211 

Treasurers,  County 153,   164 

Treaties  with   Indians 33 


Union    Church   Society 232 

Union   Religious  Society 229 

I'rness   Township — 

.Altitude    66 

Churches 230,  248,  250 

Lodges     293 

Officers 187 

Organization 186 

Population    159 

Settlement 186 


Value  of  Farm  Land 197 

Vegetable   Products 199 

Villages    314 


Water  Area 195 

Weather  Records *__— 196 

Woman's  Christian  Temperance 
Union 294 



■'.\  Crow  Feast" 502 

Aastad     442 

-Aboriginal  Earthworks 369 

-Agricultural  -Agent.   County 423 

-Agricultural  -Association 425 

-Agriculture,  Development  of 419 

Altitudes 362 

-An  Eventful  Day 500 

-Ancient  Free  and  .Accepted  Masons_  474 

-Ancient  Stone  Carving 506 

-Apportionments,  Legislative 406 

Area  of  County 361 

-Assessment  Districts,   First 389 

-Attorneys    458 

-Auditors.   County   389,  401 


Altitude    362 

Banks    468,  470 

Business  Interests  495 

Churches    447 

Farmers'   Club ^  424 

Location    494 

Lodges    472,  479 

Lawyers     459 

Newspapers    456 

Officials    494 

Physicians    463 


Ashby— Con. 

Population    396 

Postoffice  49S 

School    District    Officers 438 

Schools    494 

Teachers    437 

Banks    and    Banking 

Baptist  Church 



..  454 

470.  471 

Business  Interests 




Farmers'   Club   







477    479 

Manufacturing  Industries- 








School   District    Officers 




Beaches    .       ^ 



Benevolent  Societies 




Bridges,    Early    428 

Brotherhood   of   -American   Yeomen-  479 
Brown,  Henry                                               SOS 

Building  Stone   




Catholic  Church   


Christian  Reform  Church 

Church   of   God  

Churches   of   Grant    County—. 

Clerks  of  the   Court 

Commissioner    Districts 





—390,  400 

County    .\gricultural    .\gent 423 

County  .\ttorneys 389,  403 

County   -Auditors   389,  401 

County  Commissioners,  First 387 

County  Commissioners,  List  of 

387,  389,  391,  399 

County   P'inances   397 

County  Officers,   First   389 

County-seat   Contest   392,  500 

County    Seat    Located 387,  389 

County   Surveyors   404 

County  Treasurers   389,  401 

Court   Commissioners   405 

Court,    First   Sessions  of 460 

Court    House,    First    391 

Court  House,  Present 394 

Crop  Statistics 422 

Crops,    Early 420 

Degree  of  Honor 480 

Delaware  Township — • 

Altitude    362 

Geology 367 

Name    416 

Officers  416 

Organization    416 

Population    396 

Roads,    Early    385 

School    District    Officers 438 

Schools    432 

Settlement     385 

Dentists   464 

Development    of   School   System 435 

District  Court 460 

Diversified    Farming    421 

Doctors    461 

Drainage   of   County 361 

Commissioners,    County,    First 387 

Commissioners,    County,    List    of 

387,   389,    391,  399 

Coroners   404 


Early  Difficulties 420 

Early  Settlement,   Routes  of 428 

Earthworks,  -Aboriginal 369 

Eastern  Star,  Order  of  the 475 

Education   432 

Elbow  Lake — 

-\ncient    Stone    506 

Band    4S7 

Banks   467 


Llliew    Lake— Con. 

Business  Interests   485 

Churches      444,445,447,  452 

Court   Houses   392,  394 

Creamery    486 

Dentists     464 

Early    Growth    482 

Election.    First    481 

Farmers'  Clubs 424 

Growth   481 

Improvements ■ 482 

Lawyers 459 

Location     481 

Lo.Ircs 474.  476,  478,  479,  480 

Newspapers 456,  486 

Officials  482 

Physicians     462 

Flatted    481 

Population    396 

Postmaster,  .An   Early 378 

Postoffice    History   482 

Public  Utilities 482 

School   District  Officers 437 

Schools    483 

Teachers   437.  484 

Telephones    486 

Elliow   Lake  Township — 

.\ltitude    362 

Churches    442,  443 

I-"armers'   Clubs   424 

Election,  First 412 

First  Death 381 

First    Religious    Service 381 

Geology  367 

Officials    412 

Organization    411 

Population    396 

School  District  Officers 438 

School,    First   381 

Schools 432 

Settlement   . 377,  380 

Elevations   362 

Elk  Lake  Township — 

.Altitude   362 

Churches    443 

Geology    365 

Mill,   Early   381 

Officers    410 

Organization  410 

Population    396 

Elk    Lake    Township — Con. 

School    District    Officers 437 

Schools    432,  433 

Settlement 376,  377,  381 

Roads,    Early    38L  429 


Banks    471 

Business  Interests 498 

Churches   454 

Farmers'   Club   424 

Location    498 

Plat   498 

School  District  Officers 440 

Erdahl.  Rev.  Gullik  M 444 

I'-rdahl   Township — 

-Altitude    362 

Lime 367 

Moraines    364 

Name    412 

Officials   412 

Organization    412 

School   District   Officers    437 

Schools  432 

Settlement     384 

Population     396 

Evangelical   Lutheran   Church 446 


Fairs,  Annual  426 

Farm    Conditions,    Modern 422 

Farm    Machinery,    Evolution    of 421 

Farm   Names 424 

Farm    Production    422 

Farmers'   Clubs 423 

Farming   Interests 419 

Finances    of    County 397 

First    County    Commissioners 387 

First   House   in   County 376 

First  Session  of  Court 460 

Fraternal    Orders    474 

Freemasons     474 


Geological  Structure   364 

German    Evan.    Luth.    Church 454 

German    Reformed   Church 454 

Glacial    Drift    364 

Godward.    Rev.   James 448 


Old  Settlers-  Association 508 

Old  Stockade 374 

Order  of  the  Eastern  Star 475 

Organization  of  County 387 

Pelican    Lake    Township — 

Altitude 362 

Election,    Mrst    411 

Government  Road 373 

Lime  369 

Moraines    364 

Officials   411 

Organization    411 

Population     396 

Roads,  Early 427 

School    District    Officers 438 

Schools   432,  433 

Settlement   377,  380 

Stockade    374 

Physicians    461 

Pioneer  Conditions 377 

Pioneer    Farms    419 

Pioneer  School  Conditions 435 

Pomme    de   Terre — 

Churches    443 

Early   Stores    J 380 

Laid  Out 379 

Mill    380 

Plat 499 

Pomme   dc  Terre  Township — • 

Altitude    362 

Election,    First    412 

Moraines    364 

Officials     412 

Organization    412 

Population     396 

Roads.    Early    427 

School    District    Officers 438 

Schools    432 

Settlement     i77 .  379 

Population    Statistics 395 

Prairie    Fires   420 

Presbyterian  Churcli 447 

Press,    the    455 


Railroads    431 

Recorded  I'-arm   Names 424 

Registers  of  Deeds 389,  402 

Religious    Societies    442 

Representatives   406 

Road   Districts,   First   389 

Roads,  Government 373 

Roseville   Township — 

Altitude    362 

Churches   454 

Election,  First 414 

Xanie    383 

Officers    414 

Organization    414 

Population     396 

School    District    Officers    438 

Schools    383 

Settlement     383 

Routes  of  Early  Settlement 428 

Ivoyal  Xeighhors  of  America 477 


Sanford,    Henry   F.   376.  378 

Sanford    Township — 

Altitude   362 

First   House  in   County 376 

Xame    417 

Officials   417 

Organization    417 

Population     3% 

School    District    Officers 438 

Schools   432.  434 

Settlement 376,  377,  i7i< 

School   District   Officers   437 

School   Districts,   Early  „_-389,  390,  432 

School    I'inancial   Statement 440 

School    Houses,    Early    434 

School    Superintendents.   County 405 

Schools     432 

Schools.    Early,    Sketch    of 433 

Secret    Orders    474 

Senators,    State   406 

Settlement,  Early 376 

Seventh-Day  Advcntist   Church 4.=;3 

Sheriffs    389.   3''1.  402 

Sioux  Indian  Outbreak 370 

Sketch  of  Early  Schools 433 

Soil   362 

State  Highway  Commission 430 

State    Roads   4.W 

State    Senators    406 


Stock    Raising-   422 

Stockade,    the    Old    374 

Stone,   Building  368 

Stone  Carving,  Ancient 506 

Stony  Brook  Township — 
Altitude    362 

Election,  First 413 

First    Religious   Service 383 

House,    First   383 

Officials    413 

Organization    413 

Population    396 

Roads,   Early   427 

School  District  Officers 438 

Schools    432 

Settlement 376,  377,  382 

Streams 361 

Surface   Features   361 

Superintendents  of  Schools 405 

Surveyors,   County 404 

Swedish   Evan.   Luth.   Church 444 

Synod   Lutheran   Churches   442 


Teachers  in  1896 435 

Teachers  in  1916  436 

Timber 364 

Township   Organization 409 

Trails,   Early   427 

Transportation    427 

Treasurers,  County 389,  401 

Tree    Planting,    Early 421 

Veterinary  Surgeons 46S 


Banks  469,  471 

Business   Interests   493 

Churches 443,  449 

Creamery    492 

Farmers'    Club    424 

Incorporation     492 

Location     492 

Lodges    478 

Merchants,    Early    492 

Newspapers   456 

Officials    493 

Physicians     464 

Platted 492 

Population    396 

Postoffice 492 

Public    Utilities    493 

School    District    Officers    439 

Schools    493 

Teachers    437 

Wheat,   a   Leading   Crop 421 




Aancnson,    Reinert    _-31/ 

Aanerud,     M.     C .485 

Adams,    Mclvin     L 196 

Adensam.    Henry   688 

Adensam,   Wcnzl   669 

Adrianson,   Clavis   P 670 

Amundsen,    Ole    A.    169 

Amundson,  Hon.   Ole 43 

Amundson.   Oscar   166 

Anderson.   A.    Emil 600 

Anderson,    A.    M 167 

Anderson,    Aaron    458 

Anderson,    Andrew    H 667 

Anderson,    Carl    D 295 

Anderson,    Charles    251 

Anderson,    Charley    J 623 

Anderson,    F.    O 578 

Anderson,    Giistaf    244 

Anderson,    Louis   174 

Anderson,  Magnus 345 

Anderson,    Ncls    D 496 

Anderson,   Xcls    M 232 

Anderson,    O.    H.    534 

Anderson,    Swan    M 325 

Angen,   Jens   J 263 

Angen,    Olaus    378 

Asleson,   Ole   195 

Augdabl,    Carl    O 682 


Backelin,   John   432 

Bah,    Andrew    O 203 

Bah,    Olaus    O 246 

Baker,   John   544 

Baker,    Lewis    544 

Baker,    William    R 676 

Bardahl,     Hans    517 

Barker,    Melvin    A 591 

Bartness,    Paul    S 611 

Earlz,    Rev.   Albert   F.    W 575 

Bates,   John    C 236 

Behrends,    William    F 94 

Benson,    John    S 406 

Benson,    Louis    680 

Berg,    John    O 677 

Bergan.    Erick    N -188 

Bergan,    Ole    N 676 

Bergh,    Emil    E 275 

Berglund,  J.  Alfred 430 

Bergstrom,   John    __.383 

Betland,    Christopher    P 551 

Betland,    John    C 526 

Betterman,    William     F 351 

Birkhofer,   Hans 336 

Bjerke,    Even    E 620 

Boerner,  Elmer 558 

Bolin,    John    639 

Bordsen,   Theodore   90 

Borgen,   Adolph    571 

Borrill.    James    R 536 

I'.oulting,    Walter    H 274 

Bowman,    Edwin    337 

Brakken,    Gilbert    J.    691 

Brandt,    Emil   J 339 

Brckke,     Nels     B 686 

Brevig-,     Xels     N 212 

Brevig.     Peter     N' 675 

Brewf^cr.    Loren    I 84 

Bronson,    Clement    H 504 

Bronson.    Willie    X 1 87 

Brough,    Robert    K 71 

Brown,     Charles    T 612 

Brown,    Eli   W 564 

Brown,   George  C 261 

Brown,  John   N 384 


Brown,    Nicholas     384 

Brown,    P.    C 388 

Brown,    William    662 

Brucske,   lunil   476 

Brueskc.   I'Vedcrick   439 

Brusc,    Evert   186 

Bundy,   Scott   424 

Burkcc,    Axel    208 

Burros.    O.    J 363 

Burtness,    Tidoman    H 68 

Busclier.    Frank    307 

Bye,   Xels   479 


Campbell,    Harlan    S 61 

Canlicld,    Charles    F 89 

Carlquist,    Adam    374 

Carlson,    C.    A 334 

Carlson,    Carl   J 373 

Carlson,    Magnus    464 

Carlson,   Samuel    M 464 

Cassell,   Peter   278 

Cater,   Charles  88 

Christensen,    Martin    411 

Christcnson,   Arthur  C 249 

Christenson,    Christen    A 106 

Christeuson,  Henry 306 

Christenson,    Nels    C 250 

Christiansen,    Chris    511 

Christopherson,    Charles    J 460 

Clark,  John   H 644 

Colbjornscn,    Colbjorn    W 40 

Cooley,  John  H 466 

Cordal,    Tosten    T 122 

Cowing;,    William    T 35 

Crabb,   William   J 451,  Hon,   George   P 96 

Curtis,    Jesse    M 158 

Curtis,    O.    H 291 


Dahl.    Alfred    J 98 

Dahl,   F.rick   F 390 

Dahl,    Peter    E 340 

Dahlberg,    Martin    1 445 

Dahlgrcn,    Olaf  J 661 

Dahlstrom,    Carl   J 2.S9 

Danek.   eharles  311 

Davidson,   David  J 409 

Derby,    L.    J 658 

Dicken,    James    F 376 

Diment,    Henry    368 

Diment,    Louis   368 

Dobmeyer,   F'erdinand   G 472 

Drussell,    Edward   J 220 

Dybdal,    Knute    283 

Dybdal,    Tosten    E 583 

Dyrud,   Siver   663 


EkbcFg,   Frank   A 585 

Elgin,    Frank   497 

EUingson,   Ellen   652 

Ellingson,    Fllcnd   X 116 

EUingson,   Nils   63 

Ellis,   Ray   F 465 

Engemon,    Ole    253 

Englund,   Peter   M 455 

Engstrom,    Peter   . 353 

Erickson,   August  W 223 

Erickson,   Edward   P.   584 

Erickson,    Erick   G 618 

Erickson,    Hcndrick   417 

Erickson,    Peter    189 

Evenson,   Nels   M 51 

Evju.    Halbcrt    H 680 


b'agerberg,    Lewis    T 615 

Eahlin,    Nels   J.   265 

Fida,   Leopold   341 

F'ida,    Lucas    382 

Fisher,  John   M. 175 

Fjoslien.   Knut   O 505 

Floden,   Peter 640 

Foslien,    Alfred   303 

Foslien,  Theodore 399 

I'oss,    Hon.    Louis   O 562 

Frigaard,    Jens    281 


Gerjord,    Ole   T.   521 

Gilbertson,   George    176 

Gilbertson,    Gilbert    113 

Gilkinson.  Andrew   I..   M.  D I.^C 


Gillies,   John    E 492 

Ginther,    Louis    138 

Goetzinger,    Hon.    William    H 477 

Goodell,  Charles   S 159 

Gregersen,  Anton   H. 56 

Grinder,    Christian    C 193 

Gronwold,  Herman •. 185 

Groven,   Knute  267 

Gruetzmacher,   Robert   82 

Guenther,    Gustavus    576 

Gulbrandscn,  Ole 554 

Gulbranson,  Ole 653 

Gulson,    H.    A 356 

Gundcrson.  John   L 179 

Gustafson,   Gustaf  H 579 


Haatvedt,   Carl   A.   288 

Haatvedt,    Ole    A 288 

Halgrimson,  J.   E 184 

Halvorson,    Albert    O 491 

Halvorson,   John   T 343 

Halvorson,    Osten   228 

Hammer,  John  362 

Hand,  William  R.,  M.  D 569 

Handschug,    William    A 588 

Hansen,  Anton   410 

Hansen,   Louis    614 

Hanson,  Albert 240 

Hanson,   Christopher    B 426 

Hanson,     Erick    347 

Hanson,   Gilbert 674 

Hanson,    George    H 352 

Hanson,    Hans   O 240 

Hanson,    Hans    P 352 

Hanson,    Henry    452 

Hanson,    Ole   508 

Hanson,    Peter    461 

Harris,    Frederick   G 689 

Harrison,    Ole   W 148 

Harstad,    Carl   A 226 

Harstad,    Christian    L ^_270 

Hauge,  Lars  J. 132 

H'augen,  Andrew  I 500 

Haugen,  Knute 149 

Hauglie,    Anton    367 

Hawkins,  Oliver  P 298 

Hawkinson,  Andrew 665 

Haywood,    George    H 142 

Heald,    Frank   H 629 

Helleckson,    FI.    E 77 

Hcndrickson.   Henry 518 

Hengstler,   William  H.,   M.   D 76 

Herbert,    Frans    O 318 

Hermanson,  Carl 231 

Hermanson,    L.    G 350 

Hermanson,    William    398 

Hessel,    Henry    516 

Hctherington,    Charles    C 322 

Hicks,    William    E S3 

Hillmond,     Hon.     Herman 72 

Hintzen,    John    A 342 

Hintzen.    Leonard    437 

Hintzen,   Nicholas    344 

Hjelm,    Peter    M 404 

Hobart,    H.    B 440 

Hogstrom,   John    N 670 

Holing,    Anton    453 

Holing,   John  657 

Holm,  Peter  J 462 

Holt.    Engebret    O 539 

Holte,  Christ  L 475 

Hoplin,    Peter    75 

Hove,  James    B 139 

Hove,    Oluf    T 433 

Howe,   Byron   E 365 

Hubred,    Hans    560 

Hubred,   Olaf   M 546 

Isackson,    Isack    386 

Isakson,    Andrew    538 

Island,  Gunerinus   L. 230 

Iverson.    Ole    B 93 


Jeffrey,    George    355 

Jensen,    Peder   660 

Jensen.    Theodore    A 333 

Jenstad,  Ole  G 541 

Johnson,    Hon.   .\nders    G— 1 483 

Johnson,   Charles 414 

Johnson.   Chris   91 

Johnson,    Erick   395 

Johnson,   Erick   G 408 

Johnson,    Gustav  A 182 

Johnson.  John   C 488 


Johnson,   Martin 237 

Johnson,    Martin    P 634 

Johnson,    Mrs.    Peter   332 

Johnson,  Theodore 271 

Johnson,  \'ictor  X 412 

Julig,    Charles    L 252 


Kaasa,    Halvor    L 194 

Kellogg.    Leander    4cS9 

Kent,   Lewis   S 144 

Kersten,    H.    C 654 

Kietzman.  Adolph  G 606 

Kietznian,   Aniil    R 312 

Kietzmann,  .\lbert   P 598 

Kinney,  James  .\ 272 

Kloehn,    Charles    387 

Kloos,   Charles   B 596 

Kloos,  John  W 656 

King,   Frederick 447 

Knutson,  Torgjels 168 

Kraemcr,   Michael   309 

Kreidler,   George  D ; 617 

Kube,   Adolph   G 287 

Kuchenbcckcr,   Otto   199 

Knllandcr,  Andrew   685 


Landecne,   William   E 567 

Landt,   S.   S 532 

Larson,  A.  D.,  M.   D 605 

Larson,  .-Mgot   F 214 

Larson,   C.   H 457 

Larson,  Constant 160 

Larson,    Mrs.   Elna   561 

Larson.   Emil 636 

Larson,   Erick   324 

Larson,  Julius 444 

Larson,    Simon   478 

Larson,  Victor   346 

Leach,  Hugh   E 83 

Lee,    Jens    P 603 

Lee,   Lars   E 423 

Lee,    Ole   302 

Lekander,    Jens    648 

Leraas,  Andrew   L 599 

Leraas,    Ole    J .590 

Lel^oy,    Henry   A 592 

Lewis,   Hon.    Henry   L 446 

Lien,    Edward    535 

Lietz,   Henry  T 635 

Lillemoen,   Henry   G 118 

Lindem,    John   T 137 

Lindsey,   Harvey  E 248 

Lindstrom,   Charles  J 217 

Lindstrom,   Olaf  J 494 

Linnard,   Carl   O 401 

Long,  Charles   M.,   M.  D 364 

Lorsung,   Anton  J 117 

Lund,    Alfred    O 78 

Lund,   Christian  A 357 

Lusty,  John  A 1 331 

Lynne,    John    M 689 

Lynne,    Lars    587 


McClellan,   James    R 335 

McCord,  Andrew  L 436 

McCrea,    Ezra    E 566 

McFarlane,  John    470 


Magnuson,  A.  Alfred 459 

Mahlke,   Fred   637 

Malmquist,    Henry   A 338 

Martinson,  Henry  M 205 

Mathison,   Math  428 

Mattson,   Swen   515 

Ma.xfield,    George   S 81 

Mcckstroth,  Charles  W.,  M.  D 163 

Meissner,   Ernest 358 

Meissner,  William  F 155 

Meistcr,   Conrad 314 

Melby,  H.  O 300 

Melby,   K.   N.   O 480 

Melin.    Axel   389 

Mclin,    Charles    360 

Miller,    Carl    G 224 

Miller,    Henry   W 543 

Miller,   Soren  J 435 

Mobraaten,  Torger 279 

Mollman,  August  552 

Moses,  William  J.  B 59 

Moxness,   Peder   391 

Mylir,    Henry    O 369 

Mvhr,  Peter  O 405 



Xasli,    Timothy    V 284 

Xehls.   I"rank  J.    E.   G 103 

Xclson,   Alfred    664 

Xclsoii,    Algc.rt    T 43S 

Xelsoii,   Carl   241 

Xclson.   Edward   23^ 

Xclson,    Gustaf 286 

Xolson.    John     P 219 

Xelson,   John   W 628 

Xelsun.   lion.   Xcls   E 418 

XeLson.    Xolson    G 349 

Xdson,   Ottn   482 

\.lM.n,   otio   W 442 

Xrl>,.n.    I\Ut  J 473 

Xo>s,   Christ   (■ 215 

Xewhorsc,    Carl    J 555 

Xcwnian.    E.   J 499 

Xewman,    Gust    277 

Xicmackl.    William    W .502 

Xilson.    Xils   512 

Xorsrcn,   John    .\ 429 

Xornian.    Rev.    Olans 41 


Oachs.    iM-ank    601 

Ohcrs,    Knut    - 427 

Olhekson,    Hans    1 266 

Olson.    Charles    G 431 

Olson.  Jnlins   C 641 

Olson.  Ole   G 520 

Olson,    Olof   211 

Olson,  Thomas 157 

Omland,    Peter   T 400 

Oslund.   Erick  O 238 

Osterbcrg-,  Arthur  L 115 

Ostrom,    .\aron   J 140 

Otterson.    Xcls    M 524 


Pennie.    Peter    315 

Pennock,   Joseph    668 

Peterson,    Carl    O 280 

Peterson,    Charles    S 626 

Peterson,    Claus    456 

Peterson,   Emil   359 

Peterson,    Erank    .\ 545 

Peterson,    Xcls    136 

Peterson.    P.    M 254 

I'eterson,    Peter    550 

Peterson,  Peter  .\. 326 

Peterson,     I'eter     A 326 

IVterson.     Peter    C, 105 

Peterson.    Peter  J 683 

Petcrsnn,    Rev.    Peter   T 143 

Pikop.    Knut    .\.    207 

Pikop.    L.    11 519 

Pikop,   Olaus   .\ 127 

Piko]).    Hon.   Ole   A 33 

Phtan.   Gilbert  J 263 

Pletan,   Jens   198 

I'letan.    Ole   J 187 

I'owers,    i'letcher  W..   M.   D 527 

Prestrud,  C.  .\. 70 


Ouast.    F.    E 666 

(juinn,  Thomas 642 


Raines,   John    E 671 

Raiter,    Ercd    C 4.i 

Randall,   .\uvignc   M..   M.   D 154 

Rarer.     Robert     F 100 

Reif.    Victor    M 290 

Ringdahl,   Theo.   449 

Risbrudt.    Edward   T 366 

Ritzschke,    Albert    L 180 

Ritzschke,   Carl   646 

Kitzschkc,    Charles    E 548 

Ritzsclikc,  Theodore  A.   H 580 

Ronhovde,    Mons    ..-_572 

liooney,    .\.    A 206 

Rose,    Lars   . 321 

Roth,    Andrew    297 

Ruggles.   E.   R 125 

Russell,    INTarvin    D 421 

Rustad,   Carl   O 594 

Rustand,    .Andrew    C.l 487 

Rustand,   Mads    C 153 

Rustand,   Ole   C 191 

Rustand,    Ole    K 109 

Ruud,   Magnus   P..,   M.   D 92 



Sanil.    Kittil    () 693 

Saiul,  Ole  O 239 

Sandbcrg-,    John    495 

Sanford,   Jasper   X 631 

Sangstead,  Andrew 420 

Sannes,  Ole  O 525 

Sanstcad,  John   E 371 

Saterlee,    Henry   I 403 

Satterlund.    Ole    687 

Satire.   Rev.   Torbjorn   A 4S 

Schaffer.   .Albertiis   260 

Schelin,   Charles   F 471 

Schlcchter.   Joseph    294 

Schmidt,  William   67S 

Schmidt,    William    B 245 

Schoonover,    Sylvan    102 

Schulz,   .■\ugust   643 

Sellscth.   Ole   38 

Setran,    Hogan    G 282 

Sheldon.  W.  W 134 

Shervey,  Sivert 542 

Shogrcn,   Carl  A 209 

Shogren.    Herman   A 216 

Simonson,  Hans 568 

Skinnemoen,  John   S ^ 124 

Skinnemoen,  Nils  S 133 

Skinnemoen,   Ole   S 173 

Skinnemoen.  Stiner  S.,  Jr 52 

Skoglund,  Magnus 681 

Skramstad,  Haakcn 227 

Skrove,    Martin    463 

Sletten.   K.   E 607 

Sletto.    Ole    E 415 

Slotsve,  Hans   H.   557 

Smith,  John   402 

Smith.    Roy   G 269 

Sobers,    Halvor    O 613 

StafFanson,    Erick    G 372 

Stariha.    Mathcw   _— 229 

Stark.    Gustav   -V 162 

Sfcdje.   Clarence   692 

Stcidl,   Nicholas   A 130 

Steinach,    Rev.    Emil  J 99 

Steinhorst.   Ed 690 

Stene.    C.   J 171 

Stevens.  George  T 151 

Strand,    Jens    O 530 

Strandberg.  John   T 361 

Strang,   Cassius  C,  D.  D.  S 64 

Strecd,  Tcter 242 

Strom,  .\nton  H 381 

Stromlund,    George    192 

-Suckow.     Herman    392 

Sund,    Engebret    E 213 

Svvcnson,    Carl    H.    679 

Swenson,   Ferdinand   121 

Svvcnson,  Sven   N.   256 

Swenson,    Rev.    Sven    W 80 

Swenson.    Swen    467 

Swenson,  Theo   E 256 

Swore,    Knute   165 

Synionds,    Fred    H.   624 

Syverson.    Lauritz    450 

Syvrud.    Thomas    A.   156 


Teigen,    Bottol   T.   108 

Thayer.  Thomas   M..  M.  D. 111 

Thies.  Nick  .sa; 

Thompson,   .Alfred  J.   468 

Thompson,    August    285 

Thompson,  Gilbert  J 649 

Thompson,   John    638 

Thompson,  Ole  A. 304 

Thompson.    Theo.    595 

Thorson,    Lars    441 

Thorson.   Thor  J 422 

Thorstenson,    Calmer    E.    164 

Thronson.    Otto    C.    201 

Thronson.  Thron   C. 528 

Titus.    John    F.    268 

Tobiason.  T.  L. 222 

Tollefson,   Bernt  311) 

Tollefson.    Jens    235 

Torgerson,    Mikkel    289 

Torstenson,    William    650 

Treat,    George    L.    128 

Triese.  Jacob 513 

Tripp,   George   293 

Trisko,    Sylvester    264 


Ulsagcr,   Martin   N 221 

I'nunib,    Peter   O.    112 

l-rness.   John   A.    582 

Von    l-!auml);icli.    Ma 


V  Wcstlund,   P.    M.   622 

W'cttleson,   Joseph    H.   58 

L'denck    -3-/  ^^..^1^    Martin   l'. 507 

Winkjcr,    G.    T.    379 

W  Wold,   Hon.  Carl   .\.   60H 

Wagcnius,    Samuel    O 329  ^\°'f-  "^^  '^ ^^^ 

Wagner,    Herbert    O.    54 

Walstad.  -Andrew   M.   320 


Wallen,   Oscar  J.   119  yates,    W.    .\.    181 

Wangsness,    Syvert    S.    258 


Waugh,   Knute    522 

W^caver,    Howard    _ 299 

Weigand,     Fred    621  Zelkr.    Andrew    684 

Wells,   A.   Waters   145  Zicb^irth.    \V.   T. 150 

W>scn,    Constant    .\.    396  Zicnier.    Kred    574 

Western,   John   O.   172  Zininul,    Andrew    416 



Related  State  History. 

The  greater  part,  or  about  two-thirds,  of  the  territory  embraced  within 
the  boundaries  of  Minnesota  was  inckided  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase,  ceded 
to  the  United  States  by  France  in  1803.  The  remainder  of  this  state,  com- 
prising the  northeastern  third  part,  lying  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  was 
included  in  the  country  surrendered  from  Great  Britain  by  the  treaty  of 
1783,  at  the  end  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  In  1805  a  grant  of  land  nine 
miles  square,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Mississippi  and  St.  Peter  (now  Min- 
nesota) rivers,  was  obtained  from  the  Sioux  Indians.  A  military  post  was 
established  on  the  grant  in  18 19,  and  in  1820  arrangements  were  made  for 
the  erection  of  a  fort,  which  was  completed  in  1822  and  named  Ft.  Snelling, 
after  the  commanding  officer,  and  the  grant  has  ever  since  been  known  as 
the  Ft.  Snelling  Reservation.  In  1823  the  first  steamboat  ascended  the 
Mississippi  as  far  as  Ft.  Snelling;  and  annually  thereafter  one  or  two  trips 
of  steamboats  were  made  to  this  isolated  post  for  a  number  of  years. 

This  territory  was  held  by  the  Chippewa  or  Ojibway  and  the  Dakota 
or  Sioux  Indians,  but  adventurous  pioneers  had  penetrated  into  the  coun- 
try along  the  streams  tributary  to  the  Mississippi  river,  and  in  1836  Wis- 
consin territory  was  organized,  comprising  all  the  territory  west  of  Lake 
Michigan,  and  including  within  its  limits  all  the  country  west  of  the  Great 
Lakes  and  north  of  Illinois,  the  west  boundary  of  the  territory  being  the 
Mississippi  river. 


In  1837  two  important  treaties  were  made  with  the  native  tribes  of 
Indians.  The  first  one  was  made  by  Gov.  Henry  Dodge,  of  Wisconsin,  with 
the  Ojibwavs,  at  Ft.  Snelling,  on  the  29th  of  July,  of  that  year,  whereby 



they  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their  pine  or  agricultural  lands  on  the  St. 
Croix  river  and  its  tributaries. 

On  the  29th  of  September,  of  the  same  year,  at  the  city  of  Washing- 
ton, a  treaty  with  the  Sioux  was  made  by  Joel  R.  Poinsett,  a  special  com- 
missioner representing  the  United  States,  and  about  twenty  chiefs,  accom- 
panied by  Major  Taliaferro,  their  agent,  and  Scott  Campbell,  an  interpreter. 
Through  the  influence  and  by  the  direction  of  Governor  Dodge,  this  delega- 
tion of  chiefs  had  proceeded  to  Washington  for  the  purpose  of  making  this 
treaty,  by  which  the  Dakotas,  or  Sioux,  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their 
lands  east  of  the  Mississippi  river  and  all  its  islands.  The  Indians  were  to 
receive  as  consideration  for  the  same  $110,000  in  cash,  to  be  divided  among 
the  mixed  bloods,  $90,000  in  payment  of  debts  owing  by  the  tribes,  and 
$300,000  to  be  invested  in  five  per  cent,  stocks,  the  interest  of  which  should 
be  paid  to  them  annually. 

In  1848  Wisconsin  adopted  a  state  constitution,  but  ignored  the  enab- 
ling act,  and  made  the  northern  part  of  the  western  boundary  of  the  state 
along  the  line  of  the  St.  Louis  and  Rum  rivers,  which  was  not  accepted  by 
the  United  States  government,  and  the  boundary  line  from  the  Mississippi 
river  to  Lake  Superior  became  fixed,  as  in  the  enabling  act,  on  the  line  of 
the  St.  Croix  river  and  in  a  direct  line  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Louis  river. 

After  the  acceptance  of  the  Wisconsin  constitution,  in  May,  1848,  the 
territory  north  and  west  of  the  St.  Croix  and  Mississippi  rivers  being  prac- 
ticaly  without  a  government,  the  Hon.  John  Catlin,  claiming  to  be  still 
secretary  and  acting  governor  of  Wisconsin  territory,  issued  a  proclama- 
tion for  a  special  election,  to  elect  a  delegate  to  Congress.  The  election 
was  held  on  October  30,  and  Hon.  H.  H.  Sibley  was  chosen  delegate,  and 
after  some  delay  was  admitted  as  such  into  the  Congress  of  the  United 


On  March  3,  1S49,  Congress  passed  an  act  to  establish  the  territorial 
government  of  Minnesota.  It  fixed  the  seat  of  government  at  St.  Paul, 
and  established  the  southern  boundary  of  the  territory  along  the  north  and 
west  boundary  line  of  the  state  of  Iowa,  from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the 
Missouri  river,  the  western  boundary  through  the  middle  of  the  channel 
of  the  Missouri  river  to  the  moutli  of  the  White  Earth  river,  and  up  the 
middle  of  the  channel  of  the  White  Earth  river  to  the  boundary  line  between 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  the  northern  boundary  running  thence 
easterly  and  southeasterly  on  the  international  boundary  line  to  Lake  Super- 


ior,  and  the  eastern  boundary  running  thence  in  a  straight  Hne  to  the  north- 
ermost  point  of  the  state  of  Wisconsin,  and  following  the  north  and  west 
boundary  of  said  state  down  the  St.  Croix  and  Mississippi  rivers  to  the 
place  of  beginning.  At  this  time  the  population  of  the  territory  was  mainly 
in  the  section  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  and  the  settlers  were  almost 
entirely  engaged  in  lumbering.  The  territorial  government  was  declared 
fully  organized,  June  i,  1849,  by  Hon.  Alexander  Ramsey,  who  had  been 
appointed  first  territorial  governor.  The  year  1848  was  noted  as  the  year 
of  excitement  from  the  discovery  of  gold  in  California,  and  the  eyes  of 
many  thousands  of  people  throughout  the  east  were  turned  westward,  where 
opportunities  were  opening  for  the  growth  of  new  states.  Although  at  the 
organization  of  the  territory  there  was  scarcely  a  thousand  people,  within  a 
year  the  census  of  1850  gave  to  the  territory  a  population  of  6,077.  Of  this 
number,  however,  1,134  residents  were  credited  to  the  northernmost  part  of 
the  territory  on  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  many  of  these  being  half- 
breds,  and  the  early  pioneers  engaged  in  the  fur  trade,  brought  there 
through  the  influence  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company. 

The  first  territorial  election  was  held  on  August  i,  1849. 

The  first  session  of  the  territorial  Legislature  commenced  in  St.  Paul, 
September  3,  1849,  during  which  counties  were  established  and  a  code  of 
laws  enacted.  The  second  session  was  commenced  in  January,  1851,  at 
which  time  the  capitol  was  located  at  St.  Paul,  the  university  at  St.  Anthony, 
and  the  state  prison  at  Stillwater. 

THE   COUNCIL  AT  TRAVERSE  DES   SIOUX.  ^    ^   ^^^  m   — 


In  185 1  three  treaties  were  made  with  the  Sioux  and  with  the  Ojibway 
bands  of  Indians,  whereby  large  tracts  of  lands  were  relinquished  to  the 
United  States.  In  view  of  the  great  extent  of  country  desired,  and  the 
importance  of  the  transaction,  and  the  long  continued  friendship  of  the 
Dakota  nation.  President  Fillmore  departed  from  the  usual  mode  of  appoint- 
ing commissioners,  and  deputed  the  Hon.  Luke  Lea,  the  commissioner  of 
Indian  affairs,  and  Gov.  Alexander  Ramsey  to  meet  the  representatives  of 
the  Dakotas,  and  to  conclude  with  them  a  treaty  for  such  lands  as  they 
might  be  willing  to  sell. 

On  the  27th  of  June,  185 1,  Commissioner  Lea  arrived  in  St.  Paul  on 
the  steamboat  "Excelsior,"  and  on  the  29th  he,  in  company  with  Governor 
Ramsey,  landed  at  Traverse  des  Sioux,  where  the  great  council  was  to  be 
held  and  the  treaty  consummated  with  the  Sisseton  and  Wahpeton  bands 


of  Sioux.  Great  delay  in  the  proceedings  was  caused  by  the  non-arrival  of 
certain  Sioux  chiefs  from  the  upper  country,  and  it  was  not  until  the  i8th 
of  July  that  the  council  convened  and  the  preliminaries  to  the  treaty  com- 
menced. During  this  interval  of  about  twenty  days  they  all  entertained 
themselves  as  best  they  could  with  races,  dances,  suppers,  sham  fights,  and 
all  sorts  of  fun. 

On  the  1 8th  of  Jul}",  all  the  chiefs  having  arrived,  proclamation  was 
made,  and  being  convened  in  grand  council  and  the  pipe  of  peace  having 
been  passed  around,  the  council  was  opened  by  an  address  from  Governor 
Ramsey.  On  the  23rd  of  July  the  treaty  was  concluded  and  signed  by  the 
chiefs,  by  which  they  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  the  lands  claimed  by 
these  bands  east  of  the  Sioux  Wood  (or  Bois  des  Sioux),  and  Big  Sioux 
ri\ers  and  Lake  Traverse  to  the  Mississippi,  excepting  a  reservation  one 
hundred  miles  long  by  twenty  miles  wide,  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Minne- 
sota river.  By  this  treaty  the  Indians  were  to  remove  within  two  years  to 
the  reservation;  to  receive  from  the  government,  after  removal  $275,000, 
to  enable  them  to  settle  up  their  affairs  and  to  become  established  in  their 
new  home;  and  $30,000  was  to  be  expended  in  breaking  land,  erecting  mills 
and  establishing  a  manual  training  school.  They  were  also  to  receive  for 
fifty  years  from  that  time,  an  annuity  of  $68,000,  payable  as  follows :  Cash, 
$40,000;  civilization  fund,  $12,000;  goods  and  provisions,  $10,000;  educa- 
tion fund,  $6,000. 

About  a  week  later,  on  the  29th  of  July,  Governor  Ramsey  and  Com- 
missioner Lea  met  the  chiefs  and  leading  men  of  the  Med-ay-wakanton  and 
Wah-pay-koo-tay  bands  of  Sioux  at  a  grand  council  at  Mendota,  to  nego- 
tiate another  treaty  for  the  sale  of  other  lands,  which  was  concluded  on  the 
5th  of  August,  being  signed  by  sixty-four  chiefs,  head  men  and  warriors. 
In  the  treaty  these  bands  of  Indians  ceded  and  relinquished  all  their  lands  in 
territory  of  Minnesota  and  state  of  Iowa,  and  in  consideration  thereof  the 
United  States  was  to  reserve  for  them  a  tract  of  the  average  width  of  ten 
miles  on  either  side  of  the  Minnesota  river,  and  bounded  on  the  west  by  the 
Tehay-tam-bay  and  Yellow  Medicine  rivers,  on  the  east  by  the  Little  Rock 
river,  and  a  line  running  due  south  from  the  mouth  to  the  Waraju  river; 
and  to  pay  them  the  following  sums  of  money:  For  settling  debts  and  aid 
in  removal,  $220,000;  for  erection  of  buildings  and  opening  farms,  $30,000; 
civilization  fund,  to  be  paid  annually,  $12,000;  educational  fund,  paid 
annually,  $6,000;  goods  and  provisions,  annually,  $10,000;  cash,  $30,000. 
The  annuities  were  to  continue  for  fifty  years  from  the  date  of  the  treaty. 

These  two  treaties  of  1851  at  Traverse  des  Sioux  and  Mendota  acquired 


for  white  settlement  nearly  24,000,000  acres  of  the  finest  lands  in  the 
world.  The  cessions  were  mostly  in  Minnesota,  but  included  about  an  eighth 
part,  or  nearly  3,000,000  acres,  in  the  state  of  Iowa,  between  the  line  of  the 
old  "neutral  ground"  and  the  northern  and  western  boundaries  of  the  state. 
That  tract  of  country,  and  generally  all  lands  in  Iowa,  claimed  by  the  Sioux, 
were  therefore  embraced  in  the  articles  of  cession  of  both  treaties. 

The  Senate  of  the  United  States,  on  the  23rd  of  June,  1852,  ratified  the 
treaties,  with  amendments  to  each,  which  amendments  were  subsequently 
accepted  by  the  Indians,  and  on  the  24th  of  February,  1853,  President  Mil- 
lard Fillmore  issued  his  proclamation  accepting,  ratifying  and  confirming 
each  of  the  said  treaties  as  amended.  The  total  lands  in  the  present  state  of 
Minnesota  relinquished  to  the  government  by  these  treaties  exceeded 
19,000,000  acres;  and  they  also  ceded  about  1,750,000  acres  in  South  Dakota, 
besides  the  tract  described  in  Iowa. 

The  third  treaty  of  185 1  was  effected  by  Governor  Ramsey  with  the 
Red  Lake  and  Pembina  bands  of  Ojibways  at  Pembina,  by  which  they 
ceded  certain  territory,  sixty-five  miles  in  width  by  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  in  length,  intersected  by  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  This  treaty 
was  not  ratified  by  the  government. 

After  the  ratification  of  the  treaties  with  the  Sioux,  a  great  wave  of 
immigration  set  in  from  all  the  eastern  states,  and  an  era  of  speculation 
started  which  probably  has  never  been  excelled  in  any  portion  of  the  west. 
A  census,  taken  in  1857,  gave  a  population  of  150,037. 


Notwithstanding  there  was  an  abundant  supply  of  good  land  outside  of 
the  limits  of  the  land  ceded  under  these  treaties,  the  adventurous  spirit 
of  the  pioneers  led  many  of  them  to  settle  on  the  extreme  limits  of  the 
grant,  and  in  immediate  proximity  to  the  Indian  settlements.  In  the  south- 
western portion  of  the  state,  particularly,  settlements  were  made  close  to 
the  boundary  line  of  Iowa  and  north  and  west  of  Spirit  lake.  Some  were 
in  Iowa  and  some  were  in  Minnesota,  and  all  were  within  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Indian  agent  resident  in  the  territory  of  Minnesota.  Although  the 
Indians  were  living  on  the  reservation  lands  west  of  these  settlements,  in 
their  hunting  expeditions  they  were  accustomed  to  return  to  the  ceded 
lands.  In  a  general  way  the  Indians  were  civil,  and  committed  only  petty 
depredations;  but  their  visits  were  at  times  annoying.  Among  the  Indians 
there  was  a  single  band,  under  the  leadership  of  Ink-pa-du-ta,  or  the  Scar- 


kt  Point,  of  about  fifteen  lodges,  which  had  been  for  many  years  an  inde- 
pendent band  and  of  a  thie\Tng,  \-agabondish  character  (really  outlaws  from 
the  Sioux  nation,  and  not  represented  in  the  treaties  of  1S51).  who  had 
taken  possession  of  a  strip  of  land  nmning  on  both  sides  of  the  boundary 
lines  of  Iowa  and  Minnesota,  and  extending  to  the  Missouri  river.  In 
March.  1857.  a  few  of  these  Indians  were  hunting  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Rock  river  and  one  of  them  was  bitten  by  a  dog  belonging  to  a  white  man. 
The  dog  was  killed  by  the  Indian,  and  in  return  the  owner  of  the  dog  made 
an  assault  upon  the  Indian,  and  afterward  gathered  his  neighbors,  and  they 
went  to  the  Indian  camp  and  disarmed  them.  The  arms  were  afterward 
returned  to  them,  and  the  party  moved  northeast  arriving  at  the  Spirit  Lake 
settlement  about  the  6di  of  March,  where  they  massacred  the  men  and  took 
four  wcMnoi  into  captivity.  Other  settlements  were  attacked,  and  alto- 
gether forty-two  settlers  were  killed.  Two  of  the  women  were  afterward 
rescued  through  the  efforts  of  Hon.  Charles  E.  Flandreau.  then  the  Indian 
agents  An  effort  was  made  to  punish  this  band  of  savages,  but  all  escaped 
except  the  eldest  son  of  Ink-pa-du-ta.  who  had  ventured  into  the  camp  of 
other  Sioux,  near  the  agency,  and  was  killed  in  an  attempt  to  capture  him. 

T0WX-5ITE    5?ZCVL.\TI0X. 

In  1855  and  1856  town-site  speculation  became  the  absorbing  thought, 
and  when  die  panic  of  1857  set  in.  Minnesota  was  soon  in  a  deplorable 
condition.  The  demand  for  an  extensive  railroad  system  and  a  state  gov- 
ernment had  originated  in  the  flush  times  of  1856  and  1857,  and  on  Febru- 
arv  26.  1857,  Qwigress  passed  an  act  authorizing  a  constitutional  conven- 
tion, and  granting  a  large  amount  of  lands  in  aid  of  puWic  schools.  On 
March  3,  1857,  an  act  of  Congress  was  approved  making  a  large  grant  of 
lands  in  aid  of  railroads. 

The  election  of  members  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  was  held  on 
Tune  I,  1857,  and  the  resnh  was  an  almost  equal  division  representing  the 
Democratic  and  RqmUican  parties.  So  close  was  this  division,  and  there 
being  some  contested  seats,  when  the  convention  assemtJed,  on  July  13, 
two  distinct  organizations  were  made,  each  proceeding  to  frame  a  Con- 
stitntion.  but  finally,  by  conference  committees,  they  united  in  one  docu- 
ment, which  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people  on  October  13,  and  was 
adc^ed  almost  unanimously.  By  this  Constitution  the  boundaries  of  the 
state  were  changed  <m  the  west,  making  the  Red  River  of  the  North  the 
line,  up  the  Bois  des  Sioux,  and  thence  extending  along  that  river  and 


through  Lake  Traverse  and  Big  Stone  lake,  and  by  a  direct  south  Hne  to  the 
north  boundar}'  of  Iowa. 

This  Constitution  provided  for  an  election  of  state  officers  at  the  same 
time  of  voting  upon  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution,  resulting,  by  a  close 
vote,  in  the  election  of  the  Democratic  nominees.  The  first  state  Legisla- 
ture was  convened  on  the  2nd  of  December.  1857,  and  continued  in  session 
until  March  25,  1858,  when  a  recess  was  taken  until  after  the  state  should 
be  admitted.  Some  doubts  were  raised  as  to  the  legality  of  the  acts  of 
the  Legislature  previous  to  admission  by  Congress.  The  act  of  admission 
was  passed  and  approved.  May  11,  1858.  The  Legislature  again  assembled 
in  June,  and  finally  adjourned.  August  12,  1858.  During  this  prolonged 
session  the  embryo  state  was  without  funds,  and  a  loan  of  $250,000  was 
authorized;  but  as  the  acts  of  the  Legislature  before  admission  were  some- 
what irregular,  the  loan  could  not  be  readily  negotiated.  To  tide  over  the 
difficulty  state  warrants  were  issued  in  the  form  of  bank  notes,  and  passed 
current,  with  more  or  less  discount,  until  the  summer  of  1S58,  when  they 
were  redeemed  from  the  proceeds  of  the  loan  consummated  after  the  admis- 
sion of  the  state. 


The  first  Legislature  worked  diligently  in  what  they  considered  the 
best  interest  of  the  state,  and  as  the  grant  of  lands  by  the  United  States 
in  aid  of  railroads  within  the  state  had  to  be  turned  over  to  companies,  a 
large  part  of  the  session  was  devoted  to  railroad  legislation.  The  scheme 
of  further  aid  to  companies  who  might  be  willing  to  undertake  the  build- 
ing of  railroads  was  originated,  and  was  commonly  denominated  the  "Five 
Million  Loan  Bill,"  contemplating  the  loan  of  the  credit  of  the  state,  to 
that  amx.unt,  in  such  sums  as  would  be  paid  upon  the  grading  and  final 
completion  of  certain  miles  of  road.  On  a  submission  of  this  law  to  the 
people  it  was  adopted  by  a  large  majoritj'.  The  opposition  at  the  time  of 
the  vote  upon  this  measure  was  ver\-  bitter,  and  continued  after  bonds  were 
being  issued,  and  with  the  dissatisfaction  arising  from  the  small  amount  of 
work  completed  and  the  large  amount  of  bonds  issued,  threatenings  of  repu- 
diation advocated  by  leading  men  in  the  state  caused  a  distrust  in  financial 
circles  and  a  fin.1l  collapse  of  the  whole  scheme,  with  the  foreclosure  of  the 
mortgages  taken  by  the  state  upon  the  railroad  lands  and  franchises,  and 
the  abandonment  of  all  railroad  construction  for  the  time  being.  The  total 
amount  of  bonds  issued  under  this  provision  of  the  constitution  was  S2.275,- 
000.     By  the  foreclosure  proceedings  the  state  acquired  about  250  miles  of 


graded  road,  the  franchises  of  the  companies  and  the  lands,  amounting  to 
five  million  of  acres,  as  indemnity  for  this  issue  of  bonds.  Notwithstanding 
the  state  had  acquired  all  the  rights,  including  the  improvements  of  the  rail- 
roa.l  companies,  the  feeling  against  any  settlement  of  the  bonds  was  strong 
enough  to  secure  an  amendment  to  the  constitution  in  i860,  prohibiting  the 
passage  of  any  law  levying  a  tax  or  making  other  provision  for  the  pay- 
ment of  the  principal  or  interest  of  these  bonds  without  having  the  same 
submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people  and  adopted. 

The  two  years  following  the  crash  of  1857  were  replete  with  financial 
disaster  and  a  shrinkage  of  inflated  values  in  town-sites;  but  the  country 
was  filling  up  with  farmers,  and  the  rich  soil  of  the  state  was  giving 
abundant  harvests.  The  political  contest  of  1859  was  bitter,  and  resulted  in 
the  Republican  party  carrying  the  state,  both  for  state  officers  and  the  Legis- 

The  census  of  i860  gave  the  state  a  population  of  172,023.  During 
this  year  there  was  great  hope  of  a  largely  increased  immigration  into  the 
county;  but  the  political  situation  in  the  Union,  starting  with  the  opening 
of  the  presidential  campaign  of  that  year,  soon  indicated  a  disturbing  ele- 
ment throughout  the  country,  and  distrust  and  depression  were  manifest 
on  all  sides  which  was  not  allayed  by  the  result  of  the  presidential  election. 
The  war  period,  commencing  with  the  time  of  the  President's  proclamation 
in  April,  1861,  to  the  final  close  of  the  rebellion  in  1865,  did  not  permit  any 
material  growth  in  the  state.  About  twenty-two  thousand  of  her  able- 
bodied  citizens  volunteered  and  were  enlisted  in  the  Union  army. 


The  Indian  reservation  set  apart  by  the  treaties  of  1851,  a  tract  twenty 
miles  wide  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Minnesota  river,  embracing  some  of 
the  finest  lands  in  the  state,  was  becoming  a  barrier  to  settlements  in 
the  upper  Minnesota  valley.  Settlers  had  taken  lands  close  up  to  the  reserva- 
tion, and  there  was  considerable  complaint  that  Indians  were  coming  off 
the  reservation  and  committing  petty  depredations,  and  the  Indians  had 
more  or  less  complaints  to  make  regarding  the  extortions  practiced  by  the 
post  traders.  The  encroachments  of  the  whites  were  viewed  with  suspicion 
by  the  Indians,  and  sooner  or  later,  from  these  causes  alone,  a  conflict  would 
probably  have  occurred.  The  War  of  the  Rebellion,  calling  away  so  many 
of  the  able-bodied  men  of  the  state,  left  the   frontier  settlements  almost 


defenseless,  and  doubtless  caused  the  younger  portion  of  the  tribes  to  become 
more  offensive  to  the  settlers  and  more  exacting  in  their  demands. 

The  lands  embraced  within  the  reservation  under  the  treaties  of  185 1 
were  in  the  very  heart  of  Minnesota,  and,  considering  the  forests  and 
streams,  were  the  choicest  of  farming  lands.'  The  settlers  on  the  border 
were  anxiously  coveting  this  "Garden  of  Eden."  A  sentiment  was  created 
throughout  the  state  that  the  Indians  should  abandon  the  tribal  relations 
and  become  civilized.  To  this  end  the  head  men  of  the  Dakota  nation 
were  induced,  in  1858,  to  go  to  Washington,  under  the  charge  of  Hon. 
Joseph  R.  Brown,  in  whom  they  had  great  confidence,  for  the  purpose  of 
negotiating  for  the  whole  or  a  part  of  this  reservation.  Treaties  were 
signed  ceding  the  ten-mile  strip  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  upon  the 
payment  of  $140,000,  and  the  government  provided  that  every  head  of  a 
f?mily  or  single  person  over  the  age  of  twenty-one  adopting  a  civilized 
life  should  secure  in  fee  eighty  acres  of  land.  From  some  cause  the  pay- 
ments of  $140,000  were  never  made,  and  there  was  great  dissatisfaction 
on  account  of  this  treaty,  among  those  of  the  tribes  who  were  adverse  to 
accepting  the  condition  of  civilization;  and  from  the  fact  that  there  was 
no  money  divided  among  them  on  account  of  this  relinquishment  a  bitter 
dissension  arose  between  the  older  chiefs  and  the  younger  members,  the 
latter  claimiing  that  they  had  been  robbed  either  by  the  chiefs  or  by  the 
government,  and  they  proposed  to  have  the  settlement,  peaceful  or  other- 

This  internal  strife  was  augmented  from  year  to  year  by  the  withdrawal 
of  families  who  were  willing  to  accept  the  civilization  fund,  the  number  in 
three  years  succeeding  the  treaty  amounting  to  one  hundred  and  sixty  per- 
sons. They  were,  however,  still  annuity  Indians,  and  claimed  the  right  to 
be  heard  in  the  councils.  The  annuity  Indians,  all  told,  numbered  about  six 
thousand  two  hundred,  and  the  annual  cash  payment  to  each  person 
amounted  to  about  fifteen  dollars.  The  Indians  were  treated  as  wards  of 
the  United  States.  Two  agencies  were  established,  around  which  were 
gathered  storekeepers  to  sell  the  Indians  goods  in  anticipation  of  the  annuity 
payments;  and,  usually,  the  annual  payment  was  simply  a  settlement  of 
the  claims  of  the  traders,  who  took  the  risk  of  furnishing  the  goods  in 
ad\ance.  That  there  was  injustice  practiced  upon  the  Indians  is  doubtless 
true;  probably  not  so  great  as  the  disaffected  Indians  imagined.  There 
was  enough,  however,  to  make  the  time  of  the  annual  payment  an  anxious 
period,  for  fear  of  an  outbreak.  The  failure  of  the  government  in  its 
attempt  to  punish  the  Spirit  Lake  murderers  had  a  tendency  to  create  a  feel- 


ing  among  the  leaders  of  the  rebellious  spirit  that  if  they  could  only  unite 
the  whole  body  of  Sioux  in  an  uprising  they  could  make  a  successful  attack 
upon  the  settlers,  and  perhaps  regain  the  lands  formerly  held  by  the  Indians. 
The  War  of  the  Rebellion,  starting  in  1861,  gave  renewed  energy  to  the 
discontent.  The  Indians  were  well  aware  of  the  reverses  of  the  Union 
forces  during  the  first  year  of  the  war.  The  calls  for  troops  were  taking  the 
able-bodied  men  from  the  farms,  and  many  of  the  half-breeds  had  volun- 
teered for  the  army.  All  these  conditions  had  a  disquieting  effect,  and, 
added  to  this,  in  1862  the  June  payment  was  not  made;  and  as  there  was  no 
satisfactory  answer  for  the  delay,  the  traders  took  advantage  of  the  neces- 
sities of  the  Indians  and  insinuated  that  perhaps  the  government  would  go 
to  pieces,  and  there  would  be  no  further  payments.  The  missionaries  endeav- 
ored to  counteract  these  evil  influences,  and,  with  the  aid  of  the  civilized 
Indians,  succeeded  in  averting  deliberate  outbreak.  The  delay  in  payment 
of  annuities,  however,  tended  to  keep  up  the  discontent,  particularly  among 
the  younger  braves,  who  were  the  hunters.  Their  vagabond  life  brought 
them  into  the  settlements,  and  in  contact  with  the  whites;  and  their  worth- 
less, lazy  habits  made  them  offensive  to  the  families,  as  beggars  of  meals  or 
money,  or  anything  that  took  their  fancy. 

MASSACRE   OF    1862. 

These  are,  in  brief,  the  circumstances  which  led  up  to  the  great  mas- 
sacre of  1862,  which  for  a  short  time  threatened  the  lives  of  all  the  settlers 
on  the  western  boundary  of  the  state.  There  was  no  concerted  action  for 
the  massacre,  and  to  some  extent  there  is  an  uncertainty  as  to  why  the  first 
murders  were  committed.  Four  young  men  or  boys  are  believed  to  have 
commenced  the  massacre,  in  a  spirit  of  bravado,  making  a  threatening 
attack  first  upon  a  family,  driving  them  from  their  home,  and  afterward 
following  them  to  a  neighbor's  house,  where,  after  an  altercation  with  the 
families,  they  killed  three  men  and  two  women.  These  occurrences  took 
place  on  the  17th  of  August,  in  the  township  of  Acton,  twelve  miles  west 
of  Litchfield.  Realizing  that  if  they  remained  in  the  vicinity  punishment 
would  soon  overtake  their  murderous  acts,  they  lost  no  time  in  going  back 
to  camp,  relating  what  they  had  done,  and  asking  protection.  A  hasty 
consultation  was  had  between  two  of  the  chiefs;  they  realized  that  the  mur- 
derers must  be  given  up,  or  the  annuities  would  be  stopped,  and  a  war  of 
exteimination  would  be  inaugurated.  They  chose  to  stand  by  the  murder- 
ers, and  immediately   following  there  was  a  general  uprising  of  the  entire 


Sioux  bands.  So  swift  were  their  movements,  before  any  effective  resistance 
could  be  brought  against  them,  that  about  eight  hundred  of  the  settlers, 
men,  women  and  children  were  murdered  within  a  few  days.  The  prompt 
action  of  the  state  authorities,  aided  by  the  national  government,  resulted 
in  the  capture  of  about  2,000  of  the  belligerent  Indians  and  the  withdrawal 
of  the  remainder  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  state,  into  the  wilds  of 
Dakota.  Of  the  captured  Indians,  303  were  found  guilty  of.  murder  and 
rape,  and  were  condemned  to  death  by  a  military  court-martial.  Of  this 
number  265  were  reprieved  by  President  Lincoln,  and  the  remainder,  thirty- 
eight  of  the  most  prominent  engaged  in  the  massacre,  were  hung  in  Manka'to 
on  the  26th  of  December,  1862.  The  next  year  the  general  government 
authorized  an  expedition  against  the  Indians  who  had  escaped  to  the  Dakota 
plains,  because  of  their  constant  raids  in  small  squads  on  the  frontiers  of 
the  state  for  the  purpose  of  horse-stealing  and  marauding  upon  adven- 
turous settlers  who  might  risk  going  back  to  their  abandoned  farms.  After 
two  decisive  encounters,  the  Indians  retreated  beyond  the  Missouri  river, 
and  in  1864  another  expedition  was  sent  forward  and  a  final  settlement 
of  the  Sioux  outbreak  was  accomplished,  by  a  confiscation  and  surrender 
of  the  ponies  and  arms  of  most  of  the  bands  hostile  to  the  government. 

The  several  tribes  of  Sioux  Indians  were  engaged  irt  this  massacre,  and 
were  the  representatives  of  the  tribes  that  had  made  the  cession  of  lands 
in  1851,  imder  the  first  and  second  treaties  of  that  year.  Under  these 
treaties  the  government  had  set  aside  trust  funds  of  $2,520,000,  from  which 
there  was  paid  annually  the  sum  of  $126,000.  Settlers  who  had  lost  prop- 
erty urged  their  claims  for  indemnity,  and  Congress  promptly  established  a 
commission  to  receive  all  claims  and  investigate  the  facts.  The  commis- 
sion was  dujy  organized  and  established  headquarters  in  the  city  of  St.  Paul, 
and  carefully  examined  all  the  claims  presented.  The  total  number  filed 
was  2,940,  with  damages  amounting  to  $2,458,795.16.  The  commission 
allowed  2,635  claims,  and  cut  down  the  damages  to  $1,370,374.  By  act  of 
Congress  these  claims  were  paid,  and  the  annuities  and  all  further  pay- 
ments to  the  tribes  were  stopped.  The  state  was  also  reimbursed  for  extra- 
ordinary expenses  incurred  during  the  period  of  insurrection. 

On  the  2nd  of  October,  1863,  a  treaty  was  concluded  at  the  old  cross- 
ing of  Red  Lake  river,  about  twelve  miles  east  of  the  present  city  of 
Crookston  by  Alexander  Ramsey  and  Ashley  C.  Morrill,  and  the  chiefs 
and  head  men  of  the  Red  Lake  and  Pembina  bands  of  Ojibway  Indians, 
for  the  cession  of  a  large  tract  of  country,  being  the  same  land  embraced 
in  one  of  the  treaties  of   1851,  but  not  ratified  at  that  time,  of  which  the 


boundaries  are  as  follow :  Commencing  at  the  intersection  of  the  national 
boundary  with  the  Lake  of  the  \\^oods;  thence  in  a  southwest  direction  to 
the  head  of  Thief  river;  thence  following  that  stream  to  its  mouth;  thence 
southeasterly  in  a  direct  line  toward  the  head  of  Wild  Rice  river;  and  thence 
following  the  boundary  of  the  Pillager  cession  of  1855  to  the  mouth  of  said 
river;  thence  up  the  channel  of  the  Red  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cheyenne; 
thence  up  said  river  to  Stump  lake,  near  the  eastern  extremity  of  Devil's 
lake;  thence  north  to  the  international  boundary;  and  thence  east  on 
said  boundary  to  the  place  of  beginning.  It  embraced  all  of  the  Red  River 
valley  in  [Minnesota  and  Dakota,  except  a  small  portion  previously  ceded, 
and  was  estimated  to  contain  11,000,000  acres.  This  treaty  was  ratified  by 
the  Senate,  with  amendments,  March  i,  1864.  The  Indians,  on  the  12th  of 
April,  1864,  assented  to  the  amendments,  and  President  Lincoln,  by  his 
proclamation  of  the  5th  of  May,  1864,  confirmed  the  treaty. 


The  close  of  the  Civil  \\'ar  in  the  spring  of  1865,  and  the  return  of  the 
SQldiers,  and  the  assurance  of  no  further  depredations  from  the  Sioux 
Indians,  started  a  new  era  of  prosperity  and  rapid  growth.  The  Legislature, 
in  the  meantime,  had  granted  charters  on  the  foreclosed  roadbeds  and  lands 
to  new  railroad  companies,  and  the  construction  of  roads  was  furnishing 
abundant  labor  to  all  who  were  coming  to  the  state.  The  population  at 
this  time  was  250,099,  and  in  1870  the  ppoulation  had  increased  to  439,706, 
nearly  doubling  in  five  years.  The  railroad  companies  had  within  the  same 
period  constructed  nearly  1,000  miles  of  railroad,  and  continued  their  build- 
ing with  even  greater  vigor  until  the  financial  crisis  of  1873  brought  all  pub- 
lic enterprises  again  to  a  stand,  and  produced  stagnation  in  all  the  growing 
towns.  The  farmers  had  been  active  in  developing  the  country,  and  were 
adding  largely  to  the  productions  of  the  state  when  the  grasshopper  raids, 
for  the  time  being,  destroyed  the  growing  crops,  and  caused  great  financial 
distress  for  two  or  three  years. 

The  census  of  1875  gave  the  state  a  population  of  597,407,  still  showing 
a  fair  increase,  but  small  in  comparison  with  the  five  years  following  the 
close  of  the  rebellion.  By  1878  the  state  had  fairly  recovered  from  the 
financial  crash  of  1873,  but  speculation  has  at  no  time  since  1878  been  so 
reckless  as  during  the  two  periods  ending  in  1857  and  1873. 

.-\long  with  the  prosperity  of  the  state,  caused  so  largely  by  the  rapid 
railroad   building,   the   state   pride  began  to   assert  itself   with   more   force, 


and  the  prominent  citizens  continued  to  urge  an  adjustment  of  the  dis- 
honored railroad  bonds.  In  1877  a  proposition  setting  aside  the  proceeds 
of  500,000  acres  for  internal  improvement  lands  in  settlement  was  by  act 
of  the  Legislature  submitted  to  a  vote  at  a  special  election  called  for  the 
I2th  of  June,  and  was  voted  down  by  the  decisive  vote  of  59,176  against 
to  17,324  votes  for,  the  proposition.  This  vote  was  largely  owing  to  the 
fact  that  the  state  at  that  time  had  almost  an  entire  new  population  that 
had  come  into  the  state  long  after  the  bonds  were  issued  and  had  no  definite 
knowledge  of  the  history  of  the  original  indebtedness. 

In  1881  the  Legislature  enacted  a  law  providing  for  the  adjustment  of 
these  bonds  and  designating  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  as  a  com- 
mission to  make  the  settlement.  The  constitutionality  of  this  law  was 
questioned,  a  writ  of  injunction  was  served,  and  the  final  determination  of 
the  supreme  bench  was  that  the  law  was  unconstitutional,  as  also  the 
amendment  of  i860,  prohibiting  any  settlement  without  a  vote  of  the  people. 
This  latter  act  had  previously  been  determined  unconstitutional  by  the 
supreme  court  of  the  United  States.  An  extra  session  of  the  Legislature 
was  called  in  October  of  the  same  year,  when  the  final  adjustment  was 
authorized  by  act  of  the  Legislature,  on  a  basis  of  fifty  per  cent,  of  the 
amount  nominally  due,  and,  after  a  careful  examination  of  all  the  claims 
presented,  the  bond  question  was  forever  set  at  rest  by  the  issue  of  adjust- 
ment bonds,  to  the  amount  of  $4,282,000,  to  parties  entitled  to  receive 
them.  For  the  payment  of  these  bonds  the  proposition  of  setting  aside 
the  proceeds  of  the  500,000  acres  of  internal  improvement  lands  was  again 
submitted  to  the  general  election  in  1881,  and  by  a  vote  of  82,435  votes  in 
favor,  and  24,526  votes  against,  the  action  of  the  Legislature  was  ratified 
and  the  stigma  of  repudiation  removed,  which  had  been  fastened  upon  the 
state  by  the  popular  vote  of  1877. 

In  1880  the  national  census  gave  the  state  a  population  of  780,773,  and 
the  state  census  of  1885  swelled  these  figures  to  1,117,798,  indicating  the 
extraordinary  growth  of  forty-three  per  cent. ;  but  an  examination  of  the 
figures  shows  that  the  growth  was  mainly  confined  to  the  cities,  being  nearly 
eighty  per  cent,  of  increase,  while  in  the  farming  community  and  small 
towns  the  percentage  of  increase  was  only  twenty  per  cent. 

During  the  ten  years  between  1880  and  1890  there  was  a  period  of 
great  activity  in  the  railroad  building,  and  2,310  miles  of  road  were  put  in 
operation.  This  alone  gave  great  energy  to  the  business  of  the  state,  and 
caused  a  large  increase  in  the  population  of  the  cities,  and  gradually  cul- 
minated in  a  most  extravagant  real  estate  boom,  and  an  era  of  the  wildest 


speculation.  In  the  country  the  growth  was  normal  over  the  entire  state, 
although  large  numbers  of  farmers  in  the  southern  half  of  the  state  were 
attracted  to  the  plains  of  Dakota,  where  great  activity  was  being  developed 
by  the  pushing  of  railroads  into  different  sections  of  the  territory. 


The  settlement  of  the  Dakotas  and  the  consequent  breaking  up  of  the 
virgin  land,  after  the  vear  1885,  almost  doubled  the  wheat  yield  of  the  north- 
westerii  states,  so  that  the  farmers  of  Minnesota  were  soon  confronted 
with  the  question  whether  wheat  should  continue  to  be  their  leading  staple. 
In  the  southern  part  of  the  state  the  wheat  return  was  not  enough  per  acre 
to  yield  any  profit  to  the  farmer  at  the  reduced  prices ;  and  gradually  meth- 
ods have  changed,  so  that  the  leading  agricultural  industries  now  include 
dairying,  stock  raising,  and  general  diversified  farming.  It  seems  probable 
that  Minnesota  will  hold  her  place  as  the  greatest  wheat-producing  state, 
and  will  also  earn  a  greater  reputation  as  the  best  all-round  farming  state 
in  the  Union. 

'J"he  national  census  of  1890  gave  the  state  a  population  of  1,301,826, 
an  increase  of  184,028  in  five  years,  of  which  amount  about  70,000  increase 
went  to  the  cities  and  114,000  to  the  country  districts,  showing  eighteen  per 
cent,  increase  in  the  cities  and  fifteen  per  cent,  increase  in  the  country.  The 
state  census  of  1895  showed  an  increase  of  272,793,  or  21.95  P^r  cent.,  in  the 
preceding  five  years,  giving  a  total  population  of  1,574,619. 

According  to  the  census  of  1910  the  population  of  Minnesota  was 
2,075,708,  showing  an  increase  of  17.8  per  cent,  during  the  preceding 
decade.  The  population  of  the  five  largest  cities  was  as  follow:  Minnea- 
poli.s,  301,408;  St.' Paul,  214,744:  Duluth,  78,466;  Winona,  18,583;  and 
Stillwater    10,198. 

Minnesota  was  the  first  state  of  the  Union  to  respond  to  the  call  of 
the  President  for  volunteers  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Spain,  in 
April,  i8g8.  Three  regiments,  designated  as  the  Twelfth,  Thirteenth  and 
Fourteenth  Regiments  of  Minnesota  Volunteers,  were  mobilized  at  St.  Paul, 
.^pril  29,  and  were  mustered  into  the  United  State  service  on  May  7  and  8. 
The  Fifteenth  Regiment  was  mustered  into  sen-ice  on  July  18.  In  total 
tin's  state  furnished  5.315  ofiicers  and  enlisted  men  for  the  volunteer  army. 
.At  the  close  of  the  w-ar  the  Twelfth  and  Fourteenth  Regiments  returned  to 
Minnesota,  and  were  mustered  out  of  service  in  November.  The  Fifteenth 
Regiment  continued  in   service  until   March  27,    1899;  and   the  Thirteenth 


Regiment,  after  more  than  a  year  of  service  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  was 
mustered  out  on  October  3,  1899. 

Minnesota  derives  its  name  from  the  river  which  was  named  "Minisota" 
by  the  Dakotas,  pronounced  "Min-nee-sotah,"  apphed  to  the  stream,  in  its 
natural  state  in  the  summer  season,  after  the  waters  were  cleared  from  the 
roiling  caused  by  the  spring  floods.  Mini,  water;  sotah,  sky-colored. 
Apparently  to  secure  the  correct  pronunciation  in  English  letters,  the  con- 
vention called  at  Stillwater,  in  1848,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  a  terri- 
torial organization,  instructed  their  delegates  to  see  that  the  name  of  the 
territory  should  be  written  Min-ne-sota. 


Geographically,  Minnesota  occupies  the  exact  center  of  the  continent 
of  North  .\merica,  midway  between  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  oceans,  and  also 
midway  between  Hudson  bay  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  This  state  is  bounded 
on  the  south  by  Iowa,  on  the  west  by  South  and  North  Dakota,  on  the  north 
by  Manitoba  and  Ontario,  and  on  the  east  by  Wisconsin.  It  extends  from 
latitude  43  degrees  30  minutes,  to  49  degrees  24  minutes,  and  from  89 
degrees  29  minutes,  to  97  degrees  15  minutes,  west  longitude.  From  its 
southern  boundary  to  the  northern  is  about  400  miles,  and  from  its  most 
eastern  to  the  extreme  western  point  about  354  miles. 

Minnesota  is,  in  area,  the  tenth  state  of  the  Union.  It  contains  84,287 
square  miles,  or  about  .53,943,379  acres,  of  which  3,608,012  acres  are  water. 
In  altitude  it  appears  to  be  one  of  the  highest  portions  of  the  continent,  as 
the  headwaters  of  three  great  river  systems  are  found  in  its  limits,  those 
of  streams  flowing  northward  to  Hudson  bay,  eastward  to  the  Atlantic  ocean, 
and  southward  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

About  half  of  this  surface,  on  the  south  and  west,  consists  of  rolling 
prairie,  interspersed  with  frequent  groves,  oak  openings  and  belts  of  hard- 
wood timber,  watered  by  numberless  lakes  and  streams,  and  covered  with  a 
warm,  dark  soil  of  great  fertility.  The  rest,  embracing  the  elevated  district 
immediately  west  and  north  of  Lake  Superior,  consists  mainly  of  rich  min- 


eral  ranges  and  of  the  pine  forests  which  clothe  the  headwaters  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, affording  extensive  supphes  of  lumber.  There  is  but  a  very  small 
percentage  of  broken,  rocky  or  worthless  land  in  the  state.  Nearly  all  is 

Numerous  rivers  and  watercourses  give  the  state  excellent  drainage. 
But  few  states  are  so  well  watered  as  Minnesota.  Its  navigable  rivers  are 
the  Mississippi,  the  Minnesota,  the  St.  Croix,  the  St.  Louis,  the  Red  River 
of  the  North,  and  the  Red  Lake  river,  all  of  which,  near  their  sources,  have 
extensive  water  powers;  while  a  number  of  smaller  streams  such  as  Rum 
river  and  Snake  river,  both  valuable  for  lumbering,  the  Cannon  and  Zumbro 
rivers,  the  Vermilion,  Crow,  Blue  Earth,  Des  Moines,  Cottonwood,  Chip- 
pewa, LeSueur,  Root,  Elk  and  Sauk  rivers,  also  furnish  fine  water  powers. 
These  with  their  tributaries  and  a  host  of  lesser  streams  penetrate  every  por- 
tion of  the  state.  Some  of  the  water  powers  furnished  by  these  streams 
are  among  the  finest  in  America,  and  many  of  them  have  been  utilized  for 
manufacturing  purposes. 


The  lakes  of  Minnesota  are  more  numerous  and  varied  in  form  than  in 
any  other  state  in  the  Union.  Bordering  on  the  northeast  corner'  of  the 
state  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  the  waters  of  the  great  Lake  Superior 
wash  its  shores.  Within  the  state  there  are  about  ten  thousand  lakes,  the 
largest  of  which  is  Red  lake,  in  the  central  northern  part  of  the  state,  bor- 
dering partly  by  dense  pine  forests,  with  its  overflow  through  Red  Lake 
river,  by  a  devious  course,  into  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  On  the  same 
northern  slope,  in  St.  Louis  county,  is  the  beautiful  Vermilion  lake,  with  its 
tributaries,  at  the  edge  of  the  great  Vermilion  iron  range,  and  flowing  into 
Rainy  lake,  on  the  northern  boundary,  and  then  through  Rainy  Lake  river 
into  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  and  thence  into  Lake  Winnipeg,  and  finally 
into  Hudson  bay.  On  the  southern  slope  of  the  state  is  Itasca  lake,  the 
source  of  the  Mississippi,  with  Cass  lake.  Lake  Winnibigoshish,  Leech  lake, 
and  other  innumerable  lakes,  all  adding  volume  to  the  water  of  the  Mississippi, 
eventually  flowing  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Then  there  is  Mille  Lacs,  the 
source  of  Rum  river,  and  the  picturesque  Lake  Minnetonka.  These  are  the 
largest  lakes  in  the  state.  Of  these,  however,  only  Minnetonka,  White  Bear, 
Bald  Eagle  and  Chisago  lakes  have  so  far  been  much  utilized  as  summer 
resorts.     The   incomparable  park  region,  traversed  by  the  Great   Northern 


and  Northern  Pacific  railroads,  is  the  paradise  of  summer  idlers,  of  hunters 
and  fishermen;  but  it  is  not  in  this  portion  alone  that  all  the  beautiful  lakes 
are  found.  The  northeastern  and  the  southwestern  sections  each  have 
numerous  lakes  to  attract  the  summer  visitor. 

There  is  an  undoubted  modification  of  the  climate  of  the  state,  caused 
by  'these  numerous  bodies  of  water,  giving  a  most  delightful  summer  tem- 

Fine  varieties  of  fish  are  abundant  in  all  these  lakes;  and  the  state 
expends  annually  thousands  of  dollars,  through  a  game  and  fish  commission, 
to  improve  the  varieties  and  to  prevent  their  wanton  destruction. 


Surveys  with  leveling  from  the  sea  show  that  the  shore  of  Lake  Supe- 
rior is  the  lowest  land  in  the  state,  602  feet  above  sea  level.  The  waters 
of  the  northeastern  part  of  the  state  south  of  the  Mesabi  iron  range  flow 
into  Lake  Superior,  and  are  carried  to  the  Atlantic  ocean.  The  Mississippi 
river,  having  its  chief  source  in  Lake  Itasca,  at  1,466  feet  elevation,  runs  in 
a  southerly  direction,  leaving  the  state  at  620  feet  above  sea  level. 

The  Red  River  of  the  North,  rising  in  the  north,  near  Itasca  lake,  at 
a  height  of  1,600  feet  above  the  ocean,  after  a  circuitous  route  south  and 
west  to  Breckenridge,  in  Wilkin  county,  and  then  flowing  north  along  its 
great  valley,  leaves  the  state  at  an  elevation  of  750  feet.  The  average 
elevation  of  the  state  is  given  at  about  1,275  feet.  The  highest  elevation  is 
the  Misquah  hills,  in  Cook  county,  2,230  feet. 

The  elevation  of  Minnesota  above  the  sea,  its  fine  drainage,  and  the 
dryness  of  the  atmosphere  give  it  a  climate  of  unusual  salubrity  and  pleas- 
antness. It  has  an  annual  mean  temperature  of  44  degrees,  while  its  mean 
summer  temperature  is  70  degrees,  the  same  as  that  of  middle  Illinois  and 
Ohio,  southern  Pennsylvania,  etc.  The  excessive  heats  of  summer  often  felt 
in  other  states  are  here  tempered  by  the  cooling  breezes.  Its  high  latitude 
gives  it  correspondingly  longer  days  in  summer  than  states  further  south, 
and  during  the  growing  season  there  are  two  and  one-half  hours  more  sun- 
shine than  in  the  latitude  of  Cincinnati.  This,  taken  in  connection  with 
the  abundant  rainfall  of  earlv  summer,  accounts  for  the  rapid  and  vigorous 



growth  of  crops  in  Minnesota,  and  their  early  maturity.  The  cool  breezes 
and  cool  nights  in  summer  prevent  the  debilitating  effects  of  heat  often  felt 
in  low  latitudes.  The  winter  climate  is  one  of  the  attractive  features  of  the 
state.  Its  uniformity,  and  prevailing  freedom  from  thaws  and  excessive 
spells  of  cold,  severe  weather  or  heavy  snow  storms,  and  its  dryness,  together 
with  the  bright  sunshine  and  electrical  condition  of  the  air,  all  tend  to  enhance 
the  personal  comfort  of  the  resident,  and  make  outdoor  life  and  labor  a 

These  features  tend  to  make  this  climate  the  healthiest  in  the  Union. 
It  gives  life  and  briskness  to  those  performing  manual  labor,  enabling  them 
to  do  more  work  than  in  a  damper  or  duller  climate. 


In  the  following  list  some  of  the  more  important  events  in  the  state, 
from  the  earliest  explorations  to  the  present  time,  are  set  forth  in  chronolo- 
gical order: 

1635.     Jean  Nicollet,  an  explorer   from  France,   who  had  wintered  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Green   Bay,   brought   to   Montreal   the  first 
mention  of  the  aborigines  of  Minnesota. 
1659-60.     Grosseilliers  and  Radisson  wintered  among  the  Sioux  of  the  Mille 
Lacs  region,  Minnesota,  being  its  first  white  explorers.     In  a 
previous  expedition,   four  years  earlier,  they  are  thought  to 
have  come  to  Prairie  Island,  west  of  the  main  channel  of  the 
Mississippi,  between  Red  Wing  and  Hastings. 
1661      Father  Rene  Menard  left  Kewennaw,  on  Lake  Superior,  to  visit  the 
Hurons,  then  in  northern  Wisconsin,  and  was  lost  near  the 
sources  of  the  Black  and  Chippewa  rivers.     His  breviary  and 
cassock  were  said  to  have  been  found  among  the  Sioux. 
1679.     July  2,  Daniel  Greyselon  Du  Lhut  (Duluth)  held  a  council  with  the 
Sioux  at  their  principal  settlement  on  the  shore  of  Mille  Lacs. 
Du  Lhut,  in  June,  1680,  by  way  of  the  St.  Croix  river,  reached 
the  Mississippi  and  met  Hennepin. 
1680      Louis  Hennepin,  after  captivity  in  the  village  of  Mille  Lacs  Sioux, 

first  saw  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony. 
1689      May  8,  Nicholas  Perrot,  at  his  Ft.,  St.  Antoine,  on  the  Wisconsin 
shore  of  Lake  Pepin,  laid  formal  claim  to  the  surrounding 
country  for  France.     He  built  a  fort  also  on  the  Minnesota 
shore  of  this  lake,  near  its  outlet. 


1095.  LeSueur  built  a  fort  or  trading  post  on  Isle  Pelee,  now  called  Prairie 
Island,  above  Lake  Pepin. 

1700.  LeSueur  established  Ft.  L'Huillier,  on  the  Blue  Earth  river  (near 
the  mouth  of  the  LeSueur),  and  first  supplied  the  Sioux  with 

1727  The  French  established  a  third  fort  on  Lake  Pepin,  with  Sieur  de 
La  Perriere  as  commander. 

1728.     Great  flood  in  the  Mississippi. 

1763  By  the  treaty  of  Versailles,  France  ceded  Minnesota,  east  of  the 
Mississippi,  to  England,  and  west  of  it  to  Spain. 

1766  Capt.  Jonathan  Carver  visited  St.  Anthony  falls  and  Minnesota 
river.  He  claimed  to  have  made  a  treaty  with  the  Indians 
the  following  spring,  in  a  cave  afterward  called  "Carver's 
Cave,"  within  the  present  limits  of  St.  Paul,  at  which  he  said 
they  ceded  to  him  an  immense  tract  of  land,  long  known  as 
"Carver's  Claim,"  but  never  recognized  by  the  government. 

1796.  Laws  of  the  Ordinance  of  1787  extended  over  the  Northwest  terri- 
tory, including  the  northeastern  third  of  Minnesota,  east  of 
the  Mississippi  river. 

1798-99.     The  Northwestern  Fur  Company  established  itself  in  Minnesota. 

1800.  May  7,  that  part  of  Minnesota  east  of  the  Mississippi  became  a  part 
of  Indiana  by  the  division  of  Ohio. 

1803.  April  30,  that  part  of  Minnesota  west  of  the  Mississippi,  for  the 
preceding  forty  years  to  possession  of  Spain  as  a  part  of  Louis- 
iana, was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  Napoleon  Bonaparte, 
who  had  just  obtained  it  from  Spain. 

1803-04.  W'illiam  Morrison,  the  first  known  white  man  to  discover  the 
source  of  the  Mississippi  river,  visited  Elk  lake  and  explored 
the  streams  entering  into  the  lake  forming  the  head  of  the 

1805.  Lieut.  Z.  M.  Pike  visited  Minnesota  to  establish  government  rela- 
tions there,  and  obtained  the  Ft.  Snelling  reservation  from 
the  Dakotas. 

1812.  The  Dakotas,  Ojibways  and  Winnebagoes,  under  the  lead  of  hostile 
traders,  joined  the  British  during  the  war.  Red  river  colony 
established  by  Lord  Selkirk. 

1819.  Minnesota,  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  became  a  part  of  Crawford 
county,  Michigan.  Ft.  Snelling  established,  and  a  post  at 
Mendota    occupied    by    troops,    under    command     of      Col. 


Leavenworth.  Maj.  L.  Taliaferro  appointed  Indian  agent, 
arriving  on  April  19. 

1820.  Corner  stone  of  Ft.  Snelling  laid  on  September  10.  Governor  Cass 
visits  Minnesota  and  makes  a  treaty  of  peace  between  the 
.Siotix  and  Ojibways  at  Ft.  Snelling.  Col.  Josiah  Snelling 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  latter  post. 

1823.  The  first  steamboat  arrived  at  Mendota,  May  10,  Major  Taliaferro 
and  Beltrami  being  passengers.  Maj.  Stephen  H.  Long 
explored  Minnesota  river,  the  Red  river  valley,  and  the  north- 
ern frontier.     Beltrami  explored  sources  of  the  Mississippi. 

1826  Great  flood  on  the  .Red  river;  a  part  of  the  colony  driven  to  Minne- 
sota, settling  near  Ft.  Snelling. 

1832.  Schoolcraft  explored  sources  of  Mississippi  river,  and  named  Lake 
Itasca  (formerly  called  Elk  lake). 

1833      First  mission  established  at  Leech  lake  by  Rev.  W.  T.  Boutwell. 

1834.  The  portion  of  Minnesota  west  of  the  Mississippi  attached  to  Michi- 

gan.   Gen.  H.  H.  Sibley  settled  at  Mendota. 

1835.  Catlin  and  Featherstonhaugh  visited  Minnesota. 

1836.  The  territory  of  Wisconsin  organized,  embracing  the  part  of  Minne- 

sota east  of  the  Mississippi,  the  part  on  the  west  being  attached 
to  Iowa.  Nicollet  visited  Minnesota. 
1837  Governor  Dodge,  of  Wisconsin,  made  a  treaty  at  Ft.  Snelling  with 
the  Ojibways,  by  which  the  latter  ceded  all  their  pine  lands 
on  the  St.  Croix  and  its  tributaries ;  a  treaty  was  also  effected 
at  Washington  with  a  deputation  of  Dakotas  for  their  lands 
east  of  the  Mississippi.  These  treaties  led  the  way  to  the  first 
actual  settlements  within  the  area  of  Minnesota. 

1838.  The  treaty  ratified  by  Congress.     Franklin  Steele  makes  a  claim  at 

St.  Anthony  falls.  Pierre  Parrant  makes  a  claim  and  builds 
a  shanty  on  the  present  site  of  St.  Paul. 

1839.  St.  Croix  county  established. 
1843.     Stillwater  settled. 

1846.  August  6,  the  Wisconsin  enabling  act. 

1847.  The  Wisconsin  Constitutional  Convention  meets.     The  town  of  St. 

Paul  surveyed,  platted  and  recorded  in  St.  Croix  county  regis- 
ter of  deeds'  office.  First  improvement  of  the  water  power 
at  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony. 

1848.  May  29,  Wisconsin  admitted,  leaving  the  area  of  Minnesota  without 

a  government.     August  26,  the  "Stillwater  Convention"  held, 


taking  measures  for  a  separate  territorial  organization,  and 
asking  that  the  new  territory  be  named  Minnesota.  October 
30,  H.  H.  Sibley  elected  delegate  to  Congress. 

1849.  January   15,  H.   H.   Sibley  admitted  to  a  seat.     March  3,  the  bill 

organizing  Minnesota  passed.  March  19,  its  territorial  officers 
appointed.  June  i,  Governor  Ramsey  declared,  by  proclama- 
tion, the  territory  organized.  September  3,  the  first  terri- 
torial Legislature  assembled. 

1850.  Great  flood  this  year;  highest  water  ever  known.     Minnesota  river 

first  navigated  by  steamboats.  Census  shows  6,077  inhabi- 

1851.  Location  of  the  capitol,  university  and  penitentiary;  another  flood. 

July  23,  treaty  of  Traverse  des  Sioux  completed  and  August 
5  the  treaty  of  Mendota,  opening  the  territory  west  of  the 
Mississippi  to  settlers. 

1852.  June  23,  the  treaties  ratified  by  the  United  States  Senate. 

1853.  Pierce's  administration.     W.  A.  Gorman  appointed  governor.     The 

capitol  building  completed. 

1854.  Celebration  of  the  opening  of  the  Rock  Island  railroad,  the  first  road 

to  the  Mississippi  river,  by  a  mammoth  excursion,  reaching 
St.  Paul,  June  8.  Large  immigration  this  season  and  the 
three  succeeding-  ones,  and  the  real  estate  mania  commences. 

1857.  Enabling  act  passes  Congress,  February  26.     Gov.  Samuel  Medary 

(appointed  by  Buchanan),  arrives  on  April  22.  Legislature 
passes  a  bill  to  remove  the  capital  to  St.  Peter,  but  it  fails  to 
accomplish  the  object.  Ink-pa-du-to  massacre,  April.  Land 
grant  passes  Congress.  April  27,  extra  session  of  the  Legis- 
lature to  apportion  land  grant.  July  13,  Constitutional  Con- 
vention assembles.  Real  estate  speculation  reaches  its  height, 
and  is  checked  by  the  financial  panic,  August  27.  Great 
revulsions  and  hard  times.  Census  shows  150,037  population. 
October  13,  Constitution  adopted  and  state  officers  elected. 

1858.  State  loan  of  $250,000  negotiated.     Five  million  loan  bill  passed  by 

the  Legislature,  March  9;  ratified  by  vote  of  the  people,  April 
15.  Great  stringency  in  money  market.  State  admitted,  May 
II.     State  officers  sworn  in,  May  24. 

1859.  Hard  times  continue  to  intensify.     "Wright  County  War."     "Glen- 

coe"'  and  "Owatonna"  money  issued.  Work  on  the  land 
grant  rnad  ceases.     Collapse  of  the  five  million  scheme.     First 


export  of  grain  this  fall.     Hard  political  struggle;  the  Repub- 
licans triumph. 
i860.     Another  warm  political  canvass      Federal  census,  172,023. 

1861.  April  15,  President  proclamation  for  troops  received;  the  first  regi- 

ment recruits  at  once;  June  22,  it  embarks  at  Ft.  Snelling  for 
the  seat  of  war. 

1862.  Call  for  600,000  men.     August  17,  massacre  at  Acton;  August  18, 

outbreak  at  Lower  Sioux  Agency,  eight  miles  east  of  Red- 
wood Falls;  19th,  New  Ulm  attacked;  20th,  Fort  Ridgely 
attacked;  25th,  second  attack  on  New  Ulm;  30th,  Fort  Aber- 
crombie  besieged;  September  2d,  the  bloody  attack  at  Birch 
Coulee.  September  19,  first  railroad  in  Minnesota  in  opera-' 
tion,  between  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  September  23,  bat- 
tle of  Wood  Lake;  26th,  captives  surrendered  at  Camp 
Release;  military  commission  tries  321  Indians  for  murder, 
rape,  etc.;  303  condemned  to  die;  December  26,  38  hung  at 

1863.  General    Sibley's   expedition    to   the    Missouri    river;   July   3,    Little 

Crow  killed;  July  24,  battle  of  Big  Mound;  July  26,  battle  of 
Dead  Bufifalo  Lake ;  July  28,  battle  of  Stony  Lake. 

1864.  Large  levies  for  troops.     Expedition  to  Missouri  river,  under  Sully. 

Inflation  of  money  market.     Occasional  Indian  raids. 

1865.  Peace  returns.     Minnesota  regiments  return  and  are  disbanded.     In 

all  22,016  troops  furnished  by  the  state.  Census  shows 
250,099  inhabitants. 

1866-72  Rapid  railroad  building  everywhere;  immigration  heavy;  "good 
times"  prevail,  and  the  real  estate  inflated. 

1873.  January  7,  8  and  9,  polar  wave  sweeps  over  the  state;  seventy  per- 
sons perish.  September,  the  Jay  Cook  failure  creates  another 
panic.     Grasshopper  raid  begins  and  continues  five  seasons. 

1876.  September   7,   attack  on  bank  at   Northfield  by  a   gang  of   armed 

outlaws  from  Missouri;  three  of  the  latter  killed  and  three 

1877.  Biennial  session  amendment  adopted. 

1878.  May  2,  three  flouring-mills  at  Minneapolis   explode;  eighteen  lives 

1880.     November   15,  portion  of  the  hospital  for  the  insane  at  St.   Peter 
destroyed  by   fire;  eighteen  inmates  burned  to  death,   seven 


died  subsequently  of  injuries  and  fright,  and  six  missing;  total 

loss,  $150,000. 
1881.     March  i,  the  state  capitol  destroyed  by  fire. 
1884.     January  25,  state  prison  partially  burned. 
1886      April  14,  a  tornado  strikes  the  cities  of  St.  Cloud  and  Sauk  Rapids, 

demolishing    scores    of    buildings    and  killing  about  seventy 

1887.     Important  legislation  regarding  the  liquor  traffic,  common  carriers, 

and  elections. 

1889.  The  Legislature  enacts  the  Australian  system  of  voting  in  cities  of 

10,000  and  over.  The  first  electric  street  railway  started  in 
the  state  at  Stillwater. 

1890.  United  States  census  shows  a  population  of  1,301,826.     July  13,  an 

excursion  steamboat  returning  from  Lake  City  encampment 
foundered  on  Lake  Pepin,  and  100  people  drowned.  July 
13,  tornado  swept  across  Lake  Gervias,  in  Ramsey  county, 
demolishing  several  buildings  and  kilHng  six  people. 
1891  June  15,  a  series  of  tornadoes  started  in  Jackson  county,  near  the 
town  of  Jackson,  traversing  Martin,  Faribault,  Freeborn, 
Mower  and  Fillmore  counties,  on  a  line  nearly  parallel  with, 
but  from  five  to  fifteen  miles  north  of,  the  Southern  Minnesota 
division  of  the  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  railway,  doing  a  large 
amount  of  damage  to  farms  and  farm  buildings,  and  causing 
the  death  to  about  fifty  people  along  the  track  of  the  storm. 

1892.  June  7,  Republican  national  convention  held  at  Minneapolis.     The 

Australian  system  of  voting  used  at  the  November  general 

1893.  The  Legislature  authorizes  the  appointment  of  a  capitol  commission 

to  select  a  site  for  a  new  capitol,  and  providing  a  tax  of  two- 
tenths  of  a  mill  for  ten  years  to  pay  for  the  site  and  the 
erection  of  a  building.  A  great  financial  crisis  causes  the 
failure  of  several  banks  and  many  mercantile  and  manufactur- 
ing establishments  in  the  larger  cities  of  the  state. 

1894.  September  i.  forest  fires  start  in  the  neighborhood  of  Hinckley,  in 

Pine  county,  carrying  death  and  destruction  over  nearly  four 
hundred  square  miles  of  territory,  destroying  the  towns  of 
Hinckley  and  Sandstone,  causing  the  death  of  417  people, 
rendering  homeless  and  destitute  2,200  men,  women  and  chil- 
dren, and  entailing  a  property  loss  of  about  $1,000,000. 


1895.  A  census  of  the  state  was  taken  during  the  month  of  June,  and  the 

total  population  of  the  state  was  found  to  be  1,574,619. 

1896.  The  Red  Lake  Indian  reservation  was  diminished  to  about  a  quarter 

part  of  its  former  area,  and  on  May  15  a  large  tract  of  agri- 
cultural and  timber  lands  formerly  belonging  to  that  reserva- 
tion was  opened  for  settlement. 

1897.  July  2,  the  monument  at  Gettysburg  to  the  First  Minnesota  Regi- 

ment was  dedicated. 

1898.  July  27,  the  corner  stone  of  the  new  capitol  was  laid.     Minnesota 

supplied  four  regiments  for  service  in  the  Spanish-American 
War,  being  the  first  state.  May  7,  to  respond  to  the  president's 
call.  October  5,  the  Pillager  Indians  attacked  United  States 
troops  near  Sugar  Point,  Leech  lake. 

1899.  Semi-centennial  of  the  territory  and  state  celebrated  by  the  Old  Set- 

tlers' Association,  June  i,  and  by  the  Historical  Society, 
November  15. 

1900.  Population  of  Minnesota,  shown  by  the  national  census,   1,751,394. 

Death  of  Senator  C.  K.  Davis,  November  27. 

190 1.  In  the  Pan-American  Exposition,  at  Buffalo,  New  York,  the  superior 

exhibits  of  wheat,  flour,  and  daii-y  products  of  Minnesota- 
caused  her  to  be  called  "the  Bread  and  Butter  State." 

1902.  August  23,  the  fortieth  anniversary  of  the  Sioux  War  celebrated  at 

New  Ulm.  Monuments  and  tablets  erected  there  and  at  other 
places  in  the  Minnesota  valley. 

1903.  Tide  of  immigration  into  Minnesota,   particularly   in  northern   and 

western  sections.  April  22,  death  of  Alexander  Ramsey,  first 
territorial  governor,  later  governor  of  the  state,  United  States 
senator,  and  secretary  of  war. 

1904.  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.     Minnesota  exhibits  win  many  first 

prizes  for  flour,  butter,  fruits,  iron  ores,  work  of  pupils  in 
schools,  etc. 

1905.  January  3,  Legislature  convenes  in  the  new  capitol.     The  population, 

according  to  the  state  census,  June  i,  was  1,979,912. 

1906.  September  3,  live  stock  amphitheater  on  the  state  fair  ground  dedi- 

cated, with  address  by  James  J.  Hill.  Attendance  at  the  fair 
on  that  day,  93,199;  during  the  week,  295,000. 

1907.  Folwell  Hall,  the  new  main  building   for  the   College  of   Science, 

Literature  and  Arts,  of  the  University  of  Minnesota,  com- 
pleted at  cost  of  $410,000  for  the  building  and  its  equipment. 


The  total  number  of  students  of  this  University  enrolled  in 
all  departments  for  the  year  was  4,145. 

1908.  The  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  admission  of  Minnesota  to  statehood 

was  celebrated  in  connection  with  the  state  fair,  its  attendance 
during  the  week  being  326,753. 

1909.  Death  of  Gov.  John  A.  Johnson  as  the  result  of  an  operation,  at 

Rochester.  Minnesota,  September  21,  1909.  Lieut.-Gov. 
Adolph  O.  Eberhart  sworn  in  as  governor  by  Chief  Justice 
Start,  in  the  Supreme  Court  retiring  room,  at  11  o'clock  the 
same  day. 

1910.  Population  of  Minnesota,  shown  by  the  national  census,  2,075,708; 

Death  of  State  Treasurer  Clarence  C.  Dinehart,  June  8.  E. 
S.  Pettijohn  appointed  to  succeed,  June  it.  Forest  fires  in 
northern  Minnesota  during  the  second  and  third  week  in  Octo- 
ber, results  in  death  to  about  thirty  people  and  the  destruc- 
tion of  about  $20,000,000  of  property.  .Spooner  and  Baudette 
wiped  out. 

1911.  The  Legislature  ratified  the  proposed  amendment  to  the  United  States 

Constitution  for  election  of  United  States  senators  by  popular 
\ote.  October  18,  George  E.  Vincent  was  inaugurated  presi- 
dent of  the  University  of  Minnesota. 

1912.  The   Legislature  in  special   .session  enacted   a  new   primary   election 

law  and  "corrupt  practices"  act.  October  ig,  the  statue  of 
Governor  Johnson  on  the  capitol  ground  was  unveiled. 

1913.  June  16-20,  the  American  Medical   Association  held  its  sixty-fourth 

annual  session  in  Minneapoli?  United  States  postal  savings 
bank  and  parcel  post  inaugurated  in  Minnesota.  Practical  reforms 
in  state  road  laws  enacted.  Work  begun  on  the  new  building 
of  the  St.  Paul  Public  Library  and  Hill  Reference  Library.  New 
postoffice  and  new  railroad  depot  building  in  Minneapolis. 
November  5.  the  historic  Carver's  cave,  all  trace  of  which  had 
been  lost  for  forty  years  or  more,  was  definitely  located. 

1914.  March.  Minneapolis  made  the  reserve  city  in  the  Northwest  for  the 

system  of  regional  national  banks.  Remarkable  impetus  to 
building  operations  in  Minnesota  cities.  April  4.  Frederick 
Weyerhauser,  extensive  lumber  operator,  died  in  his  winter  home 
at  Pasadena,  California.  April  15.  plans  adopted  for  St.  Paul's 
new  terminals  aiid  union  depot.  May  9.  a  bronze  statue  of  Gen. 
James  Shields,  tendered  by  the  Loyal  Legion  and  the  Grand  Army 


of  the  Republic  to  the  state  of  Minnesota,  for  a  niche  in  the 
capitol.  Unveiled  in  November;  formally  presented  to  the  state 
by  Commander  Samuel  Appleton,  of  the  Loyal  Legion;  accepted 
by  Governor  A.  O.  Everhart;  eloquent  memorial  address  by 
Comrade  and  Companion  John  Ireland,  archbishop.  July  4-11, 
the  National  Educational  Association  held  its  annual  convention 
in  St.  Paul.  November.  Winfield  Scott  Hammond,  Democrat, 
elected  governor  of  Minnesota,  defeating  William  E.  Lee,  Repub- 
lican nominee. 

1915.  January  2,  session  of  the  thirty-ninth  Legislature  opened  at  the  state 

capitol;  Hon.  J.  A.  A.  Burnquist,  lieutenant-governor,  president 
of  the  Senate;  H.  H.  Flower,  speaker  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. January  3,  Winfield  Scott  Hammond  inaugurated 
governor  of  Minnesota.  February  12,  birthday  of  Abraham 
Lincoln  observed  by  Minnesota  Commandery  of  the  Loyal  Leg- 
ion by  a  banquet  at  the  West  hotel,  Minneapolis.  Oration  by 
Bishop  William  A.  Quayle,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 
February  19-20,  forty-ninth  annual  convention  of  the  Minnesota 
Editorial  Association  assembled  at  the  St.  Paul  hotel,  St.  Paul, 
President  H.  C.  HotaHng,  presiding.  December  30,  death  of 
Governor  Hammond.  December  31,  Lieutenant-Governor  Burn- 
quist assumed  the  office  of  governor. 

1916.  February,  discovery  of  discrepancies  in  the  office  of  Walter  J.  Smith 

treasurer  of  the  state,  and  his  subsequent  resignation. 


Geology  of  Douglas  County. 

Douglas  county  lies  in  the  west  part  of  central  Minnesota,  about  half 
way  between  the  Mississippi  river  and  Lakes  Traverse  and  Big  Stone. 
Alexandria,  the  county  seat  and  largest  town,  is  about  one  hundred  and 
twenty  miles  west-northwest  from  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  The  county 
has  a  length  of  five  townships,  or  thirty  miles,  from  east  to  west,  and  a 
width  of  four  townships,  or  twenty-four  miles,  from  north  to  south.  Doug- 
las county  contains  about  722.66  square  miles,  or  462,500.62  acres,  of 
which  about  sixty  thousand  acres  are  covered  with  water. 


Natural  Drainage.  The  county  is  included  wholly  within  the  basin  of 
the  Mississippi  river;  but  about  half  of  it  sends  its  waters  to  the  Mississippi 
river  by  way  of  the  Minnesota  river.  The  Long  Prairie  river,  tributary 
to  the  Crow  Wing,  drains  the  northeastern  and  central  portions  of  Douglas 
county,  having  its  sources  in  lakes  Miltona,  Ida,  Carlos,  Le  Homme  Dieu, 
and  others.  Osakis  lake,  on  the  east  line  of  Douglas  county,  is  the  head 
of  the  Sauk  river.  The  west  part  of  this  county  is  drained  by  the  Chippewa 
river,  excepting  its  northwest  corner,  where  Lake  Christina  lies  within 
the  basin  of  the  Pomme  de  Terre  river.  Lakes  of  large  and  small  size 
abound  in  the  county,  especially  in  the  region  within  ten  or  fifteen  miles 
around  Alexandria.  The  most  notable  have  been  described  as  follows  by 
Rev.  C.  M.  Terry: 

"The  lakes  of  Douglas  county  are  unsurpassed  for  the  purity  of  their 
waters,  the  beauty  of  their  scenery  and  general  attractiveness.  There  is  a 
large  number  of  them,  as  a  glance  at  the  map  will  show,  but  it  is  not 
the  number  so  much  as  it  is  their  beauty  and  variety  which  impresses  anj^one 
who  studies  them  in  detail. 

"In  the  eastern  half  of  Douglas  county  there  is  a  chain  of  lakes  remark- 
able for  their  purity,  depth  and  beauty.  They  are  all  connected  and  lie 
within  a  radius  of  a  dozen  miles  from  Alexandria.  Beginning  with  the 
most  northern  and  highest  of  the  chain,  they  are  Irene,  Miltona.  Ida.  Louise, 


Alill,  Andrews.  ^Fary.  Lobster,  Fish,  Latoka,  Cowdrey.  Darling.  Union, 
Childs,  X'icturia.  Geneva,  Le  Homme  Dieu,  Carlos. 

"Lake  ^liltona  is  the  largest  of  the  chain.  It  has  an  area  of  about  nine 
square  miles.  It  is  six  to  seven  miles  long  from  east  to  west,  and  about  two 
miles  wide.  It  has  two  inlets,  one  at  the  eastern  extremity  and  another 
at  the  northwestern.  Its  outlet  on  the  southeastern  side  discharges  into 
Lake  Ida.  The  lake  has  an  elevation  above  the  sea  of  a  trifle  over  fourteen 
hundred  feet.  Its  shores  in  man}-  places  are  bold  and  rise  abruptly  twenty 
to  forty  feet  above  the  water.  They  are  covered  with  forests  except  in  a 
few  places.  The  Leaf  hills  to  the  north,  dun  and  hazy  in  the  distance,  are 
seen  from  the  center  of  the  lake.  There  are  large  areas  of  the  lake  which 
are  shallow,  and  the  bottom  is  covered  with  a  dense  growth  of  aquatic 
plants.  Although  a  number  of  soundings  were  taken  in  different  parts  of 
the  lake,  only  one  place  of  considerable  depth  was  found  where  the  line 
showed  eighty  feet  of  water;  this  was  a  little  south  of  the  center.  Other 
parts  showed  thirty  to  fifty  feet,  but  the  majority  of  soundings  gave  fourteen 
to  twenty-five  feet.  Ow'ing  to  the  amount  of  vegetation  growing,  the  water 
is  not  as  free  from  foreign  matter  as  some  lakes.  It  is,  however,  clear, 
sparkling,  with  no  tinge  of  yellow.  There  are  some  fine  springs  on  the 
shores  of  this  lake ;  and  some  stately  forest  trees,  sugar  maple,  elm  and 
basswood,  flourish. 

"Next  in  size  and  order  is  Lake  Ida.  It  is  four  and  one-half  miles 
long  and  one  to  one  and  a  half  miles  wide.  It  has  an  area  of  about  five 
square  miles.  It  lies  east  of  the  central  drift  ridge,  which  divides  the  waters 
of  the  county.  The  surrounding  country  is  massively  rolling  drift,  and  on 
the  eastern  side  is  well  timbered.  The  water  is  very  pure  and  crystalline. 
The  shores  are  strewn  with  pebbles  and  small  sub-angular  boulders.  There 
are  very  few  reeds  and  bushes.  The  temperature  of  this  lake  on  the  i6th  of 
August  was  73  degrees  F.,  surface:  and  8i  degrees  F.,  air.  The  inlet  of 
Lake  Ida  is  at  the  northern  end,  where  it  recei\"es  the  surplus  water  of  Lake 
]\liltnna.     Tlie  outlet  is  at  the  siiutheast  corner,  whence  it  flows  south. 

"The  charming  little  Lake  Latoka  is  only  two  miles  from  Alexandria. 
It  is  abinit  one  and  one-half  miles  long  and  half  a  mile  wide.  It  lies  in  a 
deep  and  quite  uniform  basin.  It  has  average  depth  of  fifty  feet,  the  great- 
est being  eighty  feet.  The  bluffs  around  the  north  end  at  the  outlet  are 
from  two  to  thirty  feet  high.  The  soil  is  sand  and  gravel,  including  some 
boulders.  The  water  is  remarkably  pure  and  of  a  deep  Ixittle-green  color. 
The  surrounding  country  is  covered  with  forest. 

"Lake  Cowdrev,  a  few  rods  north  of  Latoka,  is  smaller  in  area  but  a 


\-ery  pretty  lake.  Here  the  .surplus  waters  from  some  twelve  or  fourteen 
other  lakes  combine  and  send  a  deep,  strong  current  north  to  Lake  Darling. 

"A  sheet  of  water  two  miles  long  and  a  mile  wide,  surrounded  by 
forests  of  stately  trees,  dry  and  bold  shores,  divided  by  a  bar  near  the 
northern  end  into  two  basins,  almost  two  lakes,  this  is  Lake  Darling.  The 
inlet  at  the  southern  extremity  pours  continually  into  this  lake  the  surplus 
Avaters  of  a  dozen  others.  The  depth  varies  from  sixteen  to  fifty  feet. 
The  water  is  clear  and  pure. 

"Lake  A'ictoria  receives  the  drainage  from  half  a  dozen  smaller  lakes 
at  the  south.  There  are  two  arms,  an  eastern  and  western ;  both  have  inlets 
and  combine  to  form  the  main  body  of  the  lake.  The  western  arm  is 
much  the  larger.  In  this  basin  the  great  mass  of  the  water  lies.  Its  depth, 
near  the  center,  varies  from  forty  to  fifty  feet.  The  east  arm  is  thirty 
to  forty  feet  deep.  Near  the  outlet  the  water  becomes  shallow  and  reeds 
are  numerous.  In  the  center  of  the  lowest  part  of  the  lake  the  depth  varies 
from  twenty-two  to  thirty-eight  feet.  The  water  is  not  very  pure ;  it  contains 
a  considerable  amount  of  decaying  vegetable  matter,  brought  down  from 
swamps  and  shallow  lakes  above.  The  shores  of  the  Victoria  are  generallv 
high  and  wooded.  The  banks,  where  exposed,  are  clay.  A  very  short  out- 
let, crossed  by  the  Great  Northern  railway,  brings  us  to  the  next  link  in 
the  chain. 

"Lake  Geneva  is  nearly  two  miles  long  and  half  a  mile  wide.  Its 
waters  are  clearer  than  those  of  Victoria.  In  some  parts  it  is  also  con- 
siderably deeper.  Soundings  varying  from  thirty  to  sixty  feet  were  made 
in  the  south  part  of  the  lake.  There  is  clay  in  the  surrounding  bluffs,  which 
rise  ten  to  twenty  feet  above  the  water.  The  railway  has  made  a  long, 
high  'fill'  at  the  inlet.  In  consequence  of  these  facts  the  water  holds  in 
suspension  considerable  earthy  matter,  giving  it  at  times  a  faint  vellowish 

"One  of  the  charms  of  tliis  chain  of  lakes  and  the  country  adjacent  is 
the  presence  of  fine,  large  forest  trees,  which  the  ravages  of  the  'woodman' 
have  not  laid  low.  For  this  reason  the  shores  of  these  lakes  are  particu- 
larly attractive  as  places  of  resort  in  summer. 

"Lake  Le  Homme  Dieu  has  a  quite  irregular  shape  and  lies  in  two 
distinct  depressions  of  unequal  depth.  The  long  point  that  runs  out  from 
the  west  side  is  continued  under  water  by  a  bar  extending  more  than  half 
way  across  the  lake.  In  the  southern  basin,  not  far  from  the  inlet,  the 
water  is  from  sixty  to  seventy-five  feet  deep.     Iji  various  parts  of  this  basin 


depths  varying  from  twenty-five  to  fifty-seven  feet  were  found.  The  lower 
basin  at  the  north  end  of  the  lake  is  larger  and  includes  a  deep  bay  on 
the  west  side,  but  on  the  whole  this  portion  of  the  lake  is  shallower  than  the 

"As  a  whole,  it  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  sheets  of  water  in  Minne- 
sota. The  shores  are  moderately  high  and  well  rounded.  It  is  separated 
only  by  a  narrow  bar  from  Lake  Carlos.  The  water  is  clear  and  pure. 
In  this  respect  there  is  a  gradual  improvement  as  we  proceed  down  the 
chain.  Geneva  is  purer  than  Victoria,  Le  Homme  Dieu  is  purer  than  Geneva, 
and  Carlos  is  purest  of  them  all. 

"Lake  Carlos  is  the  gem  of  this  group  of  lakes.  It  is  the  last  and  low- 
est of  the  series.  It  is  the  immediate  source  of  Long  Prairie  river,  which 
forms  its  outlet  at  the  northeast  corner.  It  has  two  inlets,  one  from  lake 
Darling  at  the  southern  extremity,  and  the  other  from  Lake  Le  Homme 
Dieu.  It  thus  receives  the  surplus  waters  of  all  the  other  lakes  north  and 
south  and  the  drainage  of  six  townships.  The  lake  in  some  places  is  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  deep,  and  there  is  a  channel  averaging  fifty  feet  deep, 
extending  the  entire  length  of  the  lake.  The  deepest  area  is  not  far  from 
the  Le  Homme  Dieu  inlet.  There  are  shallow  areas  where  the  water  is 
only  five  to  ten  feet  deep,  further  down  the  lake.  It  is  about  five  miles  long 
and  a  mile  wide.  Tlie  water  is  perfectly  pure,  of  a  deep,  bottle-green  color. 
The  color,  however,  varies  with  the  sky  and  weather,  and  is  sometimes  a  deep 
indigo  and  sometimes  a  light  delicate  blue.  In  this  lake,  as  in  many  others, 
which  have  been  explored  with  the  sounding  line  and  other  appliances  for 
discovering  what  lies  at  the  bottom,  it  was  found  that  there  are,  under  the 
level  surface  of  the  water,  a  variety  of  hill  and  dale,  plateaus,  ravines, 
abrupt  declivities  and  gradual  slopes  very  similar  to  the  irregularities  of 
the  county  around.  Vegetation,  too,  flourishes  beneath  the  waves  as  vigor- 
ously as  on  the  main  land,  while  the  waters  are  thronged  with  fish  of  many 
species  and  of  delicious  flavor. 

"There  are  many  indications  about  the  shores  of  these  lakes  of  former 
higher  levels  of  water.  There  are  old  beaches  and  half-obscured  terraces 
which  show  that  the  lakes  were  connected  at  no  very  remote  date.  The 
whole  of  the  'Alexandria  prairie,'  which  lies  between  the  two  chains  of 
lakes,  is  modified  drift.  The  gravel,  sands  and  clays  are  finely  stratified 
and  record  the  fact  that  at  the  close  of  the  ice  age  some  ancient  river  with 
gentle  current  flowed  here,  rearranging  and  depositing  in  their  present  posi- 
tions the  materials  wliich  the  glacier  had  brought  down. 

"On    the    eastern    lioundary   of    Douglas    county,    but    lying   chiefly    in 


Todd  county,  is  Lake  Osakis.  It  is  about  seven  miles  long.  The  southern 
part  is  a  mile  and  a  half  to  two  miles  wide.  The  northern  part  is  narrow 
and  deep.  The  depths  at  the  upper  end  of  the  lake  varied  from  forty  to 
seventy  feet.  In  the  broader  part  of  the  lake  there  are  large  areas  of  shallow 
water,  varying  from  five  to  fifteen  feet,  the  average  depth  being  alx)ut  twenty- 
five  feet.  Around  the  southern  end  of  the  lake,  the  prairie  slopes  down 
gradually  to  the  water's  edge.  Some  of  the  shores  are  low  and  wet.  At 
other  points  they  are  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  above  the  water.  The  water 
varies  in  purity.  In  the  deep  parts  at  the  north  end  it  was  quite  pure.  In 
shallow  places  and  where  the  wind  stirs  the  whole  volume  to  the  bot- 
tom, it  has  the  yellowish  hue  characteristic  of  the  more  alkaline  lakes. 

"Among  the  hills  in  the  southern  part  of  Douglas  county  are  a  multi- 
tude of  small  lakes,  the  largest  of  which  is  Lake  Oscar.  The  surrounding 
country  is  rolling,  and  there  are  some  abrupt  declivities  and  massive  hills 
of  drift,  whose  summits  are  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above 
the  lakes.  There  is  a  fringe  of  oaks  about  the  lake,  and  a  forest  on  the 
northeast  stretches  away  to  Alexandria  and  beyond.  Toward  the  west 
and  south  lies  a  prairie  country.  The  outlet  of  Lake  Oscar,  in  high  water, 
is  into  the  Chippewa  river.  Its  only  tributaries  are  other  and  smaller  lakes. 
The  basin  is  subdivided  by  various  points  and  bars.  The  outlet  is  very 
irregular.  This  interlocking  of  the  water  gives  the  most  charming  scenery. 
The  shores  are  bold,  being  in  several  places  thirty  to  forty  feet  above  the 
water.  The  lake  is  about  thirty  feet  deep  in  its  largest  basin,  growing  shal- 
lower, of  course,  about  the  shore's  points. 

"In  the  extreme  northwestern  part  of  the  county  is  Lake  Christina, 
which  has  an  area  of  about  six  scjuare  miles,  but  is  very  shallow.  The 
water  is  decidedly  yellow  and  muddy.  It  is  full  of  reeds  and  rushes.  Its 
shallow  depth  and  the  rills  and  rivulets  pouring  down  from  clay  deposits 
keep  it  looking  very  much  like  the  Missouri  river.  It  is  rather  exceptional 
in  this  respect  among  the  lakes  of  this  region." 

Maple  lake,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county,  and  Smith  lake, 
in  the  southeastern  part,  are  both  fine,  deep  lakes. 

Topography.  The  south  edge  of  the  great  terminal  moraine  called  the 
Leaf  hills  extends  into  Lund  along  the  north  side  of  Lake  Christina  and 
into  Millerville  north  of  Lakes  Moses  and  Aaron.  Its  elevations  in  these 
townships  along  the  north  line  of  Douglas  county  are  one  hundred  to  two 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  the  lakes,  or  thirteen  hundred  to  sixteen 
hundred  feet  alaove.the  sea. 

At  the  highest  point  of  the  Leaf  hills  in  Otter  Tail  county,  fifteen  miles 


south  of  the  Leaf  lakes,  a  morainic  belt  branches  off  nearly  at  right  angles 
from  the  range  of  the  Leaf  hills  and  extends  southeast  into  Douglas  county. 
In  the  first  few  miles  this  moraine  decreases  in  height  from  two  hundred  to 
seventy-five  feet.  At  the  north  line  of  Douglas  county  it  divides  into  two 
divergent  belts,  both  showing  a  rough  and  broken  surface,  though  the  hills  of 
each  are  only  seventy-five  feet  or  less  in  height.  One  of  these  continues  south- 
east and  east  through  Spruce  Hill  township  into  Todd  county;  the  other 
runs  south-southwest  to  the  northwest  side  of  Lake  Miltona,  along  the  west 
side  of  Lake  Ida,  by  Elk  lake  and  the  west  part  of  Lake  Lobster,  to  the  con- 
spicuous hills,  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  high,  at  the  southwest  corner 
of  Moe.  Each  of  these  belts  averages  about  one  mile  wide.  The  latter  in  its 
farther  extent,  seems  to  leave  by  a  continuous  course  from  the  prominent 
Leaf  hills  to  the  almost  equally  noteworthy  morainic  range  which  extends 
through  a  distance  of  forty  miles  in  southern  Pope  and  northern  Kandiyohi 

From  the  hills  in  Moe  and  the  northeast  part  of  Solum,  lying  on  the 
north  and  west  sides  of  Lake  Oscar,  this  terminal  moraine,  seldom  much  ele- 
vated above  the  adjacent  country,  but  distinguished  by  its  irregular  hills  and 
hollows,  continues  with  an  average  width  of  about  one  mile,  first  southwest 
and  south  twelve  miles  to  the  bridge  across  the  Chippewa  river  in  section  32, 
Xora  township,  in  Pope  county;  then  southeast,  east,  and  east-northeast 
eighteen  miles,  passing  along  the  north  side  of  Lake  Whipple  to  Glenwood. 
It  will  probably  be  found  traceable,  also,  by  low  knolls  and  ridges,  from  the 
bridge  in  Pope  county  to  the  hills  in  Blue  Mounds  township,  in  the  same 
ci^unty.  About  three  miles  southwest  from  the  course  of  this  moraine,  a 
roughly  broken  tract  of  morainic  hillocks  and  ridges  was  noted. 

Most  of  northwestern  Douglas  county,  between  the  Leaf  hills  and  lake 
Christina  on  the  north  and  the  moraine  that  extends  from  Lakes  Miltona  and 
Ida  southwest  to  Lake  Oscar,  is  prominently  rolling  till,  rising  with  smooth 
slopes  in  swells  thirty  to  fifty  feet  above  the  depressions  and  lakes.  The 
most  rolling  portion  of  this  area  is  found  in  the  west  part  of  Ida  township, 
and  on  a  belt  several  miles  wide  southwest  from  the  Great  Northern  railway. 
Northwest  from  Brandon  station  a  tract  of  moderately  undulating  and  partly 
level  gravel  and  sand,  belonging  to  the  modified  drift,  extends  to  the  Chip- 
pewa river:  and  in  Millerville  nearly  level  modified  drift  extends  two  or 
three  miles  south  and  east  from  Lake  Moses,  having  a  height  of  twenty  to 
forty  feet  above  this  lake.  The  same  formation  of  gravel  and  sand  con- 
tinues iiorriiward  on  the  east  side  of  Lake  Karon  to  the  moraine,  but  in  this 
portion  it  has  a  motlerately  undulating  surface. 

A      TYl'lCAL      I.(l(;      CAHIX      OF      THE     I'lOXKKi;    I'KKI 

I.AKK    \"I(T(li;iA.    norCLAS    COIXTY 


The  southwest  edge  of  Douglas  county,  west  and  south  from  Red  Rock 
lake,  is  a  somewhat  lower  and  gently  undulating  expanse  of  till.  In  the 
south  part  of  this  county,  southeast  from  the  moraine,  Holmes  City,  Lake 
Mary  and  the  west  half  of  La  Grand  are  undulating  or  rolling  till,  with  eleva- 
tions twenty  to  forty  feet  above  the  hollows.  The  morainic  hills  of  till  west 
of  Lake  Ida  and  north  of  the  west  part  of  Lake  Miltona,  seventy-five  to  one 
hundred  feet  high,  are  quite  in  contrast  with  the  moderately  undulating  or 
often  nearly  level  till  which  covers  central  and  southeastern  Miltona  and 
continues  thence  south  through  Carlos  and  Alexandria,  the  east  part  of  Hud- 
son, the  south  part  of  Belle  River  and  Osakis  and  Orange  townships. 

In  northeastern  Miltona  and  Spruce  Hill  townships  the  morainic  belt 
consists  chiefly  of  kame-like,  short,  disconnected  ridges  of  coarse  gravel, 
twenty  to  thirty,  or  rarely,  forty  feet  high,  most  frequently  trending  from 
west  to  east,  or  approximately  so.  North  and  south  of  this  belt  are  tracts  of 
level  modified  drift,  only  ten  to  twenty-five  feet  above  the  streams;  that  south 
of  the  moraine  occupies  the  north  half  of  Belle  River  township,  and  con- 
tinues westward  on  the  south  side  of  the  Long  Prairie  river  to  Lake  Carlos. 

Another  tract  of  modified  drift,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  level 
or  slightly  undulating  sand  and  gravel,  extends  eight  or  nine  miles  south  from 
Alexandria,  through  the  west  half  of  Hudson  township;  and  the  same  forma- 
tion with  a  more  rolling  surface,  in  swells  and  plateaus  twenty-five  to  fifty 
feet  above  the  depressions  and  lakes,  also  reaches  three  or  four  miles  west 
and  northwest  from  Alexandria,  through  the  east  half  of  La  Grand  town- 
ship. Kames  of  coarse  gravel,  forming  short  ridges,  ten  to  thirty  feet  high, 
were  noted  near  the  Maple  lake  school  house  in  section  29,  Hudson  town- 

Osakis  lake  is  about  thirteen  hundred  and  ten  feet,  and  Lakes  Winona 
and  Agnes,  close  west  and  north  of  Alexandria,  are  about  thirteen  hundred 
and  sixty-five  feet  above  the  sea. 

The  highest  land  in  Douglas  county  is  on  or  near  the  north  line  of  Millers- 
ville,  which  crosses  the  border  of  the  Leaf  hills,  attaining  at  a  few  points  a 
height  of  about  sixteen  hundred  feet  above  the  sea.  The  other  portions  of 
this  county  are  from  one  hundred  to  four  hundred  feet  lower,  its  lowest 
land  being  the  shore  of  lake  Christina,  which  is  about  twelve  hundred  and 
fifteen  feet  above  the  sea,  or  the  valley  of  the  Chippewa  river  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  county,  which  has  nearly  the  same  elevation.  Estimates 
of  the  average  heights  of  the  townships  of  Douglas  county  are  as  follows: 
Spruce  Hill,  fourteen  hundred  feet  above  the  sea;  Belle  River,  thirteen  hun- 


dred  and  forty;  Osakis,  thirteen  hundred  and  sixty;  Orange,  thirteen  hun- 
dred and  seventy-five;  Miltona,  fourteen  hundred  and  forty;  Carlos,  thirteen 
hundred  and  seventy-five ;  Alexandria,  thirteen  hundred  and  eighty ;  Hudson, 
thirteen  hundred  and  ninety;  Leaf  Valley,  fourteen  hundred  and  twenty;  Ida, 
fourteen  hundred  and  twenty-five;  La  Grand,  thirteen  hundred  and  ninety; 
Lake  Mary,  fourteen  hundred;  Millerville,  fourteen  hundred  and  forty; 
Chippewa,  thirteen  hundred  and  ninety ;  Moe,  fourteen  hundred  and  twenty ; 
Holmes  City,  fourteen  hundred  and  ten;  Lund,  thirteen  hundred  and  thirty; 
Evansville,  thirteen  hundred  and  fifty;  Urness,  thirteen  hundred  and  sixty; 
and  Solem,  thirteen  hundred  and  fifty.  The  mean  elevation  of  Douglas 
county,  derived  from  these  figures,  is  approximately  thirteen  hundred  and 
eighty-five  feet. 

Soil  and  Timber.  The  l)lack  soil,  one  to  two  feet  thick,  is  the  upper 
part  of  the  glacial  and  modified  drift  covering  this  county,  thus  colored  and 
made  fertile  by  the  decay  of  vegetation  during  many  centuries.  The  carbon- 
ates of  lime  and  magnesia,  in  the  form  of  magnesian  limestone  boulders, 
pebbles  and  fine  detritus,  are  an  important  ingredient  of  the  drift,  contribut- 
ing much  to  the  productiveness  of  the  soil,  and  also  making  the  water  of  wells 
and  springs  hard.  Alkaline  matter  is  not  present  in  appreciable  quantity. 
Wheat  and  other  grains,  sorghum,  potatoes  and  other  vegetables,  live  stock, 
butter  and  cheese,  are  the  chief  agricultural  products. 

Douglas  county  is  well  supplied  with  timber,  about  half  its  area  being 
wooded.  This  forest  extends  from  Miltona,  Spruce  Hill  and  Belle  River,  its 
most  northeastern  townships,  southwestward  to  Lakes  Andrews,  Mary  and 
Oscar.  Southeast  of  this  belt,  the  south  edge  of  Osakis  and  most  of  Orange 
and  Hudson  townships  are  prairie.  In  the  northwest  part  of  Douglas  county 
a  strip  of  timber  two  or  three  miles  wide,  consisting  partly  of  oak  openings, 
extends  from  Lake  Miltona  westerly  to  Chippewa  lake  and  into  Millerville 
and  Lund  townships.    Besides  this,  most  of  the  lakes  are  fringed  with  woods. 


This  count}-  is  entirely  covered  by  the  glacial  and  modified  drift.  The 
thickness  of  the  drift  in  Douglas  county  is  probably  from  one  hundred  to 
two  hundred  and  fifty  feet.  Its  bottom  has  not  been  reached  by  wells,  and 
this  estimate  is  derived  from  its  known  thickness  on  adjoining  areas.  The 
greater  part  of  this  formation  is  till  or  the  modified  glacial  drift,  called  also 
boulder-clay,  or  hardpan,  deposited  by  the  ice-sheet  without  modification  by 
water.     With  this  are  associated  beds  of  modified  drift  or  gravel,  sand  and 


clay,  which  were  gathered  from  the  ice,  assorted  and  laid  down  by  the  waters 
set  free  by  glacial  melting. 

Terminal  moraines.  The  material  of  the  terminal  moraines  of  the  ice- 
sheet  which  have  been  explored  in  Minnesota  is  nearly  everywhere  till,  with 
scanty  deposits  of  modified  drift.  The  latter  consists  of  obliquely  and  irregu- 
larly stratified  gravel  and  sand,  the  gravel  often  being  very  coarse,  with 
pebbles  and  rounded  stones  of  all  sizes  up  to  a  foot  or  more  in  diameter. 
It  either  occurs  enclosed  in  the  till,  forming  beds  and  masses  of  variable 
shapes  from  a  few  inches  to  several  feet  in  thickness,  or  sometimes  it  is 
spread  upon  the  surface  and  forms  knolls  and  ridges.  No  considerable  area 
or  extensive  portion  of  this  formation  is  found  to  consist  of  water,  within  this 
region;  though  at  some  localities  in  Spruce  Hill  township,  it  is  in  great  part 
stratified  gravel  and  sand,  usually  with  numerous  boulders  enclosed  and 
scattered  over  its  ridges  and  hillocks. 

The  till  of  the  terminal  moraines  differs  very  noticeably  from  the  more 
level  areas  of  till  which  generally  lie  at  each  side ;  in  that  the  former  has  many 
more  boulders,  and  a  much  larger  intermixture  of  gravel  and  sand  than  the 
latter.  On  an  average,  probably  twenty  times  as  many  rock-fragments,  both 
large  and  small,  occur  in  the  morainic  hills  and  knolls  as  on  the  smoother 
tracts,  and  sometimes  the  ratio  is  a  hundredfold.  The  smaller  pebbles  and 
stones  have  angular  and  unworn  forms,  or  more  frequently  are  rounded, 
probably  by  water-wearing  before  the  glacial  period,  or  show  planed  and 
striated  surfaces,  due  to  grinding  under  the  moving  ice-sheet.  The  large 
boulders  are  mostly  less  than  five  feet,  but  rarely  are  ten  feet  or  more  in 
diameter.  In  form  they  are  subangular  and  of  irregular  shape,  rarely  show- 
ing any  distinctly  water-worn  or  glaciated  surface. 

In  contour  these  deposits  are  very  uneven,  consisting  usuallv  of  many 
hillocks,  mounds  and  ridges  of  rough  outlines  and  broken  slopes,  with  enclosed 
hollows,  which  are  sometimes  nearly  round,  but  more  generally  have  some 
irregular  fomi,  often  holding  sloughs  and  lakelets.  The  only  indication  of 
system  appears  in  the  frequently  noticeable  trends  of  the  elevations  and 
depressions  in  a  direction  approximately  parallel  with  the  course  of  the 

It  should  be  added  that  the  ridges  which  occur  as  part  of  this  formation 
differ  from  the  ridges  of  interbedded  gravel  and  sand  called  osars,  in  their 
material,  which  is  usually  boulder-clay  or  till;  in  their  trend,  at  right  angles 
with  the  course  in  which  the  ice  moved,  while  series  of  osars  extend  nearly 
in  the  direction  taken  by  glacial  currents;  and  in  their  length,  single  ridges 
of  the  moraines  being  only  froiu  a  few  rods  to  a  quarter  of  a  mile  or  very 


rarely  perhaps  a  half  mile  long,  while  a  single  ridge  in  a  series  of  osars  is 
generally  longer,  and  is  sometimes  distinctly  traceable  ten  or  twenty  miles.  In 
this  state,  however,  osars  of  similar  extent  with  those  of  Sweden  and  Scot- 
land, and  those  described  in  Maine  by  Prof.  George  H.  Stone,  in  ^lassa- 
chusetts  by  Rev.  G.  F.  Wright,  and  in  New  Hampshire  by  Professor  \\'in- 
chell.  have  not  been  found. 

The  height  of  the  morainic  elevations  above  the  intervening  hollows 
is  generalh"  from  twenty-five  to  seventy-five  or  one  hundred  feet.  The  only 
district  in  this  state  where  they  are  higher  for  any  considerable  part  of  the 
series  is  the  Leaf  hills,  which  through  a  distance  of  twenty  miles  rise  from 
one  hundred  to  three  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  the  adjoining  country. 
Upon  the  Coteau  des  Prairies  the  terminal  moraines  lie  on  areas  of  highland, 
to  tlie  altitude  of  which  xhey  appear  to  add  seventy-five  or  one  hundred  and 
rarely  one  hundred  and  fifty  or  two  hundred  feet. 

For  agriculture  the  value  of  the  terminal  moraines  is  much  less  than 
that  of  the  gently  undulated  till  which  generally  covers  other  parts  of  this 
region.  Among  the  hills  of  this  formation,  however,  are  found  considerable 
areas  which  have  a  smooth  surface,  nearly  free  from  boulders,  and  possess 
a  highly  productive  soil;  while  the  portions  which  are  too  knolly  and  stony 
for  desirable  cultivation  afiford  excellent  pasturage.  In  some  districts  the 
entire  morainic  belt  is  in  smooth  swells,  being  all  good  farming  land. 

The  origin  of  these  series  of  drift  hills  is  confidently  referred  to  the 
action  of  the  continental  ice-sheet,  accumulating  them  at  its  margin  in  suc- 
cessive belts,  which  mark  the  farthest  limit  reached  by  the  ice  in  the  last 
glacial  epoch  and  lines  where  it  halted  or  perhaps  temporarily  re-advanced 
during  its  final  recession.  Their  reference  to  the  agency  of  land-ice  is 
required  by  the  partly  near  and  partly  remote  sources  of  their  material; 
bv  its  generallv  unstratified  condition;  by  its  transportation  next  to  these 
hill-ranges  in  courses  nearly  at  right  angles  toward  them ;  and  by  the  variable 
elevation  of  the  series,  conforming  to  all  the  irregularities  in  altitude  of  the 
region  across  which  they  extend. 

In  general,  the  material  and  contour  of  the  morainic  belts  in  Douglas 
county  present  the  same  characteristics  as  in  other  parts  of  the  state,  agreeing 
fully  with  the  foregoing  descriptions.  The  contour  of  the  drift  hills,  trending 
from  east  to  west,  is  in  the  same  direction  as  the  belt  which  they  form.  Their 
material  is  partly  sand  and  gravel,  commonly  with  frequent  or  abundant 
boulders,  and  partly  Ixiulder-clay  or  till.  The  shortness  and  the  disconnected 
or  irregularly  interlocked  arrangement  of  the  ridges,  their  variable  width 
and  broken  sloi>es,  forbid  their  reference  to  such  glacial  rivers  as  deposited 


the  prolonged  narrow  ridges  called  osars,  and  seem  to  prove  that  their  accumu- 
lation, where  they  consist  of  sand  and  gravel,  was  by  the  waters  flowing 
down  from  the  melting  surface  of  the  ice-sheet  along  its  margin.  This  mode 
of  formation  must  also  be  attributed  to  the  greater  part  of  the  morainic 
belt  observed  in  Soruce  Hill  township,  and  the  northeast  part  of  Miltona, 
and  to  the- upper  part  of  the  bluffs  at  Glenwood.  Boulders  are  usually  pres- 
ent, and  at  many  places  are  very  abundant  in  and  on  the  deposits  of  gravel 
and  sand  in  the  morainic  belts;  but  they  are  usually  absent  or  rare  in  and 
on  osars,  wherever  these  peculiar  gravel  ridges  have  been  observed. 

Comparison  and  correlation  with  the  morainic  belts  of  other  portions 
of  the  state  indicate  that  the  series  of  drift  hills  is  contemporaneous  with  the 
sixth  or  Waconia  moraine  and  the  seventh  or  Dove  moraine.  The  former 
is  represented  by  the'  drift  accumulations  along  the  line  of  Chippewa  and 
Lake  Whipple  in  Pope  county.  The  latter,  or  Dove  moraine,  continues 
westerly  and  northwest  to  Nora  township,  where  it  curves  graduallv  and 
thence  runs  northeast  through  the  county  by  Takes  Oscar.  Ida  and  ^liltona. 
The  lobe  of  the  ice-sheet  on  whose  boundaries  these  lines  of  knolly  and  hilly 
drift  were  formed,  lay  on  their  south  and  west  side.  At  the  time  of  the 
Waconia  moraine  the  angle  in  the  glacial  boundary  formed  by  the  confluence 
of  the  ice-fields  flowing  from  the  west  and  those  flowing  from  the  north 
and  northeast  was  probably  near  Glenwood,  in  Pope  county,  the  northern  ice 
temiinating  on  the  tract  of  rolling  till  that  extends  eastward  from  Glenwood 
and  Lake  Reno  into  Stearns  county,  not  distinguished  by  specially  morainic 
contour.  At  the  time  of  the  Dove  moraine  this  northern  ice  appears  to  have 
reached  only  to  Spruce  Hill  township,  its  angle  of  confluence  with  the  west- 
ern ice-lobe  l^eing  in  the  north  part  of  Miltona  township.  During  the  two 
stages  next  later  in  the  glacial  recession  the  massive  Leaf  hills  were  accumu- 
lated at  the  south  end  of  the  western  "ice-lobe,  which  in  its  earlier  extent  had 
covered  the  basin  of  the  Minnesota  river  and  stretched  southward  in  Iowa 
to  Des  Moines. 

In  the  suljsequent  recession  of  the  ice-sheet  from  eastern  Douglas 
county,  b}-  which  its  margin  was  withdrawn  to  the  moraines  of  Lakes  Oscar, 
Ida  and  Miltona,  and  that  of  Spruce  Hill  township,  further  deposits  of 
modified  drift  were  made,  including  the  Mt  of  undulating  or  nearly  flat 
sand  and  gravel,  about  one  mile  wide,  reaching  from  Lake  Amelia  and 
Turtle  lake  to  the  north  end  of  Westport  lake  and  continuing  thence  with 
less  width  along  Ashley  creek  to  the  Sauk  river;  the  plain  in  Hudson  and 
Alexandria  townships,  with  the  connected  area  of  plateaus,  swells  and  kame- 
like  accumulations  in  La  Grand  township ;  and  the  plain  bordering  the  Lon<T 


Prairie  river  in  Carlos  and  Belle  river  townships,  with  associated  undulating 
and  partly  rolling  and  kame-like  deposits  in  the  south  part  of  Spruce  Hill. 
The  terminal  moraines  in  Todd  county  show,  however,  that  the  course  of 
drainage  could  not  continue  north-eastward  in  the  valley  of  Long  Prairie 
river,  still  covered  by  the  ice-sheet,  but  was  turned  southward  into  the  Sauk 

Much  of  Carlos  township  has  a  moderately  undulating  surface  of  till, 
underlain  at  the  depth  of  ten  to  twenty  feet  by  a  thick  bed  of  sand,  in  which 
wells  obtain  water  before  reaching  its  bottom.  Again,  about  one  mile  east 
of  Alexandria  a  railroad-cut  was  seen  to  consist  of  stratified  sand  and  gravel, 
having  a  vertical  thickness  of  twenty  feet  exposed  and  continuing  lower, 
overlain  by  a  deposit  of  till  three  to  ten  feet  thick.  These  observations  prove 
a  considerable  re-advance  of  the  ice  after  it  had  once  retreated,  but  both 
these  movements  probably  took  place  within  the  same  last  glacial  epoch. 

A  fault  was  seen  in  a  lenticular  layer  of  dark  laminated  clay  one  and  a 
half  feet  thick,  enclosed  in  till,  in  the  section  cut  for  the  railroad  in  the 
north  part  of  Evansville.  The  north  end  of  this  clay  layer  has  fallen  one  and 
a  half  feet.  This  is  five  feet  above  the  railroad  track  and  about  thirty-five 
feet  below  the  surface,  the  whole  section  above  and  beneath  the  faulted  clay 
being  till. 

Mean  elevation  due  to  underlying  formations.  The  grand  topographic 
features  of  this  district,  as  the  highlands  and  the  depression  occupied  bv  Lake 
Christina,  are  doubtless  due  to  the  contour  of  the  formations,  probably  Cre- 
taceous, which  underlie  the  drift  deposits.  Erosion  during  the  long  Ter- 
tiary ages  had  probably  sculptured  the  strata  that  then  formed  the  surface 
in  massive  hills  and  elevated  areas  resembling  the  buttes  and  mesas  of 
the  West,  divided  by  basins  and  channels  sometimes  several  hundred  feet 
lower.  Such  preglacial  contour,  though  partially  planed  down  and  filled  up 
by  the  erosion  of  the  ice,  still  determined  the  mean  elevation  of  the  envelop- 
ing drift-sheet,  giving  in  this  district  the  l^eautiful  scenery  in  southwestern 

Boulders  of  magnesian  limestone,  like  that  outcropping  near  Winnipeg 
in  Manitoba,  are  frequent  in  the  drift  throughout  this  country,  perhaps  mak- 
ing on  an  average  a  twentieth  part  of  the  rock- fragments  over  one  foot  in 
size.  Occasionally  very  large  slabs  and  blocks  of  it  are  found,  measuring 
ten  to  twenty  feet  in  length.  A  much  larger  proportion  of  the  gravel  is  this 
limestone,  which  makes  alx)ut  a  third  on  the  shores  of  some  of  the  lakes. 

The  other  boulders  and  gravel  are  chiefly  crystalline  rocks,  as  granite, 
syenite,  gneiss,  and  micaceous  and  hornblendic  schists.     The  largest  mass  of 


this  kind  observed  is  a  boulder  of  flesh-colored  granite.  It  is  forty  or  fifty 
feet  below  the  highest  land  of  the  township.  This  kind  of  granite,  however, 
does  not  appear  to  be  specially  abundant  in  the  drift.  No  other  boulder  of 
the  crystalline  rocks  larger  than  five  to  seven  feet  in  dimension,  was  noticed 
in  the  county. 

Ice-formed  ridges  of  gravel  and  sand,  sometimes  with  numerous  boul- 
ders, occur  in  many  places  on  the  shores  of  lakes,  usually  where  the  water 
is  shallow  and  the  adjoining  land  low,  being  quite  often  a  marsh  scarcely 
higher  than  the  lake,  above  which  the  ridge  has  a  height  of  three  to  six  and 
seven  feet,  with  a  width  of  three  to  six  or  eight  rods.  Such  ridges  are  seen 
on  the  southeast  side  of  Lake  Moses  in  Millerville  township;  at  the  mouth 
of  Little  Chippewa  lake  in  section  9,  Chippewa  township;  along  a  distance 
of  one  and  a  half  miles  on  the  west  side  of  the  north  part  of  Lake  Amelia 
and  between  this  and  Turtle  lake,  which  were  united  before  the  formation, 
of  this  ridge. 

The  soil  and  agricultural  capabilities  of  the  county,  and  its  timber,  has 
already  been  noticed.  In  adaptation  for  profitable  farming,  which  must  con- 
tinue to  be  their  chief  source  of  wealth,  they  are  unsurpassed  by  any  other 
part  of  the  state  or  of  the  Northwest. 

Building  Sfoiic.  No  rock-outcrops  occur  in  this  district,  but  the 
boulders  of  the  drift  supply  the  needs  of  the  farmer  for  coarse  masonry,  as 
foundations  and  the  walls  of  cellars  and  wells. 

Lime.  Magnesian  limestone  boulders  are  used  in  many  places  for  lime- 
burning.  Lime  is  burned  at  Evansville  and  other  parts  of  Evansville  town- 
ship, as  well  as  in  Millerville,  Chippewa,  Ida  and  La  Grand  townships. 


In  the  northern  corner  of  Alexandria  township,  between  Lakes  Carlos 
and  Le  Homme  Dieu,  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  in  heavy  woods,  is  a  steep 
mound,  about  fifteen  feet  high,  which  has  been  partly  dug  out  and  was  found 
to  contain  bones.  Near  this  are  also  two  or  three  smaller  mounds,  about  five 
feet  high. 


The  Kensington  Rune  Stone;  An  Ancient  Tragedy. 

If  the  conclusions  of  eminent  archaeologists  be  correct,  the  one  outstand- 
ing, paramount  fact  in  the  histor_v  of  Douglas  county  is  that  one  hundred  and 
thirty  years  before  the  voyage  of  Columbus  to  America,  white  men — Euro- 
peans— had  trod  the  soil  of  that  section  of  Minnesota  now  comprised  within 
the  boundaries  of  Douglas  county  and  had  left  here  a  record  of  their  travels 
and  of  their  perilous  adventures  and  of  the  death  of  ten  of  their  number  at 
the  hands  of  the  savages. 

JOURNEY    FROM    THIS    ISLAND.     YEAR     1362. 

When  a  stone  inscribed  in  Runic  characters  carrying  the  above  simple 
narrative  was  unearthed  on  the  farm  of  Olaf  Ohman  on  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  14,  Solem  township,  about  three  miles  northeast  from  Kensington 
station,  in  Douglas  county,  in  the  fall  of  1898,  much  local  interest  was 
created  in  the  matter,  but  it  was  not  until  some  little  time  later  that  the  find 
was  brought  to  the  attention  of  archaeologists  in  such  a  way  as  to  lead  to 
the  widespread  investigation  which  has  marked  the  later  history  of  what  now 
is  known  on  two  continents  as  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone.  Archaeologists 
are  divided  in  their  opinion  as  to  the  genuineness  of  the  record  here  unfolded 
and  there  has  arisen  a  considerable  controversy  in  relation  to  the  matter, 
elaborate  arguments  being  presented  both  for  and  against  the  genuineness 
of  the  inscription  on  the  stone;  some  maintaining  that  the  Runic  characters 
there  inscril:ied  are  but  the  work  of  a  clever  forger  lient  on  perpetrating  an 


even  more  elaborate  hoax  than  was  the  famous  "Cardiff  giant,"  while  other 
equally  earnest  and  sincere  scholars  declare  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the 
authenticity  of  the  record,  among  these  latter  being  Mr.  Warren  Upham, 
archaeologist  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  and  some  other  members 
of  that  society,  and  in  1910  a  preliminary  report  in  the  matter  was  made  to 
the  society  by  its  museum  committee.  In  view  of  the  fact,  however,  that 
statements  have  been  made  that  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society  endorsed 
the  Kensington  Rune  Stone  as  authentic,  Solon  J.  Buck,  superintendent  of 
that  society,  desires,  in  this  connection,  to  call  attention  to  the  exact  position 
of  the  society  on  the  subject.  The  museum  committee,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 
report  which  follows,  rendered  a  favorable  opinion,  "provided,  that  the 
references  to  Scandinavian  hterature  given  in  this  committee's  written  report 
and  accompanying  papers  be  verified  by  a  competent  specialist  in  the  Scandi- 
navian languages,  to  be  selected  by  this  committee,  and  that  he  approve  the 
conclusions  of  this  report." 

The  report  of  the  committee  was  presented  to  the  executive  council  of 
the  society,  but  was  never  accepted  or  adopted  by  the  council  or  by  the  society 
itself.  It  was,  however,  as  will  also  be  noted  in  the  report  that  follows, 
received  and  ordered  printed  "with  the  statement  that  the  council  and  society 
reserve  their  conclusions  until  more  agreement  of  opinion  for  or  against 
the  rune  inscription  may  be  attained."  Xo  further  action  on  the  subject  has 
ever  been  taken  by  the  executive  council  or  by  the  societv.  It  also  will  be 
noted  that  Professor  Bothne,  who  was  selected  by  the  museum  committee, 
in  accordance  with  its  resolution,  to  verify  the  references,  refused  to  approve 
the  conclusions  of  the  committee's  report.  Since  that  report  was  made,  Mr. 
Holand,  the  owner  of  the  stone,  took  it  abroad  and  it  was  examined  by  a 
number  of  European  scholars,  but  so  far  as  has  appeared,  few  if  any  of 
them  have  expressed  their  belief  in  its  authenticity.  Superintendent  Buck's 
position  in  the  matter  is  similar  to  that  expressed  by  the  executive  council 
of  the  society  in  1910.  Never  having  made  a  study  of  runic  inscriptions,  he 
is  quoted  as  preferring  to  reserve  his  conclusion  in  the  matter  until  more 
agreement  of  opinion  is  reached  among  experts  in  the  field. 

Below  is  given  in  full  the  preliminary  report  of  the  Minnesota  Historical 
Society  by  its  museum  committee  on  the  famous 


As  the  museum  committee  is  charged  with  the  responsiliility  of  making 
a  recommendation  to  the  society  respecting  the  authenticit}-  or  the  fraudulent 


origin  of  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone  and  its  inscription,  it  is  thought  best 
to  review  somewhat  carefully  the  facts  as  to  the  discovery  of  the  stone. 
For  this  purpose  the  results  of  the  three  visits  made  to  that  locality  1)y  Prof. 
N.  H.  Winchell,  investigating  the  subject  for  this  committee,  will  here  be 
cast  into  one  statement. 


The  stone  was  found  on  the  farm  of  Mr.  Olof  Ohman  on  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  14,  Solem  township,  Douglas  county,  about  three  miles 
northeast  from  Kensington  station  on  the  "Soo  Line,"  on  November  8,  1898. 
The  owner  of  the  farm  was  having  a  patch  of  land  cleared  of  timber  prepara- 
tory to  plowing,  and  his  men  were  grubbing  out  the  stumps.  There  were 
present  at  the  finding,  or  immediately  thereafter,  the  following  persons :  Olof 
Ohman,  his  sons,  Olof  Emil  Ohman,  12  years  of  age,  and  Edward  Ohman, 
10  years  of  age,  and  Xils  Olof  Flaaten.  owner  of  the  adjoining  farm. 

The  exact  location  was  on  the  southern  slope  of  one  of  two  knolls  which 
together  form  the  higher  part  of  what  has  been  called  an  "island,"  because 
formerly  surrounded  by  a  lake  and  now  surrounded  by  a  grassy  marsh.  These 
knolls  have  an  extreme  height,  above  the  surface  of  the  marsh,  of  fifty-five 
feet,  the  smaller  knoll  rising  about  fifty  feet.  The  stone  lay  forty- four  feet 
above  the  marsh. 

When  the  stone  was  found,  its  inscribed  side  was  down,  and  about  six 
inches  of  soil  covered  it.  A  poplar  or  aspen  tree  grew  above  it,  and  spread 
its  principal  roots  about  it,  running  into  the  ground  on  opposite  sides.  On 
being  cut  away  the  stump  carrying  the  roots  lay  adjacent  for  some  weeks 
and  was  seen  and  noted  by  several  visitors.  Estimates  as  to  the  size  and 
age  of  the  tree  vary  somewhat,  some  stating  that  it  was  at  least  ten  years 
old  and  others  that  it  was  from  twenty  to  thirty  years  old,  and  one  esti- 
mating it  as  probably  forty  years  old.  According  to  Mr.  Sam  Olson,  of 
Kensington,  this  tree  was  about  four  or  five  inches  in  diameter  at  about 
fifteen  inches  above  the  stone,  and  about  ten  inches  in  diameter  at  six  or 
eight  inches  above  the  stone.  The  roots  of  the  tree,  especially  the  largest 
one  which  spread  over  the  surface  of  the  stone,  were  flattened  by  contact 
with  the  stone  during  the  period  of  their  growth.  The  flattening  of  the  roots 
is  an  important  feature,  as  it  denotes  that  the  tree  had  been  in  contact 
with  the  stone  during  the  whole  time  of  the  life  of  the  tree. 

In  the  spring  subsequent  to  the  finding  of  the  stone  Mr.  Samuel  Olson 
and  a  party  visited  the  place  and  made  some  excavations  where  the  stone 
was   found,   having  the  idea  that  the  men   who  were  massacred  had  been 


buried  there,  and  that  the  stone  was  designed  to  mark  their  burial  place.  He 
saw,  and  all  his  party  saw,  the  stump  of  the  tree  that  grew  on  the  stone.  The 
members  of  this  party,  besides  Mr.  Olson,  were  the  following:  Cleve  Van 
Dyke,  executive  clerk  to  the  late  Governor  Johnson,  then  superintendent  of 
schools  of  Douglas  county;  J.  P.  Hedberg,  now  at  Warroad;  John  M.  Olson, 
who  furnished  a  team,  now  at  Alexandria;  Albert  Larson,  now  in  Canada; 
John  E.  Johnson,  of  Kensington;  Emil  Johnson,  now  at  Warroad;  Gulick 
Landsvark,  living  two  miles  east  of  Kensington;  and  Lars  Goldberg,  now 
at  Bowbells,  North  Dakota. 

Mr.  Samuel  Olson  and  Mr.  John  E.  Johnson  signed  a  joint  statement 
that  the  tree  must  have  been  at  least  ten  years  old,  and  more  likely  twenty 
or  thirty  years  old.  The  rest  of  the  party  have  not  been  consulted,  but  Mr. 
Joseph  Hotvedt  stated  that  he  saw  the  roots  and  verified  the  description  of 
their  flatness,  "such  as  would  be  caused  by  lying  against  a  stone." 

Mr.  Olson  made  a  drawing  to  show  the  appearance  of  this  stump  when 
in  contact  with  the  stone.  He  thinks  the  largest  root  ran  over  and  across 
the  stone,  but  Mr.  Olof  Ohman  was  positive  that  the  largest  root  ran  down 
into  the  ground  at  the  edge  of  the  stone,  and  that  a  smaller  root  ran  across 
the  upper  face  of  the  stone.  This  smaller  root  he  thought  was  about  three 
inches  in  diameter. 

It  should  be  stated  here  that  Professor  Flom's  account  of  his  interview 
with  Mr.  Olson  carries  a  misapprehension  of  what  Mr.  Olson  said  as  to  the 
size  of  the  tree.  Mr.  Olson  says  that  he  said  that  the  tree  tapered  so  that  at 
15  or  18  inches  above  the  stone  it  was  about  four  or  five  inches  in  diameter. 

The  topography  of  Mr.  Ohman' s  farm  and  the  adjoining  country  is 
morainic,  the  elevations  rising  sometimes  somewhat  abruptly  to  the  height 
of  fifty  or  seventy-five  feet,  or  even  a  hundred  feet,  above  the  adjoining 
lowlands.  The  material  of  the  drift  is  clay  of  a  limonitic  yellow  color,  but 
at  a  depth  of  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  this  clay  is  blue.  There  are  ver)^  few 
boulders  in  the  clay,  yet  on  the  tops  of  some  of  the  drift  hills  granitic  and 
other  boulders  are  numerous,  and  sometimes  the}-  are  found  in  numbers 
near  the  bases  of  the  hills  and  in  the  swamps.  They  are  sometimes  large  and 
conspicuous,  and  frequently  have  been  gathered  into  heaps  in  the  fields. 
About  seventy-five  in  a  hundred  of  the  boulders  are  of  granite;  about  five 
in  a  hundred  are  of  limestone;  about  five  in  a  hundred  are  of  gabbro  or  of 
gabbroid  rocks;  five  in  a  hundred  are  of  Keewatin  greenstone,  including 
Ogishke  conglomerate;  about  five  in  a  hundred  are  of  dark  nondescript  rock, 
sometimes  quartzosfi ;  and  the  other  five  in  a  hundred  may  be  compared  with 
the  rock  of  the  rune  stone,  being  some  of  the  various  forms  of  gravwacke. 


The  extreme  length  of  the  Rune  Stone  is  36  inches,  width  across  the 
face  15  inches,  the  thickness  sVz  inches,  and  its  weight  is  about  230  pounds. 
It  is  of  graywacke,  but  its  shape  and  dark  color  suggest  that  it  is  trap.  Its 
flat  surfaces  and  angular  jointage  are  due  apparently  to  long  continued  heat- 
ing and  slow  cooling  in  contact,  or  near  contact,  with  igneous  rocks.  On 
its  inscribed  face  is  a  layer  of  calcite  covering  a  part  of  the  area  in  which 
the  inscription  was  engraved.  This  calcite  was  deposited  in  a  jointage- 
opening,  probably  when  the  rock  was  in  its  native  place;  and  it  has  been 
revealed  by  the  removal  of  an  adjoining  parallel  mass,  the  joint  plane  itself 
causing  the  even  face  on  which  the  engraving  was  made.  The  reverse  of 
the  inscribed  side  is  not  so  regular  and  has  evidently  been  through  the  rough 
experiences  of  glacial  action,  since  it  bears  a  number  of  distinct  glacial  striae. 
The  men  who  found  the  stone  are  plain  and  simple  farmers,  working 
hard  to  derive  a  subsistence  for  themselves  and  families  from  their  land.  The 
honesty  and  candor  of  Mr.  Olof  Ohman  become  evident  to  anyone  who 
converses  with  him.  He  does  not  speak  English  readily,  but  seems  to  under- 
stand English  when  he  hears  it  spoken  in  common  conversation.  He  states 
that  his  education  comprised  six  terms  of  school  in  Sweden,  of  six  weeks 
each,  in  an  elementary  county  school,  where  the  children  gathered  for  instruc- 
tion, first  at  one  farm  house  for  a  week  and  then  at  another,  six  weeks  in 
all  making  one  term.  I  was  told  that  Mr.  Ohman  came  to  his  farm  in  1890, 
and  on  consulting  the  register  of  deeds  at  Alexandria  I  found  lands  deeded 
at  four  different  dates,  now  constituting  the  Ohman  farm,  from  1890  to  1898. 
from  Halvor  Stenson,  Ole  Amundson,  and  E.  J.  Moen. 

After  finding  the  stone,  it  was  exliibited  for  a  time  in  the  drug  store 
at  Kensington.  It  was  later  sent  to  Minneapolis  and  was  examined  by  Prof. 
O.  J.  Breda,  also  to  Evanston,  111.,  and  was  examined  by  Prof.  George  O. 
Curine.  As  they  pronounced  it  fraudulent,  it  was  returned  to  the  finder 
in  March.  1899,  who  placed  it  carelessly  in  his  )ard,  where  it  served  as  a  step- 
ping stone  near  his  granary  for  eight  years,  without  further  notice.  In 
1907  Mr.  Hjalmar  Rued  Holand  obtained  it  of  Mr.  Ohman,  and  has  brought 
it  again  to  notice  and  wider  study.  By  Mr.  Holand  it  was  brought  to  the 
attention  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society;  and  the  museum  committee 
was  directed  to  investigate  its  authentic  or  fraudulent  record,  and  to  report 
their  recommendation  to  the  executive  council.  Mr.  Holand  has  since  exhib- 
ited it  in  Chicago,  Illinois;  Madison,  Wisconsin,  and  Northfield,  Minnesota, 
giving  in  each  place  a  lecture.  This  has  brought  out  various  criticisms,  pro 
and  con,  and  the  burden  resting  on  the  committee  has  considerably  increased. 
The  memliers  of  this  committee  appreciate  the  great  importance  of  the 


question  which  is  in  their  hands,  and  they  know,  collectively  and  individually, 
that  it  is  due  to  American  history,  before  they  stamp  the  stone  with  their 
approval  or  their  rejection,  to  make  an  exhaustive  investigation  and  an  impar- 
tial discussion  of  all  the  circumstances. 


The  runic  inscription  has  been  translated  as  l>elo\v  and  published  by 
Mr.  Holand  in  Harper's  Weekly,  October  9,   1909. 

On  the   face  of   the   stone : 

8  goter  ok  22  norrmen  po  opdhagelse  fardh  fro  \'inland  of  vest  vi 
hadhe  laeger  vedh  2  skjar  en  dags  rise  norr  fro  dheno  sten  vi  var  ok  tiske 
en  dhagh  aeptir  vi  kom  hem  fan  10  man  riidhe  af  blodh  og  dhedh  A  X  M 
fraelse  af  illy 

On  the  edge  of  the  stone: 

har  10  mans  ve(dj  havet  at  se  aeptir  vore  skip  14  [?]  dhagh  rise 
from  dheno  oh  ahr  1362 

No  one  has  called  in  question  the  correctness  of  this  translation.  In 
explanation  of  the  transliteration  Mr.  Holand  writes:  "The  runic  alpha- 
bet had  only  one  character  to  indicate  three,  or  what  became  three,  different 
sounds,  til.  dli,  and  d.  Out  of  2,000  runic  inscriptioris  we  find  only  about 
a  half  dozen  having  a  separate  sign  for  d.  This  character  was  later  sup- 
plemented, and  was  used  medially  and  finally.  This  however  was  used 
only  in  the  literature  written  in  Roman  characters,  and  was  never  used 
in  runic  inscriptions.  In  most  cases  this  has  now  been  superseded  by  d, 
but  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  in  the  fourteenth  centur\-  it  had  a  soft 
sound.     I  have  therefore  translated  it  with  dh." 

The  English  translation  is  as  follows: 

"Eight  Goths  [Swedes]  and  twenty-two  Norwegians  upon  a  journey 
of  discovery  from  Vinland  westward.  We  had  a  camp  by  two  skerries 
one  day's  journey  north  from  this  stone.  We  were  out  fishing  one  day. 
When  we  returned  home  we  found  ten  men  red  with  jjlood  and  dead. 
A  V  M    [Ave,  Virgo  Maria],  save  us   from  evil. 

[We]  have  ten  men  by  the  sea  to  look  after  our  vessels  fourteen 
[or  forty-one?]   days'  journey  from  this  island.     Year  1362." 


There  are  two  or  three  references  to  natural  objects  to  which  we  should 
give  special  attention : 


(a)  Their  camp  was  near  two  rocks  in  the  water  (skerries),  one 
clay's  journe}-  north   from  the  stone ; 

(h)      The  location  of  the  stone  was  on   an  island; 

(3)  The  sea  was  fourteen  days'  journey  from  the  stone  (doubtfvilly 
forty-one  ). 

( a )  Professor  P\)ssuni  and  Mr.  Holand  searched  about  Lake  Chris- 
tina. I'elican  lake,  and  other  lakes,  lying  about  one  day's  journey  (twenty 
miles )  toward  the  north.  The  former  found  no  rocks  about  the  shores 
which  could  be  accepted  as  the  rocks  mentioned  in  the  inscription.  Mr. 
Holand,  guided  by  Rev.  O.  A.  Norman  of  Ashby,  found  several  large 
boulders  standing  in  the  water  about  300  or  400  feet  from  a  sharp  point 
on  the  southwest  shore  of  Pelican  lake,  which  seemed  to  him  to  answer 
the  description.  There  are  twelve  or  thirteen  of  them  and  hence  they  are 
too  numerous,  and  for  the  purpose  of  locating  a  camping-place  they  would 
hardly  be  referred  to,  and  certainly  would  not  be  at  all  in  accord  with  the 
number  "two."  Mr.  Norman  remarked,  on  occasion  of  a  late  interview, 
that  the  term  "skerry"  is  applicable  to  one  rock  or  a  series  of  rocks,  and 
that  there  are  two  lines  or  series  of  boulders  which  run  not  exactly  parallel, 
and  that  those  lines  might  be  called  the  skerries  referred  to  in  the  inscrip- 
tion :  but  such  lines  are  not  distinguishable  from  the  land. 

There  are,  however,  on  the  point  itself,  at  the  water's  edge  and  at 
the  extremity  of  the  point,  two  enormous  boulders.  One  is  of  red  porphy- 
ritic  granite,  cut  by  a  coarse  red  dike,  three  inches  wide,  with  dimensions 
of  6  feet  by  4  feet  by  3>4  feet,  with  rounded  contours.  The  other  is  of 
gray  gneiss,  banded  with  light  reddish  laminae,  6  feet  by  4^/2  feet  by  4  feet, 
irregularly  and  bluntly  angular,  showing  some  brecciation  and  a  pegmatyte 
\'ein  about  an  inch  wide.  These  boulders  are  in  the  most  exposed  position, 
and  are  very  conspicuous  objects  to  anyone  standing  on  the  land  a  few  rods 
farther  back.  Some  small  boulders  and  sand  form  the  immediate  break- 
water of  the  beach,  and  also  compose  the  point  itself  for  some  distance 
inland  from  the  boulders. 

This  part  of  the  point  is  liable  to  destruction  by  ice  and  waves  and 
winds  of  every  season.  That  it  is  transitory  is  proved  by  the  fact  that 
the  roots  of  a  small  oak  are  uncovered  to  the  height  of  fourteen  inches 
above  the  present  surface,  and  this  oak  must  have  started  to  grow  when 
the  surface  on  which  it  s])routed  was  so  much  higher  than  now.  Under 
such  conditions,  at  times  when  the  adjoining  beach  may  have  been  washed 
away,  the  large  boulders  would  be  surrounded  by  water.  It  is  also  very 
certain  that   548  _\'ears  ago  the  lake  level   was  somewhat  higher  than  it  is 


now,  and  that  circumstance  alone,  without  the  removal  of  the  stones  and 
sand  lying  now  about  the  big  boulders,  would  have  brought  these  stones 
into  the  water,  and  would  give  them  exactly  the  characters  required  to 
comply  with  the  inscription.  The  present  beach  line  is  parallelled,  on  either 
side  of  the  point,  by  a  higher  beach  composed  of  boulders,  gravel,  and  sand, 
which  could  have  been  formed  only  when  the  lake  was  about  two  feet 
higher  than  now.  This  upper  beach  fades  away  into  the  mainland  of  the 
point,  but  between  its  arms  enibraces  a  small  lagoon.  If  the  explorers" 
camp  was  on  this  point,  near  its  extremity,  the  two  big  boulders  would  ht 
chosen  very  naturally  as  reference  points  in  the   inscription. 

( h )  The  stone  is  said  to  have  been  located  on  an  island,  but  when 
found  it  was  not  on  an  island.  It  was  on  a  morainic  hill  which  is  now 
surrounded  by  a  grassy  marsh,  and  which  may  have  been  an  island  in  a 
small  lake  prior  to  the  desiccation  of  the  country  which  has  converted  many 
lakes  into  marshes  and  many  marshes  into  meadows.  This  gradual  drying 
up  of  the  country  is  a  well-known  feature  throughout  the  western  part  of 
the  state.  It  has  been  known  and  many  times  noted  during  the  last  fifty 
years  throughout  the  Northwest.  If  the  stone  be  genuine,  therefore,  the 
present  disagreement  with  the  facts,  as  with  the  skerries,  is  due  to  physi- 
cal change  in  the  surface  of  the  country. 

(c)  The  sisrae  was  fourteen  days'  journey  from  the  sea.  At  no 
place  could  the  sea  be  reached  in  that  space  of  time,  with  their  means 
of  tra\el,  other  than  Hudson  bay.  There  is  some  doubt  whether  this 
figure  should  be  14  or  41,  and  if  it  be  41  it  would  allow  the  supposition 
that  the  party  penetrated  the  country  by  way  of  the  Great  Lakes.  There 
are,  however,  insuperable  oljjections  to  such  an  idea.  It  is  a  very  improb- 
able suggestion  that  from  any  place  which  may  have  had  the  name  of  \'in- 
land  a  party  would  penetrate  North  America  by  that  route,  Ijy  sail  and  by 
foot,  to  encounter  the  natives  in  a  tragic  death  only  in  western  Minne- 
sota. That  suggestion  need  not  Ije  further  considered;  and  the  more  so, 
.'■■ince  the  route  of  possible  tra\'el,  or  at  least  most  probable,  as  shown  bv 
the  ^Minnesota  Historical  Society's  map  of  regions  north  to  Hudson  bay 
and  of  the  pro.ximity  of  Minnesota  through  a  well-known  water  route, 
would  have  been  from  \''inland  to  Hudson  bay,  and  to  Lake  Winnipeg 
via  Nelson  river,  and  thence  up  the  Red  river  of  the  North.  This  map  is 
based  on  the  chart  of  J.  T.  Smith,  published  in  1839  at  London,  in  a  work 
entitled  "The  Discovery  of  America  by  the  Northmen  in  the  Tenth  Cen- 
tury." By  this  map  it  appears  that  the  entrance  to  Hudson  bav  is  directly 
west    from    W'estljygd   and    Eastl5}'gd,    the   chief   settlements   of   Greenland, 


and  could  hardly  fail  of  being  well  known.  It  is  the  route  which  the  ships 
of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  followed  for  about  three  hundred  years  in 
reaching"  the  region  of  furs  tributary  to  Hudson  ba}^. 


It  will  be  noted  that,  according  to  Smith's  map,  Vinland  was  eastern 
Massachusetts;  and  it  is  customary,  in  writings  dealing  with  the  North- 
men's discoveries,  to  mention  three  parts  of  the  coast  of  North  America, 
namely,  Helluland,  Markland,  and  Vinland,  the  last  being  farthest  south. 
But  that  there  was  confusion  in  the  application  of  these  geographic  terms 
there  seems  no  room  to  question.  It  seems  to  be  a  mere  assumption  that 
Helluland  was  north  of  Markland,  for  it  is  sometimes  said  to  be  northeast  of 
Greenland,  and  even  to  be  duplicated,  one  to  the  northeast  and  one  to  the 
southwest,  while  Rafn  has  placed  one  at  Labrador  and  one  at  Newfound- 
land. This  last  made  it  reasonable  to  place  Vinland  much  further  south 
(Nova  Scotia). 

That  Vinland  was  not  exclusively  Nova  Scotia,  but  still  less  exclu- 
sively Massachusetts,  is  evident  from  Joseph  Fischer's  work,  "The  Dis- 
coveries of  the  Norsemen  in  America"  (St.  Louis,  1903),  at  page  3,  when, 
in  quoting  from  Adam  of  Bremen's  oldest  work,  Fischer  states  that  the 
objections  to  Adam's  tales  consisted  mainly  in  a  statement  like  the  fol- 
lowing : 

"After  Wineland  there  is  no  habitable  land  in  that  ocean,  but  all  that 
emerges  is  icebound  and  wrapped  in  impenetrable  mist." 

Adam  was  the  earliest,  according  to  Fischer,  who  called  attention  to 
the  arctic  and  North  American  discoveries  of  the  Northmen,  having  written 
in  A.  D.  1067.  Perhaps  the  objection  to  Adam's  account  of  Vinland  was 
based  by  Fischer  on  an  idea  of  Vinland  which  grew  up  afterward  without 
sufficient  warrant,  and  it  is  necessary  to  inquire  to  what  land  Adam's  original 
description  was  intended  to  be  applied.  It  could  not  apply  to  the  region 
south  of  Labrador,  but  it  is  applicable  to  the  country  north  and  west,  i.  e., 
adjoining  Hudson  strait  and  extending  into  Hudson  bay;  and  it  seems  to 
indicate  that  from  the  first  the  Northmen  knew  something  of  the  rugged- 
ness  and  inhospitable  nature  of  at  least  the  northern  part  of  Hudson  bay. 
It  is  perhaps  reasonable  to  presume  that  at  the  first  the  term  Vinland  was 
applied  to  the  whole  known  coast  of  North  America,  and  that  it  was  only 
at  a  later  epoch  that  it  was  localized  and  restricted  to  Nova  Scotia  or  to 
Massachusetts.      But   that    would    discredit   the    storv   of   the   discoverv   of 


grapes  by  the  enthusiastic  German,  unless  it  can  be  shown  that  grapes  grew 
■  spontaneously  as  far  north  as  Labrador. 

Note — Since  the  foregoing  was  written,  the  important  researches  of 
Prof.  AI.  L.  Fernald  on  the  "Plants  of  Wineland  the  Good"  have  been 
printed  (Rhodora,  February,  1910),  which  show  conclusively  that  the 
"grapes"  referred  to  by  the  translators  of  the  sagas,  were  not  the  fruit 
of  the  grape  vine  (Vitis),  but  some  form  of  currant  (Ribes),  or  the  wine- 
berry  of  northern  Europe  (Vaccinium  Vitis-Idaea),  and  that  the  last  named 
species  is  common  in  northern  Labrador.  As  the  so-called  "grapes"  were 
gathered  so  abundantly  as  to  fill  their  afterboat  in  the  spring  of  the  year, 
it  seems  certain  that  the  fruit  so  gathered  was  that  which  is  now  well 
known  as  wine-berry  (Vaccinium  Vitis-Idaea),  which  is  so  abundant  in  the 
spring  as  to  constitute  the  food  supply  for  birds  when  they  return  from  the 
south.  Professor  Fernald  also  shows  that  the  "self-planted  wheat,"  men- 
tioned as  one  of  the  products  of  Vinland,  was  the  strand  wheat  (Elymus 
arenarius).  having  a  similar  northern  distribution.  The  tree  which  the  Norse- 
men procured  in  Vinland,  as  identified  by  Fernald,  was  not  maple,  but  some 
form  of  curly  birch,  probably  the  canoe  birch  (Betula  papyracea).  These 
researches  not  only  confirm  the  description  of  Adam  of  Bremen,  but  render 
it  probable  that  the  people  of  Vinland  were  acquainted  with  more  or  less 
of  Hudson  bay. 

It  is  well  known  that  students  of  Norse  records  have  found  difficulty 
in  reconciling  the  statements  respecting  Vinland,  not  only  as  to  the  name 
of  the  discoverer,  but  as  to  the  nature  of  the  country  and  its  products.  It 
occurs  to  this  committee  that  possibly  these  discrepancies  can  be  reconciled 
by  the  supposition  that  two  different  eastward-facing  coasts  have  been  con- 
founded and  considered  as  one.  The  earliest  accounts  are  perfectly  appli- 
cable to  the  west  coast  of  Hudson  bay.  The  Flatey  book  states  that  in 
\'inland  were  glaciers,  and  these  are  well  known  about  the  northwestern 
confines  of  Hudson  Bay,  but  are  not  found  in  Nova  Scotia  nor  in  Massa- 
chusetts, and  only  scantily  in  Labrador.  The  description*  by  Adam  of 
Bremen,  and  the  earlier  dates  given  by  the  Flatey  book,  giving  Bjarne  as 
the  discoverer  of  Vinland,  seem  to  point  to  the  west  coast  of  Hudson  bay. 
After  the  lapse  of  about  fifteen  years  (985  to  1000)  Leif's  accidental  voy- 
age to  \'inland  took  place,  and  there  is  reason  to  suppose  that  he  and  his 
successors  visited  points/ on  the  Atlantic  side  of  North  America,  but  sup- 
posed they  had  visited  the  country  which  had  already  been  named  Vinland. 
From  his  and  Karlsefne's  sagas,  there  rose  the  geographic  distinction  of 


Helluland.  Markland,  and  \'inland.  so  much  spoken  of  by  all  later  accounts. 
The  committee  has  not  taken  the  time  necessar}-  to  verify  or  to  disprove 
this  h\-pothesis.  and  desires  merely  to  call  attention  to  it  as  a  possible  solu- 
tion of  contradictions  that  appear  in  the  historic  records,  avoiding  the  neces- 
sity- of  rejecting  either  as  untrustworthy. 

Dr.  Henrik  Xissen.  of  Minneapolis,  has  called  attention  to  "Characters"' 
described  as  engraved  on  the  rocks  of  the  shore  of  Hudson  bay,  not  far 
from  Fort  George,  and  suggests  that  they  may  be  runes  made  by  the  Norse- 
men. There  certainly  was  no  permanent  colonization  of  \'inland.  and 
according  to  Fischer  all  arguments  hitherto  brought  forward  to  support 
the  idea  of  colonization  by  the  Xorse  have  proved  to  be  fallacious.  The 
definite  histon,-  of  the  voyages  to  \'inland  ends  at  A.  D.  1121.  but  there  is 
sufficient  account  to  show  that  until  the  year  1362  voyages  from  the  Scandi- 
navian settlements  in  AA'estem  Greenland  were  occasionally  made  to  \'in- 
land.  The  western  settlement  in  Greenland  was  about  that  time  attacked 
by  Eskimo  and  destroyed,  and  probably  within  a  half  century  later  the 
eastern  settlement  suffered  a  similar  stroke.  The  year  A.  D.  1406  is  the 
last  date  given  in  the  Icelandic  annals  for  the  arrival  of  a  foreign  vessel 
in  Greenland.  A  colony  in  Vinland,  if  it  existed,  therefore  must  have 
perished  about  the  same  time  as  the  destruction  of  the  Greenland  colonies. 
In  the  absence  of  other  evidence,  the  statement  of  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone, 
that  a  party  of  thirty  men  started  from  \'inland  on  an  exploring  tour 
westward.  ma\"  be  understood  to  refer  merely  to  a  winter  spent  by  the  party 
in  \'inland.  or  even  to  a  temporan,-  landing  there,  rather  than  to  any  prev- 
iously existing  settlement  or  colony. 

According  to  Storm's  "Studier  over  \'inlandsreiseme"  (pages  76.  •/■/). 
an  expedition  was  sent  by  King  Magnus  from  Bergen  in  1355,  under  the 
command  of  Paul  Knutson.  into  American  waters,  the  purpose  of  which 
was  to  defend  the  Greenland  settlements  against  the  Eskimo.  It  has  been 
supposed  that  this  expedition,  or  a  part  of  it.  returned  in  1364. 


It  may  be  assumed  that,  if  this  stone  was  erected,  as  it  claims,  by 
explorers  in  1362.  it  was  set  up  on  end,  and  that  the  lower  end,  where  no 
runes  are  engraved,  was  buried  in  the  ground.  When  it  was  found,  accord- 
ing to  the  testimony  of  Mr.  its  inscribed  face  was  downward.  Now 
the  lower  end  of  the  stone  is  not  cut  off  squarely,  but  is  roughly  beveled 
on  one  side.     Gravitation  alone  acting  on  a  beveled  stone  would  cause  the 


base  to  be  diverted  to  one  side,  in  the  same  manner  as  a  single-beveled  stake 
when  driven  into  the  ground.  In  settling  into  the  ground,  owing  to  the  direc- 
tion of  the  bevel,  this  stone  naturally  would  fall  with  its  face  side  upward. 
Its  position  therefore  was  determined  by  some  other  force  than  gravitation. 
Either  it  was  purposely  placed  with  the  rune  inscription  down,  which  is 
not  reasonable  to  suppose,  whatever  its  age,  or  it  was  acted  on  by  some  other 
force  which  caused  it  to  fall  over  forward.  We  cannot  of  course  state  how 
many  forests  have  grown  and  been  thrown  down  by  tornadoes  within  the 
548  years  through  which  it  may  have  been  in  the  spot ;  nor  how  many  forest 
fires  have  devastated  the  region ;  nor  how  many  buffaloes  have  rubbed  against 
it;  nor,  finally,  to  what  acts  of  violence  the  native  Indians  may  have  resorted 
to  counteract  its  evil  influences.  Numerous  works  of  the  mound-building 
Indians  are  known  in  the  immediate  neighborhood,  and  they  certainly  would 
have  discovered  the  monument.  If  they  participated  in  the  massacre  of  the 
ten  men  at  the  camp,  they  would  quite  certainly  look  upon  the  stone  as  a 
retributive  threatening  reminder  of  their  pale-face  victims. 

The  interior  of  the  stone  is  dark  or  dark  gray.  On  close  inspection  it 
can  be  seen  to  contain  many  grains  of  quartz  which  are  roundish,  showing 
a  sedimentary  detrital  origin.  In  a  thin-section,  prepared  for  microscopic 
examination,  it  shows  not  only  rounded  quartz  grains  but  also  feldspar  grains, 
and  a  finer  matrix  consisting  chiefly  of  quartz  and  biotite.  The  dark 
color  of  the  stone  is  due  to  much  biotite,  mainly,  but  also  to  an  isotropic 
green  mineral  (chlorite?),  magnetite,  and  hematite.  The  quartz  has  become 
mainly  re-formed  by  secondary  growths.  There  is  a  crypto-gneissic  elonga- 
tion prevalent  in  the  mica,  and  also  to  some  extent  in  the  larger  quartzes. 

The  weathered  surface  is  somewhat  lighter,  and  yet  it  is  firm  and  wholly 
intact.  It  is  evident  that  the  surface  color  has  been  acquired  since  the  Glacial 
period,  and  therefore  that  some  7,000  or  8,000  years  may  have  elapsed  since 
its  face  was  first  exposed  to  the  elements.  The  reverse  of  the  inscribed  side 
is  more  altered  by  weathering  and  carries  evident  older  glacial  striations. 

The  first  impression  derived  from  the  inscription  is  that  it  is  of  recent 
date,  and  not  548  years  old.  The  edges  and  angles  of  the  chiseling  are  sharp, 
and  show  no  apparent  alteration  by  weathering.  The  powder  of  the  stone 
when  crushed  is  nearly  white.  None  of  this  powder  is  preserved  in  the 
runes  on  the  face  of  the  stone,  and  it  is  necessary  therefore  to  allow  it  some 
years  of  age,  but  it  is  quite  impossil>le  to  draw  a  decisive  inference  of  the  age 
of  the  inscription  from  that  alone.  The  edge  of  the  stone  differs  in  this 
respect  from  the  face,  since  most  of  the  rune  letters  show  the  white  powder 
formed  bv  crushing  the  stone.     This  dift'erence  was  said  to  l)e  due  to  the  fact 


that  the  runes  on  the  edge  had  been  filled  with  mud  and  had  been  cleaned  out 
by  scraping  them  with  an  iron  nail.  Indeed  in  the  runes  in  some  places  on 
the  edge  can  be  seen  with  a  pocket  magnifier  small  quantities  of  fresli  metallic 
iron  evidently  derived   from  that  process. 

The  freedom  of  the  face  of  the  stone  from  glacial  marking  is  to  be 
noted.  It  seems  probable  that  the  smooth  jointage  surface  on  which  the 
inscription  is  made  was  of  more  recent  date  than  7,000  or  8,000  years.  It 
is  plain  that  the  calcite  deposit  that  covers  a  part  of  it  was  formed  in  a 
joint-opening  before  the  stone  was  separated  from  its  neighbor,  and  that  it 
has  had  approximately  as  long  direct  exposure  to  the  elements  as  the  rest  of 
that  surface.  The  well  preserved  condition  of  this  calcite,  as  a  whole,  no 
less  than  the  non-glaciation  of  the  face  of  the  stone,  indicates  a  period  of 
exposure  less  than  7.000  or  8,000  years.  ^larble  slabs  in  graveyards  in  New- 
England  are  more  deeply  disintegrated  than  this  calcite,  when  they  stand 
above  the  surface  of  the  ground. 

The  immediate  surface  of  the  calcite,  especially  the  edges  formed  by 
cutting  the  runes,  is  smoothed  b\'  a  recent  friction  of  some  kind,  much 
more  than  the  surface  of  the  graywacke;  and  this  is  attributable  to  wearing 
away  when  the  stone  served  as  a  stepping-stone  at  the  granary. 

If  the  engraved  face  of  this  stone  was  separated  from  its  neighbor  since 
the  Glacial  age,  as  seems  certain,  it  must  have  been  in  some  way  protected 
from  the  action  of  the  elements:  and  consequently  the  calcite  is  comparable 
with  the  white,  fine-grained  limestone  boulders  and  pebbles  that  are  com- 
mon in  the  body  of  the  drift  in  that  part  of  the  state.  Such  boulders  when 
freshly  taken  from  the  till  in  deep  excavations  are  not  rotted,  but  are  fresh 
and  firm  and  smooth  as  marbles,  and  show  distinctly  the  fine  glacial  scratches 
which  they  received  during  the  Ice  age.  which  ended  about  7,000  or  8,000 
years  ago.  When,  however,  they  are  found  exposed  at  the  surface  of  the 
ground,  they  have  lost  this  smoothness  and  all  the  glacial  marking,  and  their 
surfaces  afiford  a  fine  white  powder  of  natural  disintegration.  As  there  is 
nothing  of  this  on  this  calcite  ( which  is  also  the  principal  ingredient  of  the 
limestone  boulders),  it  is  evident  that  either  the  calcite  has  but  recently  been 
exposed  or  has  been  protected  from  the  weather.  If  the  slal)  was  separated 
from  its  neighbor  548  years  ago,  it  must  have  lain  with  its  face  side  down  dur- 
ing the  most  of  that  period,  and  if  separated  earlier  it  must  have  been  covered 
I)y  drift  clay.  If  it  was  so  separated  fifteen  or  thirty  years  ago  it  may  have 
lain  with  its  face  side  up  and  probably  would  show  no  more  weathering 
than  it  now  evinces.  In  short,  there  is  no  possible  natural  way  to  preserve 
that  calcite  scale  from  general  disintegration  for  548  years  except  to  bury 


it  beneath  the  surface.  If  it  were  not  thus  buried  and  still  is  intact,  it  must 
have  been  exposed  and  the  inscription  must  have  been  made  less  than  a  hun- 
dred years  ago,  and  probably  less  than  thirty  years  ago. 

The  general  "mellow"  color  of  the  face  of  the  graywacke,  and  of  the 
whole  surface  of  the  stone,  is  also  to  be  noted.  This  is  the  first  apparent 
effect  of  weathering.  Graywacke  may  be  estimated  to  be  fifty  to  a  hundred 
times  more  durable  in  the  weather  than  calcite,  some  graywackes  being  more 
resistant  than  others. 

There  are  six  stages  of  the  weathering  of  graywacke  which  are 
exhibited  by  the  stone,  and  they  may  be  arranged  approximately  in  a  scale 
as  follows : 

1.  A  fresh  break  or  cut o 

2.  Break  or  cut  shown  b)'  the  runes  of  the  face 5 

3.  Edge-face,  which  has  not  been  engraved,  but  was  apparently 

dressed  by  a  rough  bush-hammering 5 

4.  The  inscribed  face  of  the  stone 10 

5.  The   finely   glaciated  and   polished  back   side   and   the   non- 

hammered  portion  of  the  edge 80 

6.  The  coarse  gouging  and   the   general  beveling  and  deepest 

weathering  of  the  back  side 250  or  500 

These  figures  are  but  rough  estimates  and  are  intended  to  express  the 
grand  epochs  of  time  through  which  the  stone  has  passed  since  it  started 
from  the  solid  rock  of  which  it  formed  a  part  prior  to  the  Glacial  period; 
and  to  a  certain  degree  they  are  subject  to  the  errors  of  the  personal  equation 
of  the  person  who  gives  them.  Prof.  W.  O.  Hotchkiss,  state  geologist  of 
Wisconsin,  estimated  that  the  time  since  the  runes  were  inscribed  is  "at  least 
50  to  100  years."  If  the  figures  in  the  foregoing  series  be  all  multiplied  by 
100,  they  would  stand: 

(I)        (2)        (3)        (4~)  (5)  (6) 

000:     500:     500:      1,000:     8,000:     25.000  or  50,000    ■ 

Since  8.000  years  is  approximately  the  date  of  the  end  of  the  latest  gla- 
ciation  (5),  the  numbers  may  all  be  accepted  as  the  approximate  number  of 
years  required  for  the  various  stages  of  weathering.  Hence  stages  (2)  and 
(3)  may  have  required  each  about  500  years. 

The  composition  of  the  stone  makes  it  one  of  the  most  durable  in  nature, 
equalling  granite,  and  almost  equalling  the  dense  quartzyte  of  the  pipestone 
quarry   in   the   southwestern   part   of   Minnesota.      On   the   surface   of   this 


quartzyte,  even  where  exix)sed  to  the  weather  since  they  were  formed,  the 
fine  glacial  scratches  and  polishing  are  well  preserved,  and  when  covered  bv 
drift  clay  they  seem  not  to  have  been  changed  at  all. 


Owing  to  the  existence  of  the  belief  with  some  that  the  inscription  was 
made  by  Mr.  Ohman,  and  the  rumors  that  seemed  to  confirm  that  suspicion, 
a  member  of  the  committee  has  made  three  separate  visits  to  the  locality,  and 
has  examined  into  all  the  facts  that  have  a  bearing  on  such  supposed  origin 
of  the  stone.  There  is  no  need  to  rehearse  the  details  of  this  search.  A 
summary  revie\\-.  however,  seems  to  be  called  for  in  order  that  the  result 
reached  by  the  committee  may  be  seen  to  be  based  on  a  thorough  investigation. 

There  was  a  rumor  that  a  man  of  the  name  of  Ohman  had  taken  part, 
about  fifteen  years  ago,  in  the  exploitation  of  a  so-called  "fossil  man"  found 
in  Marshall  county,  in  the  Red  river  valley.  As  the  owners  of  this  wonderful 
specimen  disagreed  and  went  into  court  to  settle  their  dispute,  the  facts  were 
made  a  matter  of  record.  On  consulting  Judges  Andrew  Grindeland,  of 
Warren,  and  William  \^'atts,  of  Crookston,  it  was  found  that  one  of  the 
parties  was  named  O'Brien,  and  that  his  name  had  been  confounded  with 

It  was  rumored  that  Mr.  Ohman  had  rune  books,  was  familiar  with  rune 
characters,  made  runes  on  the  sidewalk,  on  window  casings  and  granaries,  and 
was  generally  regarded  as  a  "queer  genius,"  resembling  Uriah  Heep,  of 
Dickens.  These  rumors  came  to  the  committee  in  letters  from  different  direc- 
tions, and  on  occasion  of  the  third  trip  to  Douglas  county  were  met  with 
not  only  at  Kensington,  but  also  at  Elbow  Lake,  at  Brandon,  Evansville,  Moe, 
and  sometimes  at  intervening  farm-houses.  In  order  to  find  the  truth  of 
these  rumors  the  whole  region  was  pretty  thoroughly  canvassed,  and  a  record 
was  made  of  all  information  obtained.  These  rumors  will  be  treated  of 

Rune  Books.  It  was  found  that  ^fr.  Ohman  had  a  Swedish  grammar, 
published  in  1840,  the  author  of  which  was  C.  J.  L.  Almquist,  issued  at 
Stockholm.  This  rumor  was  encountered  by  Mr.  Holand,  when  he  was  in 
the  neighborhood  in  1907,  when  he  procured  the  stone  of  Mr.  Ohman.  He 
saw  the  book,  when  Mr.  Ohman  was  absent,  as  he  asked  Mrs.  Ohman  the 
privilege  of  examining  Mr.  Ohman's  "library."  He  considered  that  it  had 
nothing  to  do  with  the  rune  stone  and  discredited  the  rumor.  \\'hen,  more 
recently,  interest  in  the  stone  became  more  active  and  the  rumor  became 


widespread,  it  was  thought  necessary  to  procure  this  "library,"  or  at  least 
to  get  the  historical  facts  about  the  "rune  book."  It  was  purchased-  from 
Mr.  Ohman  for  fifty  cents,  although  he  reluctantly  parted  with  it,  and  would 
be  glad  to  have  it  returned  to  him.     On  the  front  fly-leaf  is  written 

Sz'.  Fogclblad, 
Stockholm,  d.  i6  Nov.  1868. 

It  is  a  duodecimo  volume,  and  has  472  pages.  On  pages  117  and  118 
are  shown  sixteen  rune  characters  in  vertical  column,  with  their  correspond- 
ing names  and  Roman  equivalents. 

j\lr.  Ohman,  when  asked  where  and  when  he  obtained  this  book,  stated 
that  he  got  it  from  Mr.  Anderson,  who  obtained  it  from  a  preacher.  This 
was  on  the  occasion  of  our  second  visit  to  Mr.  Ohman's  house.  On  occasion 
of  our  third  visit  he  also  stated  that,  after  the  rune  stone  was  found,  Mr. 
Anderson  had  suggested  that  he  should  take  it  home  for  the  purpose  of  read- 
ing the  rune  record  by  means  of  the  rune  alphabet  contained  in  it;  that  he 
did  so,  but  found  more  characters  on  the  stone  than  in  the  book,  and  could 
not' translate  the  record,  and  that  he  had  not  returned  the  book.  It  transpired 
later  that  Mrs.  Anderson  and  Mrs.  Ohman  are  cousins. 

Sven  Fogelblad.  When  asked  about  the  name  on  the  fly-leaf  at  the 
front  of  the  book,  Mr.  Ohman  said  that  it  was  that  of  a  broken-down 
preacher  who  used  to  be  at  Anderson's  farm-house,  and  who  was  then  well 
known  in  the  surrounding  region,  as  he  got  a  precarious  living  amongst  the 
farmers,  partly  by  teaching  their  children  in  little  school-gatherings,  by 
binding  books,  and  by  little  light  jobs,  but  principally  by  charity.  He  was 
always  poor,  by  reason  of  his  fondness  for  intoxicating  liquor.  He  had  his 
home,  so  far  as  he  could  claim  one,  at  Mr.  Anderson's  farmhouse,  and 
when  he  died,  which  was  at  the  age  of  about  seventy  years,  in  1895  or 
1896,  his  books  were  left  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Anderson.  Mr.  Samuel 
Olson,  of  Kensington,  said  he  never  saw  Mr.  Fogelblad,  and  is  of  the  opin- 
ion that  he  died  prior  to  his  going  there  fifteen  years  ago.  These  points 
were  verified  by  others.  They  were  carefully  followed  up,  because  it  had 
been  intimated  by  some  that  Mr.  Fogelblad  may  have  traced  out  the  runes 
for  Mr.  Ohman  to  carve  on  the  stone,  and  that  the  "rune  book"  formerly 
owned  by  Mr.   Fogelglad  had  been  the  source  of  the  necessary  knowledge. 

Mr.  John  A.  Holvik,  a  student  of  the  United  Church  Seminary,  St. 
Anthony  Park,  St.  Paul,  had  begun  a  search  for  the  book  which  Fogel- 
±)lad  left  at  Mt.  Anderson's  at  the  time  of  his  death,  said  to  have  been  at  the 
house  of  Mr.  Ohman  and  to  have  given  aid  to  the  engraving  of  the  rune 


inscription,  .\fter  the  book  was  obtained  in  the  investigation  by  this  com- 
mittee, he  examined  it  at  leisure  for  two  or  three  days,  and  wrote  the  follow- 
ing letter  concerning  it : 

jAitcr  of  John  A.  Holvik. 

St.  Autbou.v  I'aik.  Miiiu.,  April  20.  1910. 
Prof.  N.  H.  Wiiicliell,  St.  Paul. 
Dear  Sir: 

After  comparing  in  detail  the  Kensington  iuserliition  with  the  hook  bearing  the 
name  of  Sv.  Fogelblad,  I  am  prepared  to  make  the  following  statements. 

1.  The  book  Is  a  grammar  of  modern  Swedish,  published   in  1S40. 

2.  It  contains  some  material  on  the  development  of  the  language: 

(a)  A  system  of  runes: 

(b)  Xoun  declensions  of  Old  and  Middle  Swedish; 

(c)  Verb  conjugations  of  Old   and  Middle  Swedish; 

(d)  Short  selections  to  illustrate  the  language  at  different  iieriods  from  A.  D.  1200 
to  the  present  time. 

(e)  Selections  to   illustrate  different   dialects. 

3.  The  rune  system  Is  the  Futhork  of  sixteen  characters.  'I'he  rimes  of  the  inscrip- 
tion are  the  later  "punctuated"   (stungne)   runes. 

4.  The  declensions  give  the  four  cases  for  nouns  in  Old  and  Middle  Swedish 
The  Inscription  has  only  nominative  and  genitive  forms.  Furthermore,  the  word  for 
ship,  used  as  a  tji^e  word  in  the  fifth  declension,  is  spelled  skep  in  Middle  Swedish 
The  inscription  has  skip. 

5.  The  conjugation  gives  plural  iutlectiou  for  all  verbs  in  Old  ami  Middle  Swedish 
The  inscription  uses  singular  verb  forms  with  plural  subjects. 

6.  A  selection  from  the  fifteenth  century  gives  the  constructions:  "wi  ware  .  .  . 
wi  hafwe     "     The   Inscription   has   "vi   var     vi   har." 

7.  A  selection  from  the  year  1370  gives  the  preposition  "a."  The  inscription  uses 
the  proposition  "po"   (which  Is  objected  to  by  some  linguists). 

8.  Some  of  the  rune  characters  indicate  (according  to  some  ruuologists)  that  the- 
autlior  of  the  Inscription  must  be  from  Dalame  in  Sweden.  A^  selection  in  the  book 
shows  the  characteristic  diphthongs  of  the  dialect  of  Dalarne:  but  a  characteristic  fea- 
ture of  the  inscription  is  the  lack  of  diphthongs. 

To  summarize:  The  difference  in  rune  systems,  and  the  so-called  "errors'"  in  the 
inscription,  with  some  parallel  correct  forms  in  the  book,  make  it  evident  that  there  is 
no  connection  between  the  inscription  on  the  Kensington  Rune  Stiuie  and  the  book  bearing 
the  name  Sv.  Fogelblad. 

Yours  truly. 

.T.  A.  Holvik. 


It  was  rumored  that  Mr.  Ohman  was  a  stone  mason,  and  hence  that  he 
might  be  skillful  in  cutting  rune  letters.  There  seems  to  be  no  truth  nor  basis 
for  this  rumor,  other  than  the  natural  desire  to  explain  a  puzzle.  It  may  have 
ijeen  suggested  by  someone,  asked  by  another  whether  true  or  not,  intimated 
by  another,  and  affirmed  by  the  fourth.    Once  stated  as  a  fact,  it  was  hence 


additional  evidence,  united  with  the  possession  of  the  rune  stone  and  the 
alleged  possession  of  "rune  books,"  that  Mr.  Ohman  made  the  inscription  on 
the  stone.  Mr.  Ohman  is  a  carpenter.  No  one  was  found  who  knew  of  his 
working  as  a  stone  mason,  though  several  were  asked. 

The  rumor  that  Mr.  Ohman  made  rune  characters  on  the  sidewalks,  on 
fences,  and  on  granaries,  asking  people  if  they  could  read  them,  was  appar- 
ently a  very  easy  one  to  verify  or  disprove.  And  so  it  proved  to  be.  Every- 
where, whenever  this  statement  was  made, .  the  question  was  asked  whether 
the  person  making  it  ever  knew  of  Mr.  Ohman's  making  rune  characters. 
The  answer  was,  "No,  but  Mr.  So-and-So  can  give  you  the  facts.  He  lives 
at  Brandon,  or  near  Brandon."     On  arriving  at  Brandon,  where  the  rumor 

was  prevalent,  I  was  directed  to  Mr.  O ,  who  was  said  to  know  more 

of  the  peculiar  mental  processes  of  Mr.  Ohman  "than  any  man  on  earth." 
He  at  once  declared  that  Mr.  Ohman  was  in  the  habit  of  making  rune  char- 
acters, as  a  joke,  and  "knew  all  about  runes."  Asked  to  state  whether  he  him- 
self ever  saw  Mr.  Ohman  make  runes  at  any  time,  disregarding  the  rumor, 
Mr.  O.  said  he  never  had  himself  known  of  his  making  runes,  but^that  Mr. 
Gunder  Johnson,  about  four  miles  farther  south,  had  known  of  his  making 
runes.  We  drove  then  directly  to  Mr.  Gunder  Johnson's  farm.  The  following 
is  copied  from  our  note  took,  written  at  the  time  of  the  interview  : 

••Mr.  Ciiiu'er  .lohuson  says  his  little  testiuiony  is  not  worth  Miiything  one  way  or 
the  other.  He  knew  Mr.  Ohninu,  who  built  his  house,  about  26  or  27  years  ago.  Mr. 
Obujiui  iiiul  be  were  talking  about  old  Xorske  one  day,  and  Ohman  said  there  were  old 
letters  which  were  called  nnies,  and  Mr.  Ohmau  took  a  pencil  and  made  some  on  a 
board,  sa.vini;  they  were  runes.  Mr.  Johnson  never  knew  of  his  making  runes  at  any 
other  time,  nor  of  any  preacher  living  with  Ohman  who  made  runes,  nor  any  living 
in  this  country  who  ciuiUl  make  them,  nor  anyone  passing  throiigh  here  who  could 
make  them." 

Later,  when  Mr.  Ohman,  was  told  that  people  said  he  made  runes  on  side- 
walks and  on  granaries,  etc.,  he  indignantly  demanded,  "Who  said  it?"  When 
he  was  told  that  Air.  Gunder  Johnson  stated  that  he  had  made  them  on  a  board 
when  he  worked  for  Mr.  Johnson  twenty-six  or  twenty-seven  years  ago,  he 
denied  it,  but  added  that  he  "could  not  recall  an\-  conversation  with  Mr.  John- 
son about  runes,"  and  that  if  at  an\-  time  he  had  said  anything  to  Mr.  Johnson 
about  runes,  "It  was  I^ecause  he  had  learned  it  in  school  in  Sweden.  Every 
school  boy,  and  every  Swede  and  Norwegian,  knows  something  about  runes, 
but  not  so  as  to  use  them." 

So  far  as  we  can  see,  therefore,  the  common  rumor  that  Mr.  Ohman 
made  rune  characters  on  the  sidewalks  and  on  fences,  in  hours  of  idleness, 
and  was   familiar   with   runic  literature,   was   derived   from   the   simple   fact 


that  twenty-six  or  twenty-seven  years  ago,  according  to  Mr.  Gunder  John- 
son, though  forgotten  by  Mr.  Ohman,  he  had  made  some  rune  characters  for 
Mr.  Johnson  with  a  pencil  on  a  board  when  he  was  working  on  Mr.  John- 
son's house  as  a  carpenter,  in  order  to  show  him  the  kind  of  letters  formerly 
used  by  the  Scandinavians.  The  following  is  also  extracted  from  our  field 
book,  bearing  on  the  existence  of  this  rumor. 

"I  fouud  Mr.  Guilder  Jobusou  a  very  tiilkative  uiau.  I  recall  it  Ilo^^■,  and  record 
it  for  its  beariug  ou  tlie  existence  and  spread  of  tlie  idea  that  Mr.  Oliuiau  knew  rimes 
long  ago,  had  a  number  of  books  on  runes,  and  made  runic  characters  ou  the  walks, 
window  casings,  and  the  granary  doors  about  the  country.  I  have  traced  up.  under  the 
direction  of  those  who  believed  and  repeated  this  story,  all  the  promising  lines  of  evidence, 
and  I  have  fouud  the  report  especially  prevalent  and  detailed  about  Brandon,  where 
Mr.  Ohman  lived  26  or  27  years  ago.  I  have  asked,  not  for  the  stor.v,  but  for  positive 
statements  as  to  whether  the  parties  affirming  the  story  actually  knew  of  Mr.  Ohman's 
making  runes.  They  said  they  did  not,  except  Jlr.  Gunder  Johnson,  and  some  of  them 
said  they  knew  nothing  about  it  except  what  emanated  either  from  Mr.  O.  of  Brandon 
or  Mr.   Gunder  Johmsou. 

"The  incident  which  seems  to  have  given  origin  to  the  rumor  was  probably  dormant 
until  Prof.  Breda  and  Prof.  Curme  pronounced  the  stone  a  fraud,  and  the  stone  had 
been  returned  to  Ohman's  farm.  Then  all  the  people  began  to  speculate  as  to  how 
the  stone  was  inscribed.  All  minds  turned  to  Mr.  Ohman.  Eighty  years  passed.  The 
knowledge  of  Mr.  Gunder  Johnson  about  Jlr.  Ohman's  making  runes,  and  the  fact  that 
he  retaiiied  the  fraudulent  stone,  were  coupled  together  and  seemed  to  explain  each  other, 
springing  at  once  into  importance,  I  have  no  doubt,  through  Mr.  Johnson.  The  idea  was. 
very  naturally,  giveu  broadcast.  There  was  no  other  possible  explanation  of  a  fraudu- 
lent rune  stone  found  ou  Mr.  Ohman's  farm  aud  kept  by  him,  however  indifferently. 

•■Jlr.  Ohman  is'  a  rather  taciturn  man,  and  he  took  no  pains  to  counteract  the 
report  that  he  was  the  impostor.  One  man  said  that  if  the  rune  inscription  were 
genuine,  it  was  a  very  valuable  historic  document,  and  any  man  would  have  made  it 
well  kuown  as  a  valuable  possession,  the  inference  being  that,  as  Mr.  Ohman  did  not 
make  it  notorious,  he  must  have  known  it  was  fraudulent.  His  neighbors  made  sport 
of  him  for  keeping,  or  even  for  having  made,  a  fake  inscription.  Mr.  Gunder  Johnson's 
knowledge  was  amplified,  as  such  rumors  grow  in  a  farming  community,  and  some 
intimated  that,  as  Fogelblad  was  a  scholar,  he  was  the  man  who  traced  out  the  runes 
for  Mr.  Ohman  to  cut  on  the  stone. 

"More  lately,  as  it  became  kmiwu  that  Mr.  Ohman  had  'rune  hooks.'  the  story 
was  credited  by  many  who  had  no  knowledge  of  the  case  nor  any  personal  acquaint- 
ance with  Mr.  Ohman;  and  during  the  last  few  years,  when  the  recent  renewal  of  inquiry 
about  the  stone  became  known  by  the  people  of  this  region,  of  course  all  the  rumors, 
however  increased  in  detail,  were  revived  also,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  some  have 
innocently  spread  the  story,  on  the  assumption  that  what  was  reported  and  was  not 
denied  must  be  true.  In  its  exaggerated  form  it  was  sent  in  letters  to  members  of  this 
committee,  and  these  letters  pronqited  this  thorough  investigation." 

Ohman  is  not  a  thrifty  farmer.  His  premises  are  in  disorder.  His 
cattle,  pigs,  chickens,  and  his  children,  have  a  common  way  of  approach  to 
his  front  door,  and  when  it  is  mudd\-  the  floor  of  his  house  is  also  muddy. 


There  is  no  grading,  no  sidewalk,  no  fence,  to  make  his  home  pleasant;  and 
it  is  plain  that  the  farm  is  not  at  its  best.  This  Hstlessness  has  its  influence 
in  estimating  the  causes  of  the  apparent  neglect  of  Mr.  Ohman  to  make  the 
most  of  his  discovery.  After  the  rune  stone  had  been  pronounced  a  fraud 
by  two  professors  (Breda  and  Curme),  his  interest  in  it  extended  no  further 
than  to  insist  on  its  return  to  him.  A  Swede  farmer,  in  ignorance  of  the 
ways  and  means  to  have  the  inscription  further  investigated,  not  fully  know- 
ing the  English  language,  and  having  no  spare  money  to  use  in  a  doubtful 
quest,  he  was  obliged  to  let  the  stone  rest  in  his  yard  uncared  for. 

It  should  not  be  inferred  from  the  foregoing  discussion  of  "rumors,'" 
as  to  Mr.  Ohman's  agency  in  fabricating  the  rune  inscription,  that  there  is  a 
prevalent  opinion  connecting  him  with  it.  Most  of  the  people,  and  especially 
his  neighbors,  believe  that  these  rumors  are  baseless,  and  affirm  their  con- 
fidence in  Mr.  Ohman  as  well  as  in  the  genuineness  of  the  rune  stone.  It  is 
chiefly  at  a  distance  from  Ohman's  farm,  and  among  strangers,  that  these 
rumors  are  sustained  by  those  who  have  curiosity  enough  to  form  opinions 
about  the  discovery.  The  pastor,  Rev.  Mr.  Saethre,  of  the  church  where 
Mr.  Ohman's  children  were  confirmed,  said  that  Mr.  Ohman  came  to  that 
vicinity,  to  his  knowledge,  later  than  himself,  which  was  twenty-five  years 
ago.  He  is  confident  that  Mr.  Ohman,  whom  he  had  known  ever  since  he 
came  to  his  farm,  "is  utterly  incapable  of  making  the  inscription."  He  has 
never  heard  that  Mr.  Ohman  traveled  about  and  made  runes  on  the  sidewalks 
and  granaries  in  idle  hours,  nor  has  he  ever  heard  of  a  clergyman  in  that 
region  who  did  so. 


As  it  is  well  established  that  a  poplar  tree  grew  in  the  soil  above  the 
stone,  it  is  plain  that  the  size  of  the  tree  has  a  direct  bearing  on  the  possible 
fabrication  of  the  inscription  by  Mr.  Ohman,  or  by  any  person  since  Mr. 
Ohman  located  on  the  farm.  Mr.  Samuel  Olson,  of  Kensington,  who  was  of 
the  party  that  excavated  in  the  earth  where  the  stone  was  found,  in  the  spring 
of  1899,  expecting  to  find  the  remains  of  those  who  were  massacred,  made 
from  memory  a  pencil  sketch  of  the  stump  and  roots  of  the  tree  as  they 
appeared  at  that  time. 

No  one  was  found  who  questioned  the  existence  of  this  tree,  nor  the  flat- 
ness of  the  roots  caused  by  long  contact  on  the  stone.  Indeed,  one  man  who 
regarded  Mr.  Ohman  as  the  possible  maker  of  the  inscription  stated  that  he 
saw  the  roots  and  that  thev  were  flattened  on  one  side. 


Tlie  shortest  time  that  has  been  assigned  to  the  growth  of  the  tree  is  ten 
years.  'Sir.  Ohman  took  the  first  part  of  his  farm  in  1890.  The  stone  was 
found  in  the  fall  of  1898  on  that  portion  of  his  farm  which  was  the  earliest 
deeded  to  him,  and  which  he  received  by  warranty  deed  from  Halvor  Stehson. 
If  Mr.  Ohman  is  responsible  for  the  stone,  he  must  have  buried  it  with  its 
face  downward  in  sufficient  soil  at  once  to  support  a  young  tree,  and  the  tree 
would  have  had  the  period  of  eight  years  to  attain  the  size  which  it  had  in 
1898;  and  if  the  tree  were  as  large  as  most  of  those  who  saw  it  have  testified 
to,  its  growtb  in  eight  years  is  put  entirely  outside  of  possibility.  It  would 
then  be  possible  still  to  presume  that  the  stone  was  put  there  during  the  owner- 
ship of  the  land  by  Mr.  Stenson.  The  committee  has  taken  no  steps  to  ascer- 
tain the  truth  that  might  be  in  such  a  hypothesis,  nor  to  learn  anything  of  the 
antecedents  of  the  land  earlier  than  the  record  of  the  deeds  to  Mr.  Ohman. 


The  foregoing  sketch  of  the  facts  of  the  finding  of  the  stone,  and  of  the 
attendant  conditions,  embraces  everything  of  importance  that  has  come  within 
the  scope  of  our  inquiry.  It  may  be  well,  before  leaving  this  part  of  the  subject 
to  call  attention  to  some  obvious  inferences  which  bear  on  the  question  of  the 
authenticity  of  the  stone. 

1.  The  inscription  was  made  upon  a  boulder  of  gra3'wacke  found  in 
the  near  vicinity. 

2.  The  inscribed  face  of  the  stone  has  not  passed  through  even  the 
latest  glaciation,  but  the  opposite  side  shows  such  glaciation  that  it  may  have 
witnessed  two  ice-epochs.  The  boulder  had  been  split  along  an  old  jointage 
plane,  and  the  inscription  is  mainly  on  the  resultant  even  face.  The  inscribed 
edge  was  also,  doubtless,  caused  by  a  jointage  plane,  Init  appears  to  have 
been  shaped  by  hammering. 

3.  The  inscribed  face  api>ears  weathered  so  as  to  indicate  that  it  was 
separated  from  its  companion  piece  perhaps  several  thousand  years  ago  (but 
has  not  been  glaciated),  or  was  affected  by  water  that  entered  along  the 
joint-opening  for  a  long  time  before  such  separation.  The  preservation  of 
the  calcite  scale  shows  that  since  its  separation  it  has  been  protected  from 
the  weather. 

4.  Two  remarkable  boulders  are  at  the  end  of  a  sharp  point,  at  the 
southwestern  side  of  Pelican  lake,  and  though  they  are  not  now  surrounded 
by  water,  they  probably  were  so  five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago,  and 


may  stand  for  the  "skerries"  referred  to  in  the  inscription.  If  the  inscription 
is  modern,  the  engraver  could  hardly  refer  to  these  boulders  as  "skerries." 
They  are  about  twenty  miles  north  of  the  place  where  the  stone  \vas  found. 

5.  The  stone  was  found  on  an  elevation  surrounded  with  a  swamp, 
and  it  is  in  keeping  with  a  slow  known  physical  change  to  suppose  that  the 
elevation-  was  formerly  surrounded  by  water,  and  that  the  term  "inland"  was 
appHcable.  If  the  inscription  is  modern,  the  engraver  must  have  known  that 
five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago  this  elevation  was  an  island. 

6.  The  sea  was  said  to  be  fourteen  days'  journey  distant  from  the  place 
of  the  stone.  The  sea  at  Hudson  bay  is  about  that  distance  from  Douglas 
county,  for  a  canoe  party  descending  the  Nelson  river.  If  parties  reached 
Minnesota  by  that  route  they  must  have  brought  boats  with  them  by  way  of 
Lake  Winnipeg  and  the  Red  river  of  the  North.  It  is  not  easy  to  see  any 
reason  for  their  leaving  the  regular  watercourse  and  taking  their  boats  across 
the  country  to  Pelican  lake,  but  if  they  were  fishing  on  Pelican  lake  they 
must  have  had  boats.  At  Pelican  lake  they  would  have  been  about  twenty- 
five  miles  from  the  nearest  point  of  the  Red  river  of  the  North. 

7.  When  found,  the  face  of  the  stone  was  down.  On  any  supposition 
as  to  the  maker  of  the  inscription  it  seems  to  be  necessary  to  assume  that  it 
was  not  originally  placed  in  that  position.  Owing  to  the  easy  disintegration 
of  calcite  in  the  weather,  it  is  evident  that  the  inscription  is  either  recent  or 
the  stone  was  so  placed  ( or  was  overturned )  as  to  protect  the  inscription 
from  the  weather. 

8.  The  age  of  the  tree  which  was  growing  on  the  stone  seems  to  show 
that  the  inscription  was  made  prior  to  the  occupancy  of  the  farm  by  \lr. 

9.  Air.  Fogelblad,  whom  rumor  has  associated  with  the  stone,  died  in 
1895,  three  years  prior  to  the  finding  of  the  stone.  The  tree  must  have 
started  to  grow  on  the  stone  at  least  as  early  as  1888,  according  to  the  short- 
est estimate  of  its  age.  The  committee  has  not  learned  the  date  of  'Sir.  Fogel- 
blad's  coming  to  the  region,  not  deeming  it  important.  The  relation  of  the 
rune  stone  to  the  Swedish  grammar  owned  by  Mr.  Fogelblad  at  the  time  of 
his  death  is  expressed  by  Mr.  Holvik.  According  to  his  opinion,  the  liook 
could  not  have  been  the  source  of  the  information  necessar}'  to  construct 
the  inscription. 

10.  If  the  stone  is  fraudulent,  it  seems  neces.sary  to  exonerate  both 
Mr.  Fogelblad  and  Mr.  Ohman  from  the  imposition,     (See  the  Appendix.) 



The  inscription  has  been  acceptably  translated  as  follows : 

Eight  Goths  and  twenty-two  Norwegians  upon  a  journey 
of  discovery  from  Vinland  westward.  We  had  a  camp  by  two 
skerries  one  day's  journey  north  from  this  stone.  We  were 
out  fishing  one  day.  When  we  returned  home,  we  found  ten 
men  red  with  blood  and  dead.     A.  \\  M.,  save  us  from  evil. 

Have  ten  men  by  the  sea  to  look  after  our  vessels  four- 
teen days"  journey  from  this  island.     Year   1362. 

Without  reference  at  this  time  to  the  language  used,  and  not  consider- 
ing the  peculiarities  of  the  grammatical  inflections,  it  may  be  worth  while 
to  take  a  general  view  of  the  record. 

One  is  struck  first  with  the  simplicity  of  the  statements  and  the  omis- 
sion of  non-important  details.  This  simplicity,  unfortunately  for  the  his- 
torical value  of  the  record,  goes  so  far  as  to  omit  the  name  of  the  leader  of 
the  party,  as  well  as  that  of  the  patron  or  king  who  may  have  sent  it  out. 

It  is  a  mixed  party,  of  Swedes  and  Norwegians.  By  reason  of  the 
order  in  which  these  are  mentioned  it  is  probable  that  the  scribe  was  a  Swede, 
since  he  names  them  first,  although  composing  only  about  one-quarter  of 
the  whole  party. 

The  party  started  from  Vinland,  a  very  remarkable  statement  in  the 
light  of  the  fact  that  it  is  not  known,  even  at  this  day,  that  a  permanent 
or  even  a  temporary  colony  was  established  in  Vinland.  The  expression 
"from  Vinland"  may  mean  in  a  direction  westward  from  Vinland.  In  the 
light  of  the  results  of  Professor  Fernald's  studies  on  the  "Plants  of  Wine- 
land  the  Good,"  it  is  remarkable,  if  the  stone  is  fraudulent,  that  the  location 
of  \'inland,  by  the  statements  of  the  record,  should  agree  with  the  location 
of  that  countrv  liv  Fernald.  since  all  modern  (and  even  earlier)  descriptions 
of  \inland  have  placed  \'inland  either  in  Nova  Scotia  or  in  Massachusetts.. 
Could  it  have  been  a  random  and  accidental  coincidence,  that  a  fraudulent 
record  should  correct  the  current  historical  belief  of  the  times?  How -could 
an  impostor  come  to  the  knowledge  that  Vinland  was  nowhere  except  in 
Labrador  or  at  least  in  the  region  about  the  entrance  to  Hudson  strait? 
What  credit  could  be  given  to  his  record  by  going  counter  to  the  accepted 
history  of  his  time?  This  agreement  with  the  latest  research  as  to  the 
location  of  Vinland  is  a  very  suggestive  fact. 

They    went    "westward"    from    X'inland.    and    they    had   their    s]ii])s    till 


within  fourteen  days'  journey  of  the  end  of  their  exploration,  when  they 
left  them  "at  the  sea."  with  ten  men  to  guard  them.  If  the  record  be  fraudu- 
lent, what  reason  could  there  be  for  saying  that  their  camp  was  fourteen 
days'  journey  from  the  sea?  How  much  more  probable  it  would  be  to  say 
that  their  camp  was  forty  days  or  even  two  months'  journey  from  the  sea. 
especially  if  \"inland  was  where  it  has  been  thought  to  be;  and  how  much 
more  probable  that  an  impostor  would  not  attempt  to  make  a  definite  state- 
ment. If  the  record  is  fraudulent,  the  impostor  was  very  foolish  not  only 
in  giving  the  distance  of  their  camp  from  the  sea,  but  also  in  saying  how  far 
it  was  north  from  the  stone.  Not  only  so,  but  he  attempted,  more  foolishly, 
to  give  guides  to  the  exact  location  of  the  camp  by  saying  it  was  "near  two 
skerries."  If  the  stone  had  been  noticeably  more  than  one  day's  march  from 
those  skerries,  or  if  the  camp  had  been  noticeably  nearer  or  more  distant 
than  fourteen  days'  journey  from  "the  sea,"  there  would  be  much  doubt 
thrown  upon  the  record  b}-  such  a  discrepancy. 

The  exactness  with  which  the  location  of  the  camp  is  described  can  be 
attributed  to  the  probable  burial  of  the  ten  men  at  the  camp,  and  the  natural 
desire  to  describe  geographically  the  place  of  the  bloody  massacre  of  ten  of 
their  comrades;  while  the  agreement  of  this  exactness  with  the  facts  in 
nature  shows  how  improbable  it  was  for  a  faker  runologist  to  have  made  the 
inscription.  If  the  record  be  fraudulent,  it  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  those 
two  skerries  exist,  and  at  the  right  distance,  and  that  there  are  no  others. 

It  is  still  more  remarkable,  on  the  hypothesis  that  the  stone  is  fraudu- 
lent, that  within  modern  times  they  could  not  be  called  skerries,  as  they  are 
not  now  surrounded  by  water.  Hence  the  impostor-scribe  was  not  only  a 
runologist,  but  he  was  able  to  look  backward  through  the  physical  change 
that  has  come  over  the  region,  and  to  describe  those  boulders  as  they  were 
five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago,  when  there  is  no  doubt  that  the 
water  of  the  lake  was  so  high  as  to  surround  them  and  thus  warrant  the 
description  which  he  made  of  them.     He  must  have  been  a  geologist. 

If  the  record  is  fraudulent,  it  is  also  remarkable  that  the  impostor  could 
see  that  five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago  the  hill  on  which  the  stone 
was  placed  was  surrounded  by  water  so  as  to  warrant  the  application  of  the 
term  "island."  He  must  have  known,  and  must  have  made  allowance  for  the 
fact,  that  within  recent  time  the  country  has  dried  up  considerably,  and  that 
what  are  now  marshes  were  then  lakes. 

If  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  it  is  singular  that  the  impostor  ran  the  risk 
of  all  these  details  and  violated  none  of  them.  A  well  considered  fraud  is 
usuallv  characterized  bv  the  omission  of  details.     Here  was  a  reckless  and  a 


fearlessness  amongst  details  which  l>etoken  honesty  and  truth.  The  very  dis- 
crepancies, where  the  details  di\erge  from  present  geographic  knowledge, 
when  correctly  understood  are  turned  to  so  many  points  of  confirmation. 

"We  were  out  fishing  one  day."  That  is  a  remarkable  and  rather  singular 
statement,  especially  if  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  since  the  fishing  was  on  a  lake 
twenty  miles  distant  from  the  place  at  which  the  inscription  was  made.  Again, 
they  must  have  had  boats.  There  is  no  reference  to  them.  Where  could 
they  have  got'  boats  ?  Not  a  word  is  said  as  to  how  they  reached  tlie  place 
where  they  were  encamped,  nor  as  to  the  direction  to  the  sea.  Such  links  as 
are  necessary  to  make  a  connected  and  reasonable  story  would  certainly  be 
given  by  an  impostor.  But  here  the  briefest  statement  is  made  of  the  lead- 
ing facts,  and  the  reader  is  left  to  connect  them  as  best  he  can.  We  are  not 
at  a  loss  to  supply  the  links.  The  boats  must  have  been  birch  bark  canoes, 
used  to  this  day  by  the  northern  Indians,  easy  to  propel  in  the  water  and 
easy  to  "portage"  over  the  land. 

"We  found  ten  men  red  with  blood  and  dead."  That  is  a  remarkable 
statement.  Why  should  the  fact  of  the  gory  appearance  of  the  dead  men  be 
stated  at  all?  and  especially  why  should  it  be  stated  before  stating  the  fact  of 
death?  The  murderers  are  not  mentioned  nor  indicated.  These  peculiari- 
ties in  the  record  may  be  explained  b\-  attributing  the  massacre  to  Indians, 
with  whom  they  may  have  had  some  dealing.  The  appearance  of  the  bloody- 
corpses  implies  the  scalping  knife.  The  appearance  of  the  bodies  is  stated 
before  the  fact  of  their  death,  and  must  have  made  a  deep  impression  on  the 
explorers,  although  it  is  probable  that  the  men  were  dead  before  they  were 
scalped.  If  the  stone  is  fraudulent,  it  is  singular  that,  within  modern  times, 
when  the  scalping  of  white  men  by  Indians  is  a  familiar  fact,  the  massacre 
should  be  described  in  that  manner.  An  impostor  would  hardly  observe  the 
nicety  of  the  significance  in  inverting  the  terms  of  description,  or  that  of 
mentioning  the  bloody  appearance  of  the  dead  at  all. 

Then  comes  the  most  remarkable  feature  of  this  remarkable  inscription. 
"A.  \'.  AI."  Hail,  Virgin  Mary!  or  Ave  Maria.  This  is  a  distinctly  Catholic 
expression.  According  to  Archbishop  Ireland,  no  modern  Scandinavian 
would  utter  it,  as  they  are  Lutherans.  It  would  be  strictly  appropriate  in 
1362.  If  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  the  impostor  artfully  emplo\ed  a  term 
suitable  to  the  date  of  the  inscription;  but  we  would  hardly  expect  an  im- 
postor, such  as  this  man  must  have  been,  to  be  so  religious  as  to  call  on  Mary, 
or  on  any  of  the  gods  of  the  Vikings,  or  on  any  of  the  saints  of  Christianity. 
On  the  supposition  that  the  stone  is  fraudulent,  this  is  a  decided  anachron- 
ism and  would  hardly  be  introduced  by  an  impostor. 



If  the  stone  is  fraudulent,  the  base  perpetrator  was  artful  enough  to 
make  use  of  rune  characters  appropriate  to  the  date  1362.  The  ancient 
runes  are  sixteen  in  number,  according  to  the  grammar  of  Almquist.  The 
inscription  contains  several  characters  not  found  in  the  old  runic  alphabet, 
and  some  that  are  peculiar  to  itself  or  to  some  locality. 

Rev.  O.  A.  Norman,  of  Ashby,  called  our  attention  to  a  singular  coinci- 
dence, viz.,  the  frequency  of  the  expression  calling  upon  Mary,  in  Scandi- 
navia, at  the  time  of  the  "black  death,"  which  prevailed  in  the  fourteenth 
century.  A  poem  or  song,  entitled  "Fornesbronen,"  was  recited  at  the  burials 
of  the  many  dead,  and  appears  to  have  become  well  known.  It  was  lately 
reprinted  in  a  brochure  at  Fergus  Falls,  Minnesota,  entitled  "Telesoga." 
Each  verse  ends  with  an  appeal  to  Mary  to  grant  help  and  freedom  from 
evil.  The  sudden  and  bloody  death  of  ten  of  their  comrades  seems  to  have 
impressed  the  living  in  a  manner  similar  to  the  mysterious  death  of  the  black 
plague.  If  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  the  impostor  seems  to  have  been  aware  of 
the  prevalence  of  that  prayer  in  the  fourteenth  century,  and  very  shrewdly 
appended  it  at  the  proper  place  in  this  inscription. 

It  appears,  from  several  considerations,  that  the  scribe  was  a  rather 
illiterate  Swede.  If  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  it  is  singular  that  such  a  man 
should  prove  himself  capable  of  such  literary  and  historical  knowledge,  and 
of  such  artiful  cunning.  If  the  stone  be  fraudulent,  it  seems  necessary  to 
suppose  that  a  non-educated  Swede  should  be  able  to  make  the  inscription  and 
to  accomplish  the  following: 

1.  A  simple,  straightforward  record. 

2.  Correct  the  prevalent  notion  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  Vinland. 

3.  Refer  to  two  skerries,  which  could  not  have  existed  when  the  record 
was  made  but  did  exist  five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago. 

4.  Refer  to  an  island,  which  was  not  an  island  when  the  stone  was  in- 
scribed, but  was  so  five  hundred  and  forty-eight  years  ago. 

5.  Define  exactly  the  location  of  the  camp  with  reference  to  the  seaside 
and  with  reference  to  the  •stone. 

6.  Describe  the  massacre  in  such  a  way  as  to  indicate  that  the  men  were 
scalped  by  Indians,  although  no  mention  is  made  of  Indians. 

7.  Make  the  prayer  to  the  Virgin  Mary  common  in  Scandinavia  in  1362, 
but  anachronistic  iij  the  nineteenth  century. 

8.  As  an  impostor,  utter  the  common  prayer  of  a  devout  Catholic  of 
the  fourteenth  century. 

9.  Use  in  part  some  ancient  runic  characters  instead  of  those  common 
in  later  centuries. 



10.  All  this  deceit  and  laborious  cunning,  without  any  ascertainable 
motive,  perpetrated  in  an  unpopulated,  or  at  most  only  a  sparsely  inhabited, 
region  amongst  a  wilderness  of  forests. 


Notwithstanding  these  considerations,  which  point  toward  the  genuine- 
ness of  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone,  there  are  linguistic  objections,  which,  it 
is  claimed,  are  insurmountable.  It  is  claimed  by  those  who  are  expert  in  the 
Scandinavian  languages,  and  who  present  those  difficulties,  that  linguistic 
evidence  is  paramount  in  importance,  and  that  other  considerations  are  pertin- 
ent only  after  the  linguistic  objections  are  removed. 

A  summary  statement  of  these  objections  is  about  as  follows : 

Certain  words  not  in  use  in  Sweden  at  the  date  given  the  inscription,  viz. : 

opdagclsc.  It  is  pointed  out  that  this  word  is  not  in  Sodervall's  diction- 
ary, nor  in  that  of  Kalkar,  the  latter  being  a  dictionary  of  the  old  Danish 
(and  Swedish)  language  covering  the  years  1300  to  1700,  and  that  in  modern 
Swedish  the  word  opdage  is  uppdaga;  that  "opdagclsc"  is  made  by  adding  to 
the  root  the  suffix  else,  which  in  the  form  ilsi  is  not  found  in  Swedish  or  Dan- 
ish prior  to  1300;  that  "opdage"  itself  is  a  borrowed  word,  allied  to  the  Dutch 
opdagen  and  the  German  cntdcckcn;  and  that,  if  it  had  existed  in  1362,  its  only 
meaning  could  have  been  dazmiing. 

po,  which  appears  twice  in  the  inscription.  This  word,  derived  from 
iipp  a  becomes  pa  and  paa.  and  in  Sodervall's  dictionary  is  said  to  date  from 
about  1400,  and  to  have,  in  the  older  Swedish,  only  the  active  sense,  "to 
designate  an  action  by  some  one,  or  a  condition  or  state  of  a  person,"  which 
is  not  the  sense  in  which  it  is  used  here. 

laeger  is  objected  to  as  a  word  in  Swedish  at  the  date  of  1362,  on  the 
ground  that  it  shows  a  Germanic  influence,  dating  from  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury or  later,  its  earliest  date  in  Kalkar  being  1534. 

dag  is,  on  the  stone,  thag  (or  dhug),  meaning  day,  but  in  1362  d  had 
supplanted  dh  and  should  have  been  used.  The  use  of  "the  thorn"  (the 
rune  (?)  for  dh  or  th  or  d)  indicated  a  modern  Swede  runologist.  The 
same  objection  lies  against  dh  in  opdagelse.  J 'inland,  and  dcd.  and  other 

vorc  skip  should  have  been  written  voruui  skipiiiii,  to  agree  with  the  lan- 
guage of  Sweden  in  1362. 

har,  var,  kom,  and  fan,  are  first  person  plurals,  as  used,  and  should 
have  the  ending  om.  viz.,  haf thorn  (or  hathom),  zvroin,  koiiioiii.  and  funnom. 


These  would  have  been  found  in  the  "Mariaklagan,"  had  any  first  person 
plurals  been  used  in  the  part  with  which  comparison  is  made,  since  in  the 
third  person  plurals  found  in  it  the  full  inflectional  endings  are  used. 

dcd  (or  theth,  or  dhedth)  should  have  been  dodh,  and  is  apparently  a 
reflection  of  the  English  word  "ded." 

from  is  English 

mails  is  an  incorrect  plural  English  word  for  men. 

0  is  written  with  c  rune  inside  an  o.     o  appears  for  the  first  time  in 


In  short,  the  language  of  the  stone,  it  is  claimed,  is  a  mixture  of 
modern  Swedish,  Norwegian,  and  English. 

It  is  fortunate  for  the  cause  of  historic  truth,  no  less  than  for  linguistic 
criticism  applicable  to  the  inscription  of  this  stone,  that  quite  a  number  of 
American  as  well  as  some  European  experts  in  runes  and  in  Scandinavian 
literature  have  given  close  attention  to  this  stone,  and  have  afforded  their 
aid  to  the  committee  in  their  efforts  to  reach  a  warrantable  conclusion  as 
to  the  authenticity  of  the  record  for  the  date  which  it  claims.  The  commit- 
tee has  also  taken  advantage  of  the  published  opinions  of  others,  so  far 
as  we  have  learned  of  them,  whenever  such  opinions  have  been  based  on 
specific  and  critical  linguistic  points.  A  mere  "opinion,"  pro  or  con,  has 
been  passed  by  without  consideration;  for  it  is  plain  that  not  only  the  labor 
would  be  practically  endless  should  the  committee  entertain  unsupported 
opinions,  but  that  in  the  end  the  result  would  be  based  on  other's  opinions 
and  would  not  be  a  creditable  and  judicial  consideration  of  the  problems 
with  which  the  committee  is  charged. 

The  following  eminent  and  critical  scholars  have  aided  the  committee, 
and  to  them  the  thanks  of  the  Historical  Society  are  due : 

Helge  G jessing,  University  of  Christiania,  Norway. 

Hjalmar  Rued  Holand,  Ephraim,  Wisconsin. 

O.  J.  Breda,  Christiania,  Norway,  formerly  of  the  University  of  Min- 

George  O.  Curme,  Northwestern  University,  Evanston,  Illinois. 

Chester  N.  Gould,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois. 

Rasmus  B.  Anderson,  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

Dr.  Knut  Hoegh,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota. 

Gisle  Bothne,  University  of  Minnesota,  Minneapolis. 

John  O.  Evjen,  Augsburg  Seminary,  Minneapolis. 

Andrew  Possum,  St.  Olaf  College,  Northfield,  Minnesota. 

P.  P.  Iverslie,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota. 


George  T.  Flom,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

Julius  E.  Olson,  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

J.  A.  Holvik,  United  Church  Seminary,  St.  Anthony  Park,  St.  Paul, 

Olaf   Huseby,   Norwegian  journalist  and   author,    Fosston,    ^Minnesota. 

J.  J.  Skordalsvold,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  formerly  professor  of  Nor- 
wegian Literature  in  Augsburg  Seminary. 

O.  E.  Hagen,  Meridian,  Wisconsin,  formerly  professor  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  South  Dakota,  Vermilion,  South  Dakota. 

It  is  needless  to  say  that  among  these  there  is  divergence  of  testimony. 
and  sometimes  contrary,  not  only  in  the  results  which  they  have  reached, 
but  sometimes  in  their  estimates  of  the  value  of  the  linguistic  peculiarities 
of  the  language  of  the  inscription. 

With  one  exception,  the  members  of  the  committee  are  all  linguistic 
scholars  and  are  capable  of  judging  the  force  of  linguistic  arguments,  pro 
and  con,  and  we  have  attempted  to  compare  judicially  the  evidence  that  has 
been  adduced. 

It  should  be  remarked  at  the  outset  that  the  argument  against  the  rune 
inscription  is  like  this :  As  the  translation  of  the  Bible  in  King  James'  version 
does  not  employ  the  words  boy  or  girl,  but  instead  uses  lad  and  danisel,  if 
a  book  purporting  to  be  a  copy  of  the  King  James  version  were  found  to 
contain  the  words  boy  and  girl,  it  would  at  once  be  classed  as  fraudulent. 
Likewise  if  words  are  found  in  the  Kensington  rune  stone  inscription  which 
were  not  in  use  in  1362,  the  inscription  is  fraudulent.  But  it  is  evident 
at  once  that  such  a  comparison  of  these  cases  involves  a  possible  error. 
Two  books  actually  in  print  can  be  compared  with  preciseness,  and  one  can 
be  pronounced  a  fraud  with  positiveness  when  it  does  not  agree  with  its 
prototype.  In  the  case  of  this  stone,  a  definite  inscription  is  to  be  com- 
pared with  a  "usage,"  and  it  is  the  wide  uncertainty  of  that  usage  that 
gives  rise  to  the  variety  of  evidence  and  opinion. 

It  should  be  remarked  also  that  the  usage  with  which  the  stone  may 
be  compared  may  be  that  of  a  considerable  period  of  time,  say  a  whole 
century;  it  mav  be  that  of  high-class  and  dignified  literature,  or  that  of 
common  or  ordinary  writing,  or  that  even  of  everyday  speech.  It  is  plain, 
therefore,  that  it  is  important  to  determine  the  standard  to  which  the  inscrip- 
tion ought  to  show  a  conformity.  It  should  also  be  remembered  that, 
as  in  English,  these  standards  change  from  one  into  the  other  with  lapse 
of  time.  A  usage  which  was  prevalent  only  in  common  speech,  say  in 
the   fourteenth  century,   might  be   found  in  literature  in  the  fifteenth  cen- 


tury,  and  in  the  more  dignified  language  of  legal  documents  not  till  the 
sixteenth  century.  As  our  slang  words  creep  slowly  into  literature,  and 
finally  are  recognized  in  the  standard  dictionaries,  so  the  colloquial  terms 
and  usage  of  the  Swedish  gradually  came  into  use  in  the  higher  type  of 

It  is  agreed  by  all,  so  far  as  we  have  learned,  that  the  inscription, 
whether  false  or  genuine,  was  niade  by  a  Swede  and  a  rather  unlettered 
man,  a  good  mechanic,  and  probably  from  ancient  Gothland,  now  the  south 
part  of  Sweden,  or  from  Visby,  on  the  island  of  Gothland,  where  foreigners 
were  numerous  from  all  commercial  points  in  Europe.  In  such  a  city  the 
influence  of  foreign  languages  would  be  apparent  and  more  pronounced 
than  in  any  other  part  of  Sweden,  except  perhaps  Stockholm.  If  the 
engraver  of  the  inscription  were  an  unlettered  Swede,  it  appears  that  the 
standard  with  which  it  should  be  compared  is  not  that  of  high-class  standard 
literature,  whether  legal  documents,  educational  treatises,  or  poems,  but 
more  reasonably  the  colloquial  vernacular  of  Gothland.  It  would  be  neces- 
sary to  allow  for  some  effect  of  German  and  perhaps  English  contiguity. 
Hence,  as  the  stone  claims  to  date  from  the  fourteenth  century,  it  is  reason- 
able to  compare  it  with  the  colloquial  usage  of  that  century. 

Here  arises  another  important  consideration,  viz.,  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury was  a  period  of  change  and  confusion,  arising  from  the  introduction 
of  Christianity.  Here  was  in  full  swing  the  tradition  to  the  modern  forms 
and  usages.  Indeed  the  language  of  Sweden  and  Denmark  in  the  fourteenth 
and  fifteenth  centuries  "was  much  like  that  of  the  present."  and,  "to  that 
degree  agrees  with  the  new  that  nothing  except  an  occasional  business  or 
law  expression  will  stop  a  reader  of  the  present."  This  change  was  not 
accomplished  without  much  irregularity,  and  perhaps  this  is  most  apparent 
in  the  fourteenth  century.  The  German  language  made  a  powerful  impress 
on  the  Swedish.  Dahlerup  declares,  "Never  has  our  language  received 
so-  great  influence  from  abroad  (especially  Middle  Low  German)  as  it 
received  in  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries."  Those  irregularities 
consisted  in  a  more  or  less  prevalent  dropping  of  case  ending,  disregard  of 
grammatical  agreements,  especially  in  common  speech,  and  differences  of  spell- 

With  these  facts  in  mind,  we  will  examine  in  succession  the  difticult 
linguistic  points  whicli  we  have  already  mentioned. 

opdagclsc  is  claimed  to  be  a  modern  word.  It  is  a  serious  objection  to 
this  word  that  it  is  not  found  in  two  standard  dictionaries,  Sodervall's 
and  especially  Kalkar's,  the  latter  purporting  to  be  a  dictionary  of  the  old 


Danish  (and  Swedish)  language,  covering  the  years  1300  to  1700.  The 
root  of  the  word  was  known,  also  the  prefix  op  (upp),  and  the  suffix  else 
(Use).  It  was  a  neuter  verb,  signifying  to  appear,  to  dawn.  In  the  inscrip- 
tion it  has  an  active  significance,  to  discover.  Yet  Kalkar  gives  a  quotation 
dating  from  1634  in  which  this  word  appears  in  its  active  sense,  viz.,  "Et  skib 
med  rofoere  for  landit  var  opdaget"  (A  vessel  zvith  pirates  was  discov- 
ered off  shore).  The  fact  that  the  date  of  this  quotation  is  1634  does 
not  show  that  this  signification  of  this  word  was  not  in  earlier  use,  for 
Kalkar  gives  numerous  other  quotations  witth  dates  showing  similar  Ger- 
man influence,  dated  later  than  their  known  earhest  use,  as  follows : 

understanda  is  dated  1610,  but  is  found  in  Den  Jydskc  Lov  of  1241. 
(Brandt,  Gammeldanska  Lasebog,   1856,  p.  29,  Hne  15.) 

ophange  in  dated  1575,  used  in  a  provision  of  Waldemar  Seier  of  1250 
(itto,  41,  3,  as  uphengia.) 

opladlia,  dated  by  Kalkar  1550,  used  in  a  diploma  of  1329  (ditto,  yj, 
5,  as  itplader)  ;  and  numerous  others. 

Kalkar's  dictionary  was  not  complete.  He  is  now  compiling  a  sup- 
plement, which  will  contain  hundreds  of  words  missed  by  him  in  his  first 
edition.  The  following,  similar  to  opdagelsc,  may  be  mentioned,  in  use 
about  1400,  which  were  omitted  by  Kalkar:  opfostrc,  upfodde.  opbrande, 
opraettilsae,  forymmels,  paa>nindelse  (ditto,  98,  line  23;  169,  8;  168,  6). 
This  shows  simply  that  opdagelse  may  have  been  one  of  the  common  words 
omitted  by  Kalkar,  and  therefore  that  the  absence  of  this  word  in  Kalkar's 
Danish  dictionary  is  not  certain  evidence  that  it  was  not  in  use  in  Gothland 
in  1362,  at  least  in  common  speech;  for,  as  has  been  remarked  already, 
the  standard  dictionaries  of  any  language  are  the  last  to  recognize  innovations, 
such  as  this  appears  to  have  been,  from  other  languages. 

We  fail  to  see  the  force  of  the  objections  to  opdagelse  in  the  fact  that 
the  modern  Swedish  for  opdage  is  uppdaga.  The  use  of  the  older  word 
seems  to  us  rather  to  be  a  difficulty  in  assigning  the  inscription  to  modern 

The  difficulty  with  po  in  the  inscription  consists  of  two  parts :  (  i  ) 
It  is  used  earlier  than  is  recognized  by  Sodervall's  dictionary ;  and  ( 2 ) 
it  is  used  correctly  to  designate  "an  action  by  some  one,  or  a  condition 
or  state  of  a  person,"  which  is  thought  to  be  not  the  sense  in  which  it  is 
used  here. 

The  fact  that  Sodervall's  dictionary  assigns  this  word  to  "about  1400" 
is  in  some  degree  an  objection  to  its  use  in  1362;  yet,  if  it  be  recalled  that  in 
common  speech   nian\-   words   are   in   use  long  before   they  are   recognized 


in  standard  literature  and  in  dictionaries,  and  that  the  difference  of -time 
here  amounts  to  only  thirty-eight  years,  it  appears  to  the  committee  that  the 
word  po  was  more  likely  than  not  to  have  been  known  and  used  at  the 
date  assigned  to  the  rune  stone.  In  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  century, 
moreover,  we  find  pa,  po,  and  upa,  used  side  by  side. 

As  to  the  significance  of  the  word  po  (on),  used  as  a  preposition  before 
the  word  opdagelse,  its  force,  as  defined  by  the  objectors,  is  to  be  inferred 
from  the  connection.  "On  a  journey  of  discovery"  implies  a  verb  such  as 
going,  and  if  that  be  supplied  the  phrase  reads  "going  on  a  journey  of  dis- 
covery," which  gives  the  preposition  exactly  the  sense  required. 

Again,  it  is  quite  likely  that  in  pronunciation  pa,  the  original  word  which 
became  paa,  was  sounded  so  nearly  like  po  that  the  unlettered  scribe  pre- 
ferred po  to  any  other  spelling.  Further,  as  there  was  no  rune  character  for 
aa,  this  sound  was  commonly  expressed  by  the  rune  for  o. 

laeger.  The  original  Norse  form  was  legr,  but  in  Swedish  the  e  became 
a,  and  under  the  influence  of  German  contact  the  word  took  the  form  of 
laeger,  or  lager.  It  is  assumed  by  the  objectors  that  this  final  form  was 
due  to  the  sixteenth  century  and  hence  could  not  have  been  used  in  1362; 
but  Falk  and  Torp  state  that  in  Swedish-Danish  the  transition  from  e  to  a 
took  place  about   1200   (Lydhistorie,  Kristiania,   1898,  page   11,   No.   2). 

It  is  further  objected  to  this  word  that  in  the  sense  here  employed 
(camp)  it  was  not  employed  in  1362,  but  meant  burial  place  or  lying  together; 
yet  Kalkar  illustrates  it  in  the  sense  used  in  the  inscription,  viz.,  "The 
angels  of  the  Lord  built  their  camp  round  about  them :  Herrins  engel  slaar 
lagre  omkring  tlicnnom"  (date  of  this  writing,  1524?).  This  dictionary 
covers  the  period  from  the  fourteenth  to  the  seventeenth  century. 

dhag,  opdhagelse,  J'inlandh,  dhed,  and  other  words  in  the  inscription, 
are  spelled  with  the  rune  character,  called  thorn.  It  is  claimed  that  the 
more  modern  character  for  d  had  supplanted  the  "thorn"  in  1362,  and  ought 
to  have  been  used.  The  thorn  was  usually  used  at  this  time  for  both  th 
and  dh;  but  it  appears  that  t  was  gradually  supplanting  th,  and  d  was  taking 
the  place  of  dh.  It  is  plain  from  all  sides  that  the  thorn,  used  exclusively 
on  the  inscription,  was  warrantable  as  a  character  either  for  that  dental 
which  was  sounded  th,  or  for  that  which  was  sounded  by  dh.  At  the  same 
time,  so  far  as  we  can  learn,  the  distinct  character  for  d  had  a  recognized 
existence:  but  whether  there  was  any  rule  or  regulated  practice,  in  1362,  as 
to  the  use  of  it  for  d.  we  have  been  unable  to  find  out.  No  one  has  referred 
to  any  regulated  practice,  and  it  seems  to  us  that  any  criticism  demanding 
the  exclusive  use  of  the  character  for  d  in  1362  where  the  inscription  shows 


dh,  should  be  supported  by  such  a  rule.  There  is  not  a  word  in  the  inscrip- 
tion which  calls  for  the  dental  sound  th,  and  it  is  hence  plain  that  where  the 
thorn  sign  is  used  it  was  intended  to  take  the  place  of  the  sign  for  dh 
(or  for  d). 

Further,  while  the  character  was  used  at  the  time,  it  occurs  so  rarely 
that  it  seems  most  runesmiths  were  ignorant  of  its  existence  or  ignored  it. 
For  instance,  it  does  not  occur  a  single  time  in  the  twenty-six  Swedish 
and  Danish  runic  inscriptions  from  the  middle  period  quoted  by  Vigfussen 
on  pages  447-449  of  his  "Icelandic  Reader  and  Grammar."  The  thorn 
however  occurs  I42  times  in  these  same  inscriptions.  It  appears  also  that 
there  was  great  latitude  in  the  use  of  this  character,  in  that  it  not  only 
commonly  represented  th  and  dh,  but  also  frequently  d,  and  even  t.  In 
inscription  No.  4,  on  page  448,  we  find  ristu  spelled  with  the  "thorn"  instead 
of  the  t.  Therefore,  while  it  might  have  l:>een  accessible  in  elementary  text- 
liooks.  the  writer  of'  the  inscription  has  shown  a  close  agreement  even  with 
written  usage  in  Sweden  in  the  middle  ages,  by  using  the  "thorn"  exclusively. 
Had  /  only  been  used,  that  character,  as  it  seems  to  the  committee,  would 
have  constituted  a  greater  objection  than  the  exclusive  use  of  the  "thorn." 

hadhe,  har,  var,  kom,  and  fan.  These  are  unquestionably  verb  forms 
of  the  first  plural,  past  tense  {har  is  present),  used  by  the  rune-maker, 
and  purporting  to  be  from  the  date  of  1362.  The  validity  of  these  forms 
is  questionable.  It  is  evident  that  if  fraudulent  these  abbreviated  terms  might 
be  those  which  the  inscriber  of  the  stone  would  employ  in  the  nineteenth 
century.  The  committee  are  of  the  opinion  that  if  these  five  verb  forms 
cannot  be  satisfactorily  explained,  the  stone  will  be  suspected  as  a  forgery. 
They  have  therefore  given  particular  attention  to  the  question  whether  such 
abbreviations  were  warrantable  in  the  year  1362. 

The  statement  has  been  made  already,  in  general  terms,  that  this  was 
a  period  in  the  histor}'  of  the  Danish- Swedish  and  Danish-Norse  lan- 
guages when  great  confusion  prevailed,  because  of  a  tendency  toward  the 
modern  usages,  and  it  would  be  possible  to  assign  such  verb  changes  to  that 
general  statement.  The  committee,  however,  have  thought  that,  owing  to 
the  sweeping  character  of  this  difficulty,  it  would  be  well  to  disregard  the 
general  principle,  and  to  find,  if  possible,  examples  in  practice  dating  irom 
the  fourteenth  centur}-,  of  such  verb  changes  as  are  here  shown  by  the  rune 

Dahlerup,  commenting  on  this  period,  says:  "Numerous  verb  forms, 
especially  in  documents  showing  Jutland  influences,  show  that  the  speech 
undoubtedly  in  many  parts  [of  the  country]  had  given  up  the  logical  use  of  the 


plural  forms"  ( Det  Danske  Sprogs  Historic,  p.  33).  As  an  example  of  this 
he  quotes:  "Allc  fugle  son  hedder  voliicres  pa  Latin,"  "the  faar,"  "the 
gik,"  "the  kan,"  "I  seer,"  etc.  In  all  these  illustrations  we  find  singular 
verbs  with  plural  subjects.  We  have  other  examples  of  this,  as  in  a  letter 
of  1340,  which  begins,  "Alloc  )nen  thettac  href  ser  eller  hor'  (Brandt's 
Lasebog,  p.  79,  line  i).  Similarly  a  letter  of  1329  begins,  Allae  ma£n  thet- 
tae  href  ser  aeldaer  horaer  (ditto,  yy,  i).  This  shows  at  least  that  the 
old  classic  rule,  that  the  inflectional  ending  of  the  verb  must  agree  with 
its  subject,  was  not  maintained  in  the  four-teenth  century.  The  third  per- 
son plural  preterite  for  hafa  is  hofdu;  but  as  early  as  1200  we  find  JVitherlax 
men  hamdhe  honum  uraet  giort"  (Kong  Knuts  Viderlagsret  in  Brandt's 
Lasebog,  p.  39,  line  i).  Gamle  Kong  Eriks  Kronike,  written  about  1320, 
says,  "The  hado  upotith  therra  maat"  (Svenska  Medeltidens  Rim-Kronikor, 
G.  E.  Klemmings's  edition,  Stockholm,  1865,  first  part,  line  1514;  see  also 
line  2581).  Upsala  Kronike,  of  the  fourteenth  century,  reads,  "hadae  moss 
[plural]  acdct  opp  oxen  som  I'ar  of  osth  giord  (Hunde  Kongen  og  Snio  in 
Hallenberg,  No.  51,  also  cjuoted  in  Brandt's  Lasebog,  p.  y2,  line  i).  In 
Mandevilles  Reiser,  of  about  1400,  we  similarly  find  hadhc:  "ikcae  Jiadhae  vy 
.  .  .  .frem  kommit"  (Brandt's  Lasebog,  123,  10);  "ta  tct  hadae  gongit 
Iioos  tho  milae,"  etc.,  (ditto,  122,  16).  See  also  the  frequent  use  of  "the 
hade."  they  had,  in  Svenske  Medeltidens  Rim-Kronikor. 

As  to  the  form  has,  here  used  in  place  of  the  regular  full  inflectional 
haffvom,  we  find  that  in  many,  perhaps  in  most,  writings  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  the  termination  of  the  first  person  plural,  vom,  had  largely  disap- 
peared. It  is  retained,  however,  in  an  important  work  dating  from  1320, 
Gamle  Eriks  Kronike,  where  also  nearly  all  the  old  endings  are  preserved. 
Instead  of  haffvom,  we  find  the  modern  forms  hm'e  or  haver;  but,  according 
to  Falk  and  Thorp,  for  a  long  time  the  i>  was  elided  in  pronunciation,  mak- 
ing lia  and  har,  or  was  replaced,  even  in  the  fourteenth  century,  h\  »,  the 
following  e  being  dropped.  Thus:  "lak  haur  of  herrana  hort"  (Gamble 
Eriks  Kronike,  1320,  Klemming's  ed.,  line  4404) ;  "Thet  haur  konnng  Bierge 
giort"  (ditto,  line  4480).  The  rhythm  also  shows  that  it  was  pronounced 
as  a  single  syllable.  Similarly  in  a  diploma  of  1386  we  read,  "Wi  have  tint 
oc  lathet  ivore  kerae  bytndn  (Brandt's  Lasebog,  p.  79,  line  18).  In  a  letter 
of  Queen  Margaret,  of  1339,  we  read:  "Meth  al  thene  rat  som  han  og 
honiies  fathir  thcr  til  hawe  haft  og  hawe."  In  the  last  two  instances  u 
(or  T')  is  Ti',  which  also  illustrates  the  confusion  which  has,  in  all  modern 
languages,  attended  those  half  consonants.  In  the  next,  u  is  plainly  and 
simply  used  for  v.     In  a  book  of  remedies,  about  1360,  we  read  "J]'i  Iiaita 


nu  talet  ok  sagt  oc  screiv'dt  thct  som  tharyekt  ar"  (Molbech's  Ordbog,  xlix)  ; 
also,  "Thorn  ther  hauer  howeth  wdrk,"  etc.   (ditto,  xlix). 
Summarizing  oiir  inquiry  on  this  word,  we  find : 

(a)  that  the  plural  hafvom  had  been  largely  dropped  in  the  four- 
teenth century; 

(b)  that  the  singular  for  haver  had  largely  superseded  it; 

(c)  that  according  to  Falk  and  Torp,  eminent  philologists,  this  v  has 
long  been  dropped  phonetically; 

(d)  that  haur,  the  immediate  phonetic  predecessor  of  har,  occurs  sporadi- 
cally in  Gamle  Eriks  Krliinike,  the  ablest  literary  work  of  the  times,  written 
in  1320. 

If  we  add  to  this  a  probable  advance  in  phonetic  and  grammatic  develop- 
ment in  the  region  of  Gothland,  there  seems  to  be  no  longer  remaining  any 
valid  objection  to  the  use  of  the  spelling  seen  on  the  stone. 

It  should  further  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  author  of  this  inscription, 
if  it  be  genuine,  would  be  extremely  unlikely  to  be  an  educated  literary  man, 
but  rather  a  plain  man  of  action.  As  such  he  would  write  as  he  spoke.  On 
the  contrary  an  impostor  of  today,  trying  to  reproduce  the  language  of  an 
ancient  period,  could  only  be  a  philologist,  and  would  try  to  follow  the  liter- 
ary usage  of  the  time,  instead  of  employing  forms  adapted  to  his  own  day. 
The  apparently  modern,  but  defensible,  use  of  the  word  har,  is  therefore, 
in  the  opinion  of  this  committee,  good  evidence  of  the  phonetic  authorship 
of  the  record  in  the  fourteenth  century. 

var  is  the  first  person  plural,  used  for  the  old  and  regular  form  varum. 
The  discussion  of  har  applies  largely  to  this  word.  In  the  fourteenth  century 
it  was  the  common  form.  In  the  chronicle  of  the  Danish  kings,  written 
about  1250  and  1300,  we  find  the  singular  and  plural  forms  struggling  side 
by  side.  In  line  12  we  read,  Hialti  ok  Birghi  var  i  hans  tiina."  while  in  line 
15  we  read,  "Slenge  ok  Vege  varu  i  hans  tima."  After  this  time  the  singular 
var  is  dominant.  Many  illustrations  could  be  given  of  plural  subjects  used 
with  the  singular  var.  Var  is  frequently  seen  in  the  form  vare,  as  "tha  vare 
wi  acy  fraelstc  aff  helvedis  nodh"  (devotional  jxiem  from  alx)ut  1425,  Brandt's 
Lasebog,  p.  262,  8). 

koiii  is  used  for  koiiiiiion,  the  plural  ending,  like  others  already  dis- 
cussed, having  dropped  off  in  the  period  under  discussion. 

fail.  This  form,  although  we  have  no  examples  to  quote,  may  be  assumed 
to  have  been  used  for  the  old  plural  form,  analogous  to  koin,  var,  and  har. 

dhcdh  {or  dcdh).  The  use  of  c  for  ac,  in  the  fourteenth  century,  or  vice 
versa,  was  frequent.     Hence  the  uncritical  maker  of  the  inscription  did  not 


pass  beyond  the  warrant  of  his  time.  The  Danish  dialect  had  dcd  in  1390. 
It  is  evident  that  the  thorn  must  have  been  intended  here  to  express  the 
symbol  dh  (th  as  in  this,  and  .not  tli  as  in  thistle),  which  irt  English  found  its 
equivalent  in  d,  and  in  German  in  the  word  todt.  The  spelling  of  this  word 
may  have  been  influenced  somewhat  by  a  knowledge  of  the  English  pro- 
nunciation of  the  same  word,  and  by  the  Danish  ded. 

from  in  its  form  is  English.  It  is  given,  however,  by  Falk  and  Torp's 
Etymologisk  Ordbog,  as  occurring  sporadically  in  the  old  Swedish,  meaning 
from.  The  easy  phonetic  substitution  of  0  for  long  a  or  aa  is  so  apparent 
in  this  word  that  it  needs  no  efifort  at  explanation.  The  letter  m,  however, 
is  in  this  place  quite  antique,  unless  it  is  adopted  directly  from  the  English, 
and  seems  to  furnish  an  argument  for  the  authenticity  of  the  stone  rather 
than  against  it. 

fn  the  old  Aurlancrs  church  in  Sogn,  Norway,  completed  in  the  Catholic 
time,  about  1300,  there  was  a  pair  of  very  small  panes  of  glass.  The  two 
panes  were  a  present  to  the  church  "from"  so-and-so.  When  the  church  was 
razed,  the  panes  were  bought  by  an  enlightened  gentleman  in  the  district, 
and  they  may  be  found  safely  treasured  there  yet. 

The  work  entitled  "Gamle  Eriks  Kronike"  was  the  product  of  some  writer 
living  in  that  part  of  Sweden  known  as  Vestgotland,  written  about  1320.  This 
work  contains  a  great  many  of  the  words  of  the  inscription,  used  in  the  same 
meaning.  This  was  perhaps  the  home  of  the  Goter  mentioned  in  the  inscrip- 

This  inquiry  might  be  extended  so  as  to  include  several  other  words 
that  have  been  criticised,  but  as  we  have  brought  under  review  the  chief  of 
the  objections  from  a  linguistic  point  of  view,  we  deem  it  unnecessary  to 
go  further  into  details. 

From  the  examination  of  the  language  of  the  stone  the  committee 
think  that  the)-  are  warranted  in  making  the  following  conclusions : 

1.  It  cannot  be  the  work  df  some  unlettered  amateur  of  the  present 

2.  It  is  either  the  uncritical  record  of  an  exploration  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  or  the  fabrication  of  a  consummate  philologist  familiar  with  the 
dialect  of  Vestgotland  in  the  fourteenth  century,  which  was  essentially  the 
Dalske  dialect  of  Dalarne  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

3.  No  expert  philologist  would  make  the  blunder  of  writing  dcd  for 
d'od.  A  modern  philologist  familiar  with  the  evolution  of  0  from  an  would 
hardly  make  such  an  error,  but  such  phonetic  mistakes  were  common  among 
the  uncritical  people  of  the  fourteenth  century. 


4.  The  peculiarity  of  spelling  '"and"  as  both  ok  and  og  is  abhorrent 
to  the  scientific  precision  of  a  modern  philologist,  but  was  very  natural  in 
the  fourteenth  century,  when  the  sounds  of  k,  t,  and  p.  were  frequently 
confounded  with  those  of  g,  d,  and  b. 

5.  The  use  of  the  phrase,  "id  var  ok  fiskc,''  belongs  in  the  same  class 
of  colloquialisms  as  skiillen  for  skule  han.  haden  for  havde  han,  etc.  These 
phrases  are  all  on  the  lips  of  the  people  in  common  speech,  but  no  well- 
informed  person  would  sufifer  them  to  appear  in  a  serious  narrative  in 
writing.  But  in  the  fourteenth  century,  with  its  greater  phonetic  freedom, 
the}-  were  all  common. 

6.  Several  obsolete  words,  which  were  in  use  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury, such  as  lacgcr,  rise,  skjar,  af  illy,  and  from,  as  well  as  the  peculiar 
numeral  characters,  strongly  indicate  that  no  modern  impostor  made  the 
inscription,  as  the  works  of  scholars  proving  that  they  were  in  use  at  that 
time  have  mainly  been  published  since  the  stone  was  found. 

7.  The  linguistic  internal  evidence  of  the  genuineness  of  the  stone 
coincide  with  and  confirm  the  indications  that  come  from  the  finding  of 
the  stone  and  its  attendant  condition. 

8.  The  numeral  which  expresses  the  number  of  days'  journey  distant 
from  the  seashore  is  more  probably  meant  for  fourteen  than  forty-one. 


Attention  should  be  called  again  to  the  stone  found  by  Verendrye  and 
sent  by  him  to  Paris  in  1734-40.  The  characters  could  not  be  read  by  any 
parties  in  Quebec,  but  were  believed  to  be  of  Tartarean  origin,  there  being 
then  a  belief  entertained  by  many  scholars  and  archeologists  that  America 
was  peopled  by  Asiatics.  The  particulars  of  this  finding,  so  far  as  they  are 
known,  are  given  by  the  Swedish  botanist  Kalm,  who  traveled  in  America  in 

Again,  there  was  evidently  European  blood  in  the  Mandan  Indians. 
All  travelers  who  visited  them  reported  instances  of  light-colored  hair  and 
skin,  and  blue  e\"es.  (7atlin  presumed  that  the  party  of  ]\Iadoc,  a  Welsh 
prince,  had  reached  them,  and  that  their  descendants  would  account  for  the 
remarkable  physiognomy.  It  is  doubtful,  however,  that  the  mixing  of  the 
dark  Iberian  complexion  of  the  Welsh  with  that  of  the  Indians  would  ever 
produce  blue  eyes,  while  it  seems  certain  that  the  blond  complexion  of  the 
Northmen  of  Europe  would  produce  them. 

These  facts  constitute  an  a  priori  affirmative  case  indicating  that  peo- 
ple  from  northern  Europe  mingled  with  the  Alandan  Indians. 



The  following  resolutions,  which  were  adopted  unanimously  by  this 
committee  April  21,  1910,  are  not  expected  to  terminate  the  investigation, 
but  to  show  the  present  belief  of  its  members : 

Resolved,  That  this  committee  renders  a  favorable  opinion  of  the  authen- 
ticity of  the  Kensington  rune  stone,  provided,  that  the  references  to  Scandi- 
navian literature  given  in  this  committee's  written  report  and  accompan_\-ing 
papers  be  verified  by  a  competent  specialist  in  the  Scandinavian  languages. 
to  be  selected  by  this  committee,  and  that  he  approve  the  conclusions  of 
this  report. 

Resoh-ed.  That  this  action  of  the  committee  be  reported  to  the  next 
meeting  of  the  executive  council,  and  that  J\Ir.  Holand  be  so  informed. 

E.  C.   Mitchell,  Chairman. 

F.  J.     SCHAEFER, 

O.  D.  Wheeler, 

N.    H.    WiNCHELL, 

Warren  Upham.  Secretary. 

In  the  next  monthly  council  meeting.  May  9,  19 10.  this  subject  was 
introduced  by  Rev.  Edward  C.  Mitchell,  chairman  of  the  committee,  and 
large  parts  of  this  report  were  read  by  Professor  Winchell,  followed  by 
his  presentation,  for  the  committee,  of  these  resolutions.  After  much  dis- 
cussion by  the  president  and  several  members  of  the  council  and  others  of 
the  society,  the  council  voted  that  the  report  and  resolutions  of  the  museum 
committee  be  received  and  printed,  with  a  statement  that  the  council  and 
society  reserve  their  conclusion  until  more  agreement  of  opinions  for  or 
against  the  rune  inscription  may  be  attained. 

Subsequently,  Professor  Bothne,  having  been  selected  by  the  museum 
committee,  in  accordance  with  its  resolutions,  for  verification  of  references 
and  a  statement  of  his  opinion,  sent  to  the  committee  the  following  letter : 

The  University  of  Minnesota, 
Minneapolis,  Jnly  19,  1910. 
Prof.  N.  H.  Winchell, 

Dear  Sir:  I  am  going  away  tomorrow,  and  cannot  attend  your  meet- 
ing next  Sunday.  I  have  examined  your  report  carefully,  have  visited 
Kensington  and  neighborhood,  and  have  read  most  of  the  papers  and  articles 
relating  to  the  rune  stone. 


I  ha\e  always  believed  with  the  great  authorities  of  Norway  and  Sweden, 
Magnus  Olsen,  Moltke  Moe,  M.  Hogstad,  Bugge,  Noreen,  Schrick,  Mon- 
telius,  that  the  language  is  too  modern,  besides  being  faulty;  and  a  more 
careful  study  of  the  words  has  not  changed  my  opinion.  In  some  places 
where  the  rune  (thorn)  is  used,  it  is  not  used  properly.  But  I  shall  not 
enter  into  details  at  this  time. 

That  the  Norwegians  discovered  Vinland  is  a  fact.  That  they,  in 
the  fourteenth  century,  may  have  penetrated  into  the  country  as  far  as 
the  present  Kensington,  is  possible.  But  what  has  been  testified  to  about 
the  finding  of  the  stone  is  not  convincing,  and  I  do  not  consider  the  Ken- 
sington stone  authentic. 

It  seems  to  me  that  the  stone  should  be  brought  to  Norway  to  be 
examined  by  expert  runologists,  and,  in  my  opinion,  nothing  else  will  dis- 
pose of  the  matter. 

Yours  respectfully, 



Since  the  foregoing  was  written,  a  learned  contribution  has  been  made 
to  the  subject  by  an  eminent  philologist,  Prof.  George  T.  Flom,  of  the 
University  of  Illinois,  who  reaches  an  adverse  decision.  This  was  cour- 
teously furnished  to  the  committee  in  manuscript,  but  has  since  been  revised 
and  published  in  June,  1910,  by  the  Illinois  Historical  Society,  entitled 
"The  Kensington  Rune  Stone,  a  Modern  Inscription  from  Douglas  County, 
Minnesota."     His  objections  can  be  classified  as  follows: 


1.  hadlic.  hafthc  should  have  been  used;  that  is,  the  disappearance 
of  /  or  V  before  a  consonant  had  not  yet  taken  place. 

2.  I'cdh  should  Ije  vidh.  The  change  to  c  begins  about  1400.  vc,  in 
the  third  line  from  the  end,  is  an  attempt  to  use  the  modern  Swedish-Nor- 
wegian vc. 

3.  fro  should  be  fra.  as  fro  and  fro)n  never  occur  in  Middle  Swedish. 

4.  of  cannot  be  compared  with  the  sense  "too,"  which  would  be  beside 
the  point   ;  and  of  rest  is  as  impossible  as  "too  west"  in  English. 


5.  o/j  would  have  been  in  Middle  Swedish,  in  the  regular  way,  do. 

6.  ahr.  The  same  error  occurs  here  in  oh.  These  spellings  belong  to 
a  much  later  time. 

7.  dliag,  opdhagclsc,  landli,  dlicdh.  There  was  no  need  for  the  Swedish 
scribe  to  employ  the  rune  p  for  (/,  os  well  as  for  dh  and  //;;  for  d  then  had 
its  own  symbol. 


8.  x'ar,  koiii,  fan,  liar.  The  transference  of  the  singular  form  to  the 
plural  is  comparatively  recent. 

9.  man,  as  plural,  is  irregular. 

10.  7-i  had  he.  The  modern  scribe  here  employed  his  own  speech, 
with  an  antiquarian  effort  shown  in  introducing  /;  after  the  dental. 

11.  fra  dheno  sten  should  be  fra  pacssoii  stcn  (variant  of  paoiuna 
stcn)  ;  "later  fra  may  also  govern  the  accusative,  which  would  give  the 
form  fra  paenna  sten." 

12.  at  se  acptirvore  skip  should  be,  regularly,  at  se  aeptir  varolii  skipiiin. 
The  rune  stone's  inscription  is  that  of  present  speech,  Norwegian  rather  than 
Swedish,  except  for  the  word  aeptir. 

13.  from  dheno  ijh.  oil  is  feminine  in  Old  Swedish,  and  the  feminine 
form  of  dheno  should  have  been  used,  i.  e.,  fra  paeniia  0.  {  Compare  fra  dheno 
stcn  above.) 


14.  po.  then  just  forming  from  11  pp  a,  up  pa,  could  not  be  used  in  this 
way  (i.  e.,  with  an  activity),  but  only  as  a  preposition  meaning  upon.  The 
use  here  is  modern  (in  Swedish  comparatively  recent). 

15.  opdhagclse  must  have  dated  from  after  the  Reformation.  It  is 
Dutch,  and  its  meaning  as  here  employed  is  from  High  German  entdeckcn. 

16.  lacger  is  a  loan  from  the  German.  The  Old  Swedish  word  was 
laegher,  which  also  was  used  differently. 

17.  rise  should  be  in  Old  Swedish  resa.  which  came  into  Swedish  from 
German  in  the  fifteenth  century. 

18.  Two  quotations  are  given,  from  the  fourteenth  century  and  the 
fifteenth  century,  to  show  how  consistent  the  language  was  at  that  time.  One 
is  from  Sjalinne  Throst,  1370,  MS.  1430,  the  other  from  Margaret's  Chronicle, 
late  fifteenth  century,  MS.  1514-1525. 



19.  Examination  shows  that  the  runes  employed  are  not  those  of  the 
Mariaklagan,  Middle  Swedish  of  about  1400,  which  are  the  same  as  in  theScan- 
ian  Law  (1300).  The  Kensington  scribe  therefore  did  not  use  the  regular 
Norwegian  and  Middle  Swedish  runic  alphabet,  but  employed  characters 
either  invented  by  himself  or  from  some  other  dialect,  "a  different  alphabet." 

20.  This  paper  shows  use  and  knowledge  of  runes  "until  the  last  cen- 
tury." Hence  there  is  some  likelihood  of  someone  having  skill  enough  to 
write  runes  in  the  latter  half  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

21.  It  finds  that  the  particular  alphabet  of  the  Kensington  stone  was 
in  use  in  the  sixteenth  century  in  Elfdalen;  and  it  infers  that  the  sixteenth 
century  is  "modern,"  yet  in  important  respects  quite  different.  For  instance, 
the  thorn  was  used  by  the  Kensington  scribe  for  tJi,  dli,  and  d,  whereas 
at  the  date  claimed  for  the  stone  d  had  its  own  character. 


Most  of  these  critical  objections  have  been  presented  by  others,  and 
are  referred  to  in  the  Ixidy  of  the  foregoing  report.  There  are  21  items, 
as  numbered,  and  they  will  be  reviewed  here  in  numerical  order.  Numbers 
I,  3,  7,  8,  10,  14,  15,  and  16,  have  been  shown  to  be  either  invalid  ov  at 
least  of  questionable  character  adverse  to  the  records. 

No.  2.  vc  is  undoubtedly  the  phonetic  for  I'cdii,  which  is  spelled  in 
full  (vcdii)  in  the  fourth  line,  but  probably  pronounced  as  spelled  here 
(vi").  If  the  rune  scribe  were  perpetrating  a  fraudulent  record  of  1362, 
and  was  acquainted  with  the  word  vcdJi.  he  would  scarcely  introduce  a 
modern  spelling  of  that  word   (tr). 

No.  4.  The  translation  far  to  the  z^'cstzvard  is  not  required.  The  use 
of  of  for  af  is  an  instance  of  the  phonetic  confounding  of  a,  aa,  with  0. 

No.  5.  oh.  The  difference  in  sound  between  this  word  and  do  was 
so  slight  that  the  rune  scribe  was  phonetically  at  liberty  to  use  either. 

No.  6.  ahr.  Dahlerup  says  that  "as  early  as  in  Old  Danish[i050-i35o], 
the  original  long  a  had  begun  to  approach  the  sound  of  aa"  (Det  Danske 
Sprogs  Historic,  p.  31  ).  This  increased  length  of  sound  was  indicated  also 
by  the  spelling  ahr. 

No.  9.  iiiaii.  The  common  form  for  the  plural  was  menu,  or  iiuiii. 
The  form  here  used  is  irregular  for  anv  date  and  can  hardly  be  justified, 



although  in  Gamle  Eriks  Kronike  (1320)  is  the  expression  "10,000  man  them 
forslo"'  (Klemming's  edition,  326). 

No.  10.  z'i  hadlie.  If  the  faker  scribe  knew  the  antiquarian  style,  it  is 
hard  to  explain  why  he  used  his  own  speech  at  all.     (Compare  No.  2.) 

No.  II.  fra  dheno  stcn.  The  error  of  not  distinguishing  the  gender 
of  nouns  in  the  application  of  the  demonstrative  was,  and  is,  common.  The 
final  letter  (0)  was  frequently  substituted  for  a;  but  as  sten  is  masculine, 
this  form  of  the  adjective  is  quite  allowable.  The  final  letter  0,  being  unac- 
cented, was  frequently  substituted  for  a,  and  vice  versa. 

No.  12.  at  se  aptir  vore  skip.  This  illustrates  the  confusion  of  inflex- 
ional usage  of  the  fourteenth  century.  According  to  Falk  and  Torp,  about 
this  period  c  was  changed  to  a  in  the  word  cptir  and  others  in  the  Swedish 
language;  but  the  change  was  not  permanent,  the  letter  e  being  restored,  and 
a  century  later  we  find  dptir,  cptir,  and  dffthir,  and  cftir,  used  side  by  side 
(Svenska  Medeltidens,  Rim-Kronikor,  third  part).  As  the  scribe  employed 
dptir,  it  seems  that,  unless  he  was  a  learned  linguist,  he  must  have  been 
contemporary  with  this  temporary  change. 

Professor  Flom  contends  that  a  writer  of  the  fourteenth  century  would 
have  written  varom  skipmn.  We  find  however  that  case  endings  were  not 
so  invariably  respected  as  is  commonly  supposed.  Even  in  the  Icelandic  sagas, 
which  show  a  far  more  precise  literary  practice  than  the  Swedish  of  the  four- 
teenth century,  the  case  endings  are  sometimes  violated.  For  instance,  in 
the  Vinland  saga  (A.  M.  552)  we  read:  "Lata  their  i  haf  fram  tvcnnum 
skipmn  thegar  their  erii.  bunir"  (Vigfusson's,  p.  123,  line  23).  haf  is  there 
nominative  and  should  be  dative,  while  tvennum  skipum  is  dative  and  should 
be  accusative. 

Such  disregard  and  confusion  of  case  endings  is  still  more  common  in 
the  Swedish  of  the  fourteenth  century.  Molbech  says  of  this  period:  "The 
old  mother  tongue's  declensions  and  endings,  which  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury but  meagerly  remained,  almost  completely  disappeared  at  the  close  of  the 
century"  ( Molbech's  Ordbog,  p.  xlvii).  We  find  therefore  that  the  expres- 
sion in  the  inscription  is  not  out  of  harmony  with  fourteenth  century  usage. 
No.  13.  This  shows  the  same  "irregularity  of  declension  as  we  find 
above  to  be  characteristic  of  the  period. 

No.  17.  rise.  Kalkar  gives  this  spelling  as  an  Old  Swedish  noun  (mean- 
ing journey)  of  the  middle  ages.  The  modern  form,  reise  or  reysa,  occurs 
more  commonly  in  the  literature  of  that  period. 

No.  18.     These  quotations  from  the  standard  literature  exhibi't  the  usage 


of  scholars,  among  whom  there  was  great  dissimilarity  of  standards.  The 
Kensington  stone  shows  rather  the  usage  of  the  common  people,  and,  as 
already  stated,  the  two  cannot  be  expected  to  agree  in  detail. 

No.  19.  The  runes  used  are  not  precisely  like  those  common  in  1362, 
as  illustrated  by  the  Mariaklagan  and  the  Scanian  I^w,  these  being  of  about 
that  date,  but  embrace  novel  characters,  thirteen  in  number  (including  punctu- 
ations). It  cannot  be  understood  why  an  unlettered  Swede  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  attempting  a  fraud  of  1362,  should  invent,  or  import,  thirteen 
characters  not  in  common  use ;  since  this  variation  from  the  common  use 
would  hardly  be  expected  to  further  the  acceptance  of  the  fraud.  The  proper 
comparison  would  be  with  other  inscriptions  of  West  Gothland,  which  the 
two  runic  documents  referred  to  are  not. 

No.  20.  It  is  certainly  true  that  a  scant  and  waning  knowledge  of  runes 
continued  till  the  nineteenth  century. 

No.  21.  This  particular  alphabet,  according  to  Professor  Flom,  appears 
to  have  been  in  use  in  the  sixteenth  century  in  Elfdalen,  in  central  Sweden, 
though  with  some  divergences.  How  much  earlier  it  was  used,  we  do  not 
know;  but  as  people  from  Gothland  ("8  Goths"  )  were  of  this  party  and  also 
used  this  alphabet,  it  is  evident  that  it  was  used  in  Gothland  or  West  Goth- 

This  energetic  discussion  brings  out  important  new  facts  which  every- 
one who  is  seeking  only  the  truth  will  v^'elcome ;  but  everyone  will  be  at  liberty 
still  to  make  such  application  of  the  facts  as  his  own  judgment  dictates. 
There  are  curious  anomalies  in  the  arguments  of  the  author,  such  that  the 
facts  presented  seem  not  to  be  used  in  their  logical  sequence,  nor  in  the  bear- 
ing which  they  have  on  each  other  and  on  the  main  issue. 

The-  rune  character  (thorn)  is  confounded  by  Flom  with  a  similar 
character  having  the  upper  and  lower  ends  of  its  semicircle  continued  some- 
what to  the  left  of  the  vertical  bar.  This  form  is  said  to  have  taken  the  place, 
in  part,  in  the  modern  Dalecarlian  runic  alphabet,  when,  on  the  disappearance 
of  the  sounds  dli  and  tli,  a  special  character  was  required  to  represent  the 
sound  of  d,  which  grew  into  prominence  and  persisted.  The  character  thus 
used  does  not  appear  on  the  Kensington  stone;  and  hence  only  the  sounds 
represented  can  be  fairly  ascribed  to  the  stone.  Professor  Flom's  new 
translation,  on  pages  25-26  of  his  address,  seems  to  be  based  wholly  on  his 
confusion  of  these  rune  forms.  In  1362  the  thorn  must  have  represented 
the  sound  .of  d  in  those  cases  where  the  d  sound  in  spoken  language  had 
supplanted  dh  or  th,  though  it  had  not  yet  been  given  a  special  character  in 


written  language.  The  modern  runic  alphabet,  according  to  Flom,  employs 
only  the  new  form  which  represents  the  sound  d. 

On  the  stone  the  "thorn"  character  occurs  fourteen  times,  distinctly  cut, 
without  any  suggestion  of  the  modern  rune  character  representing  d.  Yet 
nothwithstanding  this  the  author  assumes  that  the  scribe,  a  man  of  the  latter 
half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  as  he  supposes,  and  hence  familiar  with  that 
modern  rune  for  the  sound  of  d,  ignorantly  inscribed  the  "thorn"'  in  these 
fourteen  places.  It  is  not  intimated  that  the  use  of  the  old  character  was 
due  to  the  scribe's  cleverness,  to  make  the  inscription  seem  ancient,  although 
that  would  be  a  consistent  view  for  Professor  Flom  to  take,  but  he  says 
distinctly  that  that  the  scribe  was  ignorant  of  the  character  used  for  d.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  the  modern  sound  of  d  was  only  beginning  to  be  used  in 
spoken  language  in  1362,  and  was  very  rarely  recognized  then  in  runic 
script  the  character  for  t  punctuated  and  thus  changed  to  indicate  the  d 

Professor  Flom  shows  that  a  rune  system  was  used  in  Dalarne  in  the 
sixteenth  century  and  later,  but  fails  to  show  how  much  earlier. 
Doubtless  runes  were  well  known  there  in  1362,  since  their  use  seems  to  have 
prevailed  throughout  Scandinavia  from  a  much  earlier  time.  To  except 
Dalarne  would  be  without  reason,  unless  some  special  condition  can  be  shown 
to  have  operated  against  runes  in  that  district.  The  inference  therefore  is 
that  they  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Dalarne  system  of  1600.  It  remains  to 
ascertain  how  the  ancient  runes  used  there  differed  from  those  of  1600  or  those 
of  more  recent  time,  and  whether  they  manifested  those  characters  that  do 
not  agree  with  the  modern  Dalarne  system,  nor  exactly  with  that  of  the 
Scanian  Law.  Finding  important  divergences  of  the  Kensington  stone  from 
modern  runes,  Flom  abruptly  attributes  them  sometimes  to  the  ingenuity  and 
sometimes  to  the  ignorance  of  the  scribe,  not  even  considering  the  possibility 
of  their  being  due  to  their  archaic  date. 

It  is  unlikely  that  a  faker  with  the  keenness  necessary  to  guide  him  in 
injecting  into  the  inscription  certain  ancient  forms  of  language  should  so  far 
forget  himself  as  to  leave  off  the  old  inflections  of  the  verbs  (0111,  uni,  etc.), 
thus  giving  his  work  a  decidedly  modern  look.  It  is  more  probable  that  in 
1362  those  endings  had  already  been  dropped  in  speech,  but  that  a  skillful 
impostor  familiar  with  ancient  literature  would  retain  them  in  his  inscription. 

The  conclusions  set  out  in  the  appendix  seem  not  to  be  based  on 
the  facts  brought  out  by  Professor  Flom's  address.  No.  i  is  deficient  because 
his  address  does  not  treat  of  "the  language  as  spoken  at  the  time."'  He 
only  discusses  it  as  written  and  especially  its  inflexions,  which  were  dropped 


much  later  in  the  written  than  in  the  spoken  language.  No  2  is  faulty  for 
he  does  not  at  all  discuss  "the  runic  series  of  the  time"  (1362).  He  finds 
that  the  Kensington  inscription  agrees  substantially  with  the  recent  Delecar- 
lian  system,  and  where  it  shows  discrepancies  (which  may  arise  from  greater 
age)  he  regards  them  as  evidences  of  forgery  by  the  scribe.  Xo  2  is  further 
faulty  because  of  the  uncertain  significance  of  the  word  "modern."  Some 
things  that  are  modern,  say  of  the  nineteenth  century,  began  to  exist  in  the 
fourteenth  but  are  still  "modern,"  which  indeed  may  be  the  case  of  the  Delecar- 
lian  rune  system  as  a  whole.  The  verdict  of  the  committee  who  reviewed 
Flom's  arguments,  being  founded  on  evidence  not  proven,  or  only  assumed, 
is  therefore  not  conclusive. 

The  genuineness  of  the  Kensington  rune  stone  must  be  determined,  if 
Professor  Flom's  identifications  be  accepted,  by  an  investigation  directed  to 
the  question  whether  the  Delecarlian  system  of  runes  existed  at  the  date  1362 ; 
for  the  linguistic  objections  are  largely  swept  away,  and  the  runic  objections 
appear  to  be  turned  into  probably  evidence  in  favor  of  the  stone. 


The  following  article,  reporting  an  investigation  of  an  alleged  forgery 
of  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone,  contributed  by  Mr.  H.  R.  Holand,  is  reprinted 
from  the  Minneapolis  Journal,  in  which  it  was  published  August  9.  1910: 

Since  the  famous  rune  stoue  of  1362  was  found  near  Kensington.  Minuuesota. 
twelve  .vears  ago,  it  lias  been  subject  to  a  close  scrutiny,  and  many  persons  liave  been 
accused  of  having  forged  it.  These  have,  however,  been  acquitted  one  after  another 
until  now  only  one  remains.  This  man  is  one  Fogelblad,  who  was  formerly  a  Swedish 
Lutheran  pastor. 

According  to  the  statements  of  Professors  R.  B.  Anderson  and  G.  T.  Floni,  the  leaders 
of  the  opposition  against  the  genuineness  of  the  inscription,  Fogelblad  was  a  Lutheran 
clergyman  who  later  was  deposed.  He  is  said  to  have  turned  against  his  former  faith 
and  written  books  against  Christianity,  among  which  was  one  entitled  "Ageof  Reason." 
He  made  his  home  at  Kensington,  where  he  is  reported  to  have  carved  runes  on  window 
casings  and  doors,  etc.  One  of  his  favorite  subjects  of  discourse  was  a  strange  narra- 
tive of  how  "Scandinavian  explorers  had  visited  that  region  (around  Kensington)  hun- 
dreds of  years  ago."  When  he  suddenly  died,  "Fryxell's  famous  book  on  the  Runes 
of  East  Gothland"  was  found  in  his  trunk.  This  book  was  later  given  by  one  Andrew 
Anderson,  in  whose  home  Fogelblad  died,  to  Olof  Ohman,  the  tinder  of  the  stone. 
According  to  Flom  and  R.  B.  Anderson  this  book  is  a  complete  commentary  on  the 
inscription  of  the  stone. 

Such  is  the  rumor  published  in  several  newspapers,  and  now  latest  in  a  pani])hlet 
published  by  the  Hlinois  State  Historical  Society.  It  must  be  admitted  that,  if  this  is 
true,  it  is  .serious  circumstantial  evidence  against  the  truth  of  the  inscription. 

Although  I  have  made  four  or  five  earlier  trips  to  Kensington  and  vicinity,  I  had 


not  heard  this  rumor,  and  I  have  therefore  just  made  a  special  trip  thither  to  see  what 
could  be  learned  of  this  man's  life  and  character. 

I  have  spent  a  week  in  following  the  trail  through  Douglas,  Grant.  Pope,  Meeker 
and  Carver  counties.  I  have  talked  with  iwrsons  who  knew  him  in  Sweden,  with  farmers 
who  entertained  him  for  years,  with  men  and  women  whose  entire  schoolings  had  been 
received  from  him,  and,  finally,  with  those  who  were  with  him  when  he  died.  Although 
I  have  interviewed  more  than  a  hundred  persons,  there  has  been  perfect  harmony  in 
all   their  accounts,  e.specially  concerning  his  character. 

The  following  is  a  summary : 

Sveu  Fogelblad  was  born  about  1820-25  in  Sweden.  He  studied  theology  and  the 
necessary  classic  studies  that  went  with  it  in  Upsala.  His  first  public  appearance  is 
some  time  before  1860  when  we  find  him  a  jolly  curate  under  Rev.  Mr.  Kolander  in 
Tomberg  parish  in  Westgothland. 

He  resigned  his  pastorate  and  came  to  America.  Here  he  was  almost  persuaded  to 
re-enter  the  ministry  as  pastor  of  a  Swedish  congregation  at  Litchfield.  But  at  the 
critical  time  his  old  enemy,  drink,  tripped  him  up. 

He  made  his  first  appearance  around  Kensington  about  1885-90.  He  is  described 
as  a  short,  thiek-set  man  of  about  70  years  of  age,  always  cheerful  and  neat.  He  must 
have  overcome  his  drink  habit,  for  none  of  the  people  around  Hoffman  and  Kensington 
ever  saw  him  drink  or  under  the  influence  of  drink.  He  had  no  permanent  home  here, 
but  as  itinerant  schoolmaster  used  to  sojourn  for  a  few  weeks  at  different  farmhouses, 
getting  50  cents  per  month  for  each  child  taught.  His  classes  used  to  number  si.x  to 
eight  pupils,  giving  him  an  income  of  $3  to  $4-  per  month,  which  was  all  he  needed  for 
clothes.  When  the  times  and  the  seasons  were  inconvenient  for  schooling  he  used  to 
quarter  himself  upon  a  farmer.  He  was  e.xtremely  lazy,  and  was  never  known  to  have 
assisted  in  the  harvest  or  carried  in  a  pail  of  water  or  aii  armful  of  wood.  He  preferred  to 
repair  old  pipes,  bind  books,  make  kitchen  kuiek-knacks,  etc. 

In  spite  of  his  laziness  the  farmers  were  always  glad  to  see  hiui  because  of  his  wealth 
of  local  news.  He  knew  of  births  and  deaths  and  other  doings  fiir  and  wide,  and  was 
the  forerunner  of  the  village  newspaper.  Moreover  he  was  always  absolutely  reliable 
in  all  his  gossip,  conscientious  and  kindhearted  in  all  his  narratives,  and  clean  and 
agreeable  in  person.  He  was  without  any  ambition  and  never  studied.  He  wrote 
neither  books  nor  pamphlets,  his  literary  efforts  consisting  of  humble  doggerels,  which 
rarely  if  ever  were  printed.  He.  however,  boasted  to  several  that  upon  one  illustrious 
occasion  long  ago  in  Sweden  he  had  written  an  article  for  which  a  paper  had  paid 
him  ten  kroner   (about  $2.50). 

Although  he  always  seemed  contented,  there  was  an  undercurrent  of  melancholy 
in  him.  and  those  who  know  him  best  say  he  was  never  happy  after  he  left  college. 
Those  days  evoked  his  liveliest  memories,  and  his  eyes  always  overflowed  with  tears 
when  he  told  of  the  times  when  he  with  300  or  400  other  students  used  to  sing  the 
stirring  Swedish  songs.  On  the  whole,  he  appears  to  have  been  a  tenderhearted, 
superficial  person  in  general,  with  a  deep  conscientiousness  which  prevented  him  from 
squaring  his  creed  with  the  doctrine  of  the  church,  wearing  his  sorrows  as  well  as  his 
joys  upon  his  sleeve,  inspiring  confidence  in  all  by  his  openhearted  ways.  ' 

He  had  iieen  visiting  for  a  year  with  a  nephew  in  Scott  county,  when  he  in  1S95 
returned  to  Kensington  to  visit  friends.  On  approaching  the  house  of  one  Andrew 
Anderson,  he  suddenly  felt  ill.  whereupon  he  went  in  there  and  died  after  a  three  days' 
attack  of  an  unknown  malady. 

Those  who  knew  him  best  in  (irant  and  Douglas  counties  are  Messrs.  Oslund. 
Thompson  and  Slmonson  of  Red   Hock   Lake.  Hendrickson  of  Hoffman,   Ekberg  of  Her- 


mau.  aud  Moeu.  Carlsou.  Benson.  Ohmau  and  Oberg  of  Kensington,  all  among  the 
mcst  respected  farmers  of  that  section.  To  these  persons  and  nian.v  others  I  put  the 
following  questions: 

Did  you  ever  see  or  hear  of  Fogelblad  making  runes  on  window  casings,  doors, 
or  elsewhere?  Did  he  ever  speak  of  American  discovery,  or  of  Scandinavians  having 
visited  this  section  long  ago?  Do  you  believe  he  could  have  had  a  hand  in  making  the 
Kensington   inscription? 

To  all  of  these  questions  1  received  an  invariable  and  unequivocal  "no."  Not 
one  had  seen  him  make  runes,  not  one  had  heard  hiui  speak  of  Scandinavian  explorers 
in  Minnesota,  not  one  believed  he  could  possibly  have  had  anything  to  do  with  the 
Kensington  stone.  Many  of  these  persons  doubted  the  stone's  genuineness,  but,  lio  mat- 
ter who  had  chiseled  it,  they  said,  they  were  sure  Fogelblad  was  innocent.  He  was, 
they  said,  too  honest  and  conscientious  to  have  perpetrated  such  a  fraud;  he  had  no 
aptitude  whatever  for  practical  jokes  and  deceptions;  he  was  too  lazy  to  have  executed 
it,  and  too  garrulous  to  have  concealed  it  if  he  had.  Furthermore,  it  is  plain  from 
the  limitations  of  his  early  training  and  later  opportunities  that  he  was  entirely  ignorant 
of  the  fine  runological  and  linguistic  points  involved  in  this  inscription.  Finally,  he 
did  not  make  his  appearance  around  Kensington  until  many  years  after  the  tree  above 
the  stone  had   wound   its  roots  around  it. 

As  to  ■•Fryxell's  famous  book  on  the  Runes  of  East  Gothland."  which,  according 
to  Professors  Flom  and^  Anderson,  contains  all  the  material  for  this  inscription,  I  assert 
Fogelblad  never  possessed  or  saw  this  book,  for  one  excellent  reason — such  a  book 
never  existed  except  in  the  overwrought  minds  of  these  gentlemen  of  imaginary  rune  lore. 
Fryxell  never  wrote  any  book  whatsoever  on  runes.  For  information  on  this,  see  every 
Swedish  encycloiiedia.  The  only  nut  of  truth  in  this  entire  bag  of  husks  is  that  Andrew 
Anderson,  in  whose  house  Fogelblad  died,  found  an  old  Swedish  grammar  (by  Alm- 
quist)  among  his  books.  On  page  34  are  two  lines  of  runes  to  illustrate  the  develop- 
ment of  the  language.  This  book  he  gave  to  Olof  Ohman.  the  finder  of  the  stone,  who 
by  its  help  tried  to  make  out  the  inscriptions,  but  without  success.  Three  years  ago 
I  looked  over  Ohman"s  books  in  his  absence  and  found  this  work,  but  saw  at  once 
that  it  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  inscription,  as  the  runes  are  different.  Last  spring 
this  book  was  again  brought  into  the  discussion  by  suspicious  persons,  and  I  then 
asked  Professor  Winchell,  the  state  archaeologist,  to  send  for  "the  book,  which  he  did. 
He  then  laid  it  before  Norse  scholars,  who  said  it  would  be  quite  impossible  to  have 
■constructed  the  inscription  from  this  alphabet.  . 

The  small  collection  of  books  left  by  Mr.  Sven  Fogelblad  at  his  death, 
at  the  home  of  Mr.  Andrew  Anderson,  was  found,  on  inquiry  by~the  museum 
committee,  to  have  been  disposed  of  in  part  to  Rev.  M.  A.  Nordstroem,  of 
Riverside,  California.  In  order  to  push  the  im-estigation  of  this- question 
still  further,  inquiry  was  made  of  Mr.  NordstroeiTi  as  to  the  existence  of  any 
works  on  runes,  and  especially  by  Fryxell  on  runes,  in  the  collection  owned 
by  Fogelblad.  Mr.  Nordstroem  replied,  after  some  delay  due  to  change 
of  residence,  that  the  books  got  by  him  were  on  philosophy,  that  Fogelblad 
had  no  work  by  Fryxell,  and  added  that,  in  his  opinion,  Fogelblad  could 
not  have  made  the  inscription. 



The  chronologic  order  is  followed,  as  showing  best  the  development  of 
discussion  of  this  subject.  The  time  included  extends  to  September,  1910, 
giving  a  considerable  number  of  references  later  than  the  date  of  this  report 
by  the  museum  committee,  but  preceding  its  publication.  Many  minor  articles 
and  comments  in  magazines  and  newspapers  are  omitted. 

Breda,  Prof.  O.  J.  Au  interview  giving  au  account  of  the  discovery  of  the  Ruue 
Stone.     Minneapolis  Journal,  Feb.  22,   1S99. 

News  Report,  tlie  first  announcement  of  tbis  discovery  published  in  the  Norwegian 
press,  Skandinaven,  Chicago,  Feb.  22,  1S99. 

Aaberg,  E.  E.  Further  account  of  the  discovery,  written  by  a  local  resident  acquainted 
with  its  details.     Skandinarcn    (semi-weekly),  Chicago,  March  1,  1809. 

Curme,  Prof.  G.  O.  Interview  presenting  in  a  brief  paragraph  bis  objection  to 
the  use  of  the  decimal  system  in  the  inscription.     Skandinaven,  March  1.  1899. 

Kirkeberg,  Rev.  O.  L.  An  able  translation  of  the  inscription,  with  argument  in 
favor  of  the  genuineness  of  the  stone.    Skandinuven,  March  1,  1899. 

Curme,  Prof.  G.  O.  A  lengthy  interview,  favoring  the  genuineness  of  the  inscrip- 
tion, but  objecting  to  the  apparently  English  word  from.    Skandinaven,  March  3,  1899. 

Conradi,  P.  A.  Detailed  discussion  of  the  inscription,  presenting  arguments  for  and 
against  its  genuineness.     Skandinaven,  March  10,  1899. 

Editorial  Article  in  Skandinai-en,  March  K,  1899,  summarizing  the  objections  of 
Prof.  Oluf  Rygh  as  published  in  Mnrgenhladet,  Christiania,  Norway.  These  are  the  sup- 
posed English  words,  from,  of,   ded,  and  unusual  runic  characters. 

Flom.  P.  L.  Communication  showing  that  from  was  in  use  in  Norway  in  the 
middle  ages.     Skandinaven,  March  24,  1899. 

Breda,  Prof.  O.  J.  Interview  giving  a  cablegram  from  professors  of  Christiania 
University,  discrediting  the  ioscription  chiefly  because  of  its  numerous  supposed  English 
words.     Minneapolis  Tribune,  April  16,  1899. 

This  opinion  silencetl  all  who  had  been  interested  in  the  Rune  Stone,  and  we  find 
nothing  further  printed  about  it  until  1908. 

Holand,  Hjalmar  Rued.  First  account  of  the  stone  in  the  revival  of  the  discussion, 
containing  a  detailed  defense  of  its  genuineness  and  a  full  translation.  Skandinaven, 
January  17,   1908:   printed   also  in   several   other   Scandinavian  newspapers. 

Holand.  H.  R.  The  second  chapter,  pages  8-22,  in  his  "De  Norske  Settlementers 
Historie"  (Ephraim,  Wisconsin,  1908),  gives  an  account  of  the  visits  to  America  by  the 
early  Norsemen  between  the  years  lOOO  and  1362,  and  concludes  with  a  description  of 
the  Kensington  Rune  Stone.  A  view  of  the  stone  is  presented  from  a  photograph,  and 
its  inscription  is  printed  in  the  rune  characters,  with  a  manuscript  transliteration. 

Holand,  H.  R.  Notes  of  correspondence  with  Prof.  Magnus  Olsen  and  Helge  Gjessing. 
of  Christiania  University,  giving  Mr.  Gjessing's  objections  to  the  inscription  and  answers 
to  them.     Deeorah  Posfcn,  Decorah,  Iowa,  May  14.  1909. 

Gjessing.  Helge.  Runestenen  fra  Kensington.  The  full  publication  of  his  objections. 
in  Symra,  Decorah,  Iowa.  Vol.  5,  No.  3,  pp.  113-126,  September,  1909. 

Iverslie,  P.  P.  Keusingtonstenen.  An  able  support  of  Mr.  Holand's  arguments  in 
favor  of  the  stone  and  in  opposition  to  Mr.  Gjessing's  conclusions.  Kvartalskrift,  Eau 
Claire,  Wisconsin,  July,  1909,  pp.  13-21. 


Editorial  Article  in  La  Nature,  Paris.  France,  August  14.  1009.  giving  tbe  history 
of  the  discovery  of  the  stone  and  discussions  of  it,  and  presenting  the  probability  of  its 

Holaud,  H.  R.  "Au  Explorer's  Stone  Record  which  antedates  Columbus:  a  Tragic 
Inscription  unearthed  in  Minnesota,  recording  the  Fate  of  a  Band  of  Scandinavian 
Adventurers."     Harper's  Weekly,  October  0.  1909.  p.  15. 

Fossum,  Prof.  Andrew.  "Hudson  Bay  Route  to  Solve  Problem."  A  defense  of  the 
inscription  by  an  able  presentation  of  the  feasibility  of  the  explorers'  route  by  the  way 
of  Hudson  bay,  the  Nelson  river,  lake  Winnipeg,  and  the  Red  river.  XunicgUin  American, 
Northfield,  Minnesota,  October  22,  1909.  This  article  was  printed  also  in  Norwegian 
in  Skandinaven,  October  26. 

Holand,  H.  R.  "The.  Skerries  Discovered."  Au  account  of  the  author's  di-scovery  of 
the  skerries  mentioned  in  the  inscription.  Noriicgian  American,  November  19,  1909. 
The  same  account  in  Norwegian,  accompanied  by  a  map  of  Pelican  lake,  showing  the 
position  of  the  skerries  and  probable  location  of  the  camp  of  the  explorers,  was  published 
in  Skandinaven,  November  26. 

Odland,  M.  W.  "The  Kensington  Rune  Stone  is  Genuine."  Minneapolis  Jounial, 
November  29,  1909. 

Norman,  Rev.  O.  A.  "More  about  the  Rune  Stone, ; by  one  who  was  asso- 
ciated in  the  Discovery  of  the  Skerries."    Ashby   (Minnesota)   Post,  December  3,  1909. 

News  Report  of  a  meeting  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  December  13,  1909, 
giving  synopses  of  addresses  by  H.  R.  Holand,  Prof.  N.  H.  Winchell,  Prof.  Andrew  Fossum, 
and  Dr.  Knut  Hoegh,  all  in  defense  of  the  genuineness  of  the  inscription.  Pioneer  Press, 
St.  Paul.  Minnesota.  Dec'ember  14,  1909. 

News  Report,  noting  resolutions  by  the  Council  of  the  JIinne.sota  Historical  Society, 
requesting  the  governor  of  Minnesota  to  institute  a  search  iu  Paris  for  a  supposed  rune 
stone  found  in  the  Northwest  by  Verendrye  in  his  expeditions  of  1738-43.  related  by  Peter 
Kalm  in  his  "Travels  into  North  America"  (London  edition,  1771.  Vol.  III.  pp.  124-128). 
The  Dispatch,  St.  Paul,  December  14.  1909. 

News  Reports,  more  detailed,  of  tbe  addresses  on  December  13.  in  the  meeting  of  this 
Historical  Society,  including  nearly  all  of  Professor  Wiifchell's  address.  Xorirc'iiaii 
American.  December  17.  1909. 

Hoegh,  Dr.  Knut.  Report  by  the  chairman  of  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Nor- 
wegian Society  of  Minneapolis  to  investigate  the  discovery  of  the  stone.  The  reiiort  shows 
that  it  had  lain  where  it  was  found  since  about  1800.  at  least,  and  strongly  favors  the 
genuineness  of  the  inscription.     Symra,  Vol.  5.  No.  4.  pp.  178-189.  December,  1909. 

Holand,  H.  R.  A  reply  in  Symra,  Vol.  5.  N<i.  4,  p|i.  209-213.  to  the  arguments  of  Mr. 
Gjessing  in  its  preceding  number  as  before  cited. 

Upham,  Warren.  "The  Kensington  Rune  Stone,  its  Discovery,  its  Inscriptions,  and 
Opinions  concerning  them."  Records  of  the  Past,  Washington,  D.  C,  Vol.  IX,  Part  1,  pp. 
3-7,  January-February,  1910;  with  prints  from  photographs  showing  the  inscriptions  on 
the  face  and  edge  of  the  stone. 

Daae,  Dr.  Anders.  Concise  summary  of  the  discussidu  up  in  date,  rouchuling  that  the 
opponents  of  the  stone  have  not  properly  investigated  tbe  subject  liefore  forming  their 
conclusions.     Aftenpostcn,  Christiauia,  Norway,  January  18,  1910. 

News  Report  of  a  meeting  of  the  Chicago  Historical  Society.  Feliruary  3.  1910,  in 
which  an  address  relating  to  the  probable  genuineness  of  this  Rune  Stone  was  delivered 
l)y  H.  U.  Holand.  followed  by  arguments  of  Dr.  Chester  N.  Gould,  of  Chicago  University, 
and  Prof.  George  T.  Flom.  of  tbe  I'niversity  of  Illinois,  against  it.  skdinlindrrn.  Febru- 
ary 5;  1910. 


Aiulei'son.  Prof.  Kasuius  B.  "Professor  Auderson  calls  it  a  Fraud."  a  sharp  attack 
on  the  Itune  Stoue  and  Mr.  Holand's  integrit.v.  Wl'iconxiii  titaic  ■Journal.  Madisou, 
Wisconsin,  February  7.  1910. 

Holand,  H.  R.  Rebuttal  of  the  arguments  presented  in  the  preceding  article.  Wis- 
coiiisin,  State  Journal,  February  8.  I&IO. 

Holand.  H.  R.  An  interview  entitled  "Wed  with  Indians,"  presenting  the  prob- 
ability that  the  blue-eyed  Maudan  Indians  are  the  result  of  intermarriage  of  the  explor- 
er.s  of  13U2  with  the  Indians  of  that  region.     Pioneer  Press,  February  15,  1910. 

Anderson,  Prof.  R.  B.  Editorial  attacks  against  the  Kensington  stone  and  Mr. 
Holand.  Amerika,  Madison,  Wisconsin,  February  18,  1910.  In  the  next  issue  of  Aineriha, 
February  25,  are  a  letter  by  Warren  Upham,  secretary  of  the  Jlinnesota  Historical 
Society,  coucerniu!:  that  society's  investigation  of  the  stone  and  its  inscriptions,  and 
Professor  Andersdu's  eilitorial   reply. 

Gates,  Rev.  Htiratio.  A  sunnnary  of  the  discovery  and  discussion,  with  numerous 
references  supporting  the  genuineness  of  the  inscriptions.  Rcimblican  Gazette.  Willmar, 
Minnesota,  March  24,  1910. 

Holand,  H.  R.  "A  Fourteenth-Century -Columbus,"  noting  that  a  Norse  expedition 
under  the  command  of  Paul  Knutson  sailed  from  Bergen  to  Greenland  in  1355  and 
returned  in  l.'J64,  and  that  probably  they  went  into  Hudson  bay  and  theuee  advanced 
inland  to  the  site  of  the  Kensington  stoue.     Harper's   Wcekli/,  March  26,  1910. 

Hageu.  Prof.  O.  E.  "Ad  Utrunique  Simus."  An  Interesting  discussion  of  the  cre- 
dentials of  this  Rune  Stone,  with  the  conclusion  that  the  runes  and  the  language  of  the 
inscription  will   yield   "its  own   vindication   or  condemnation."     Amerika,  April   1,   1910. 

Huseby,  Olaf.  A  defense  of  the  langua,i;e  of  the  stoue.  particularly  of  the  word 
front,     ^kandinaren.  April  9,  101 U. 

Holand,  H.  It.  A  reply  to  I'rofes.sor  Flom's  ob.iections  to  the  inscription,  as  pre- 
sented by  him  at  the  meetiufr,  February  3.  of  the  Chicago  Historical  Society.  Skundi- 
naren,  April  21,  1910. 

Holand,  H.  R.  "The  Oldest  Native  Document  in  America ;"  the  address  delivered 
before  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society  as  before  noted,  December  13,  1909,  giving  a 
narration  of  the  finding  of  the  Rune  Stone,  with  affidavits  relating  thereto,  and  a  full 
statement  of  the  arguments,  runic,  and  linguistic,  on  both  sides  of  the  controversy,  showing 
the  probable  reliability  of  the  inscription  as  a  historical  record.  Journal  of  American 
History.  Vol.  IV,  No.  2,  pp.  165-184,  April,  1910. 

Breda,  Prof.  O.  J.  "Ruudt  Keusiugton-stenen."  A  satirical  article,  noting  the 
improbabilities  of  an  exploration  so  far  inland,  and  reminding  the  reader  of  the  adverse 
opinions  uttered  by  Norse  scholars  when  the  stone  was  foiuid.  Symra.  Vol.  6,  No.  2,  pp. 
05-80,   May,  1910. 

,     Dieserud,   .luul.      "Holand    og   Kensingtonspogen."      Detailed    objections   against    the 
language  of  the  inscription.     Skandinaven,  May  4,  and  Anurika.  May  13,  1910. 

Winchell.  Prof.  N.  H.  News  report  entitled  "I  believe  the  Stoue  is  Genuine." 
Nonreoian  Anieriean,  Northfield.  Minnesota,  May  13,  1910.  This  article  and  others  in 
the  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis  newspapers.  May  10-12,  contain  extracts  from  the  Report 
of  the  Mu.seuni  Committee  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  read  by  Professor  Win- 
chell at  the  society's  monthly  meeting.  May  9. 

Holand,  H.  R.  "Kensington-stenen."  Lengthy  replies  to  Jlr.  Diesernd's  olyections 
stated  in  the  foregoing  article.     Skandinaven,  May  IS  and  23,  1910. 

Anderson,  Prof.  R.  B.  "The  Kensington  Rune  Stone  once  more:  Draw  your  own 
Conclusions."  This  article  claims  that  one  Andrew  Anderson  practically  .idmitted  to 
the  writer  that  he  and  Olof  Ohman,  the  tinder  of  the  stone,  .-issisted   a   foniier  iire;ichcr 


named  Fogelblad  iu  forging  the  inscription.  Amerika,  ilay  27,  1910 ;  reprinted  also  in 
the  Democrat,  Madison,  Wisconsin,  of  the  same  date. 

Winchell,  Prof.  N.  H.  "Letters  from  Rune  Su.spects."  Letters  of  Andrew  Anderson 
and  Olof  Ohman,  denying  and  disproving  the  preceding  accusation,  and  showing  the 
impossibility  of  any  collusion  between  them.     Norwegian  American,  June  10.  1910. 

Anderson,  Prof.  R.  B.,  and  Prof.  X.  H.  Winchell.  "Opinions  differ  on  Rune  Stone." 
An  interview  with  the  former,  accusing  Rev.  Sveu  Fogelblad  of  making  inscription,  and 
letters  from  the  latter  and  from  Andrew  Anderson,  refuting  that  statement.  Minne- 
apolis Journal,  June  10,  1910. 

Iverslie,  P.  P.  Rebuttal  of  the  arguments  against  the  inscription  presented  by  Mr. 
Dieserud  as  before  noted.     Amerika,  June  10,  17,  and  24,  1910. 

Daae.  Dr.  Anders.  "Var  Normandeue  i  Amerika  i  1362V"  Review  of  recent  develop- 
ments in  the  disi'iissidii.  including  a  signed  invitation  from  professors  at  Christiania 
University  that  the  stinic  lie  brought  there  for  renewed  investigation.  Aftciiiioxtrn. 
Christiania,  Norw^iy,  .luiio  12.  1910. 

Flom,  Prof.  George  T.  "The  Kensington  Rune  Stone;  a  Modern  Inscription  from 
Douglas  County,  Minnesota."  This  address,  delivered  to  the  Illinois  State  Historical 
Society  at  its  annual  meeting,  May  5-6,  1910,  is  a  very  elaborate  array  of  arguments, 
from  many  points  of  view,  against  the  genuineness  of  this  rune  inscription,  with  intima- 
tion that  Mr.  Fogelblad  may  have  been  its  author.  Publication  with  a  large  plate  view^ 
of  the  rune  stone,  showing  separately  the  records  on  its  face  and  edge,  and  a  plate  of 
the  runic  alphabets  used  in  the  Scanian  Law.  the  Lament  of  the  Virgin,  and  this  Ken- 
sington inscription. 

Schaefer,  Rev.  Francis  J.  "The  Kensington  Rune  Stone."  Narration  of  the  dis- 
covery, description  of  the  stone,  with  a  plate  from  photograiilis.  mikI  iliscussiou  of  the 
inscription,  concluding  that  it  probably  is  genuine.  Acta  et  DU-ln  (  pulilislied  by  the  St. 
Paul  Catholic  Historical  Society),  Vol.  II,  No.  2.  pp.  206-210,  July,  lOKi. 

Dieserud,  Juul.  Restatement  of  his  arguments  against  the  stone.  SkdiKliiKircii. 
July  11,  1910. 

Holand.  H.  R.     Reply  to  the  article  last  cited.     Hkandinaren.  July  29.  1910. 

Holand.  H.  R.  Report  of  a  thorough  investigation  of  the  rumor  relating  to  Sven 
Fogelblad.  entirely  exonerating  him  from  complicity  in  authoi-ship  of  the  inscription. 
Skandinaven.  August  4,  and  the  Minneapolis  Jountul.  August  9,  1910:  reprinted  in  the 
preceding  pages  57-60. 

IversHe,  P^  P.  "Comments  on  the  Rune  Stone."  in  support  of  its  genuineness. 
Norwegian  Avierican,  August  12,  1910. 

Grevstad,  N.  A.  Editorial  review  of  Professor  Flom's  address,  before  noted,  the 
reviewer's  conclusion  being  that  the  arguments  in  favor  of  the  stone  are  stronger  than  its 
opponents  admit.     Skandinaren,  September  5,  1910. 

Holand.  H.  R.  "Mere  om  Kensington  Stenen."  Statement  of  the  geological  features 
of  the  stone,  and  notes  of  the  opinions  of  experts  concerning  the  antiquity  of  the  inscrip- 
tion.    Skini(liiiarr)i.  September  17,  1910. 

Petterson.  A.  E.  An  interesting  summary  of  Icelandic  traditions  of  late  voyages  to 
Vinland.  supporting  the  genuineness  of  the  stone.     Skandinaven,  September  24,  1910. 

Holand,  H.  R.  "Are  there  English  Words  on  the  Kensington  Rune  Stone?"  An 
Investigation  of  the  supposed  English  words  (the  most  common  objection),  showing  them 
to  be  of  ancient  Norse  usage,  exhibiting  philological  features  practically  impossible  for  a 
forger.     Records  of  the  Pa>:t.  Vol.  IX,  Part  V.  pp.  240-245,  September-October.  1910. 

Early  Settlement. 

An  eloquent  and  observant  writer  who  some  years  ago  had  occasion  to 
pen  his  observation  regarding  that  portion  of  the  beautiful  Park  Region  of 
Minnesota. comprised  within  the  borders  of  Douglas  county  observed  that  "the 
first  settlers  who  pushed  their  way  thus  far  beyond  the  confines  of  civilization, 
found  a  land  of  great  natural  beauty;  a  land  selected  as  a  home  by  the  Sioux 
and  Chippewa,  with  love  for  the  beautiful  which  Nature  made  an  instinct 
in  the  savage.  The  sun  shone  as  brightly  then  as  now,  the  flowers  bloomed 
as  freshly  and  carpeted  the  wide  waste  with  the  same  variegated  hues  of 
beauty,  while  the  woodland,  with  its  network  of  undergrowth,  almost  defied 
penetration  to  all  else  but  natives  of  its  own  depths.  It  was,  indeed,  a  beauti- 
ful land.  In  summer,  a  perfect  paradise  of  flowers;  in  winter,  a  drear\-, 
barren  desert,  with  no  trace  of  civilization.  But  today,  how  changed  the 
scene.  Rich  fields  of  golden  grain,  magnificent  farms,  villages  and  cities 
have  sprung  up  where  so  recently  was  naught  but  waste  and  desolation. 
The  wintry  blast  which  in  former  years  drove  the  deer,  bear  and  wolf  to  their 
hiding  places,  now  signals  the  herd  of  the  husbandman  to  comfortable 
shelter;  while  the  iron  horse,  swifter  than  the  nimble  deer,  treads  the  path- 
way so  recently  the  trail  of  the  red  man.  A  wealthy  and  prosperous  land 
has  grown  up,  filled  with  a  happy  and  contented  people — a  land  dotted  with 
schools  and  churches;  while,  as  each  milepost  in  the  history  of  the  county  is- 
passed,  it  seems  to  mark  an  era  of  new  and  increased  prosperity." 

Upon  seeking  to  arrive  at  a  definite  conclusion  regarding  the  very  first 
settlement  of  any  county  or  locality,  the  historian  immediately  is  confronted 
by  a  difficult  task.  Fact  and  tradition  are  so  closely  interwoven  in  all  state- 
ments relating  to  the  beginning  of  a  social  order  in  an)-  given  community  that 
it  often  is  wholly  impossible  to  differentiate  between  the  two  and  to  say  of 
any  given  set  of  narratives  bearing  upon  the  first  settlement,  this  is  fact 
and  this  is  merely  tradition.  And  the  situation  confronting  the  historian  in 
Douglas  county  is  no  exception  to  the  rule.  In  the  absence  of  any  definite 
record  or  memoir  of  the  pioneer  period  preserved  against  such  a  time  as  this 
there  is  no  means  at  hand  of  acquiring  absolute  proof  of  historical  state- 


ments  covering  the  period  that  marked  the  first  settlement  hereabout  in  the 
time  preceding  the  Indian  outbreak,  for  it  is  known  that  there  was  some 
settlement  here  in  the  latter  fifties  of  the  past  century.  At  the  time  of  the 
ui>rising,  however,  those  scantily  protected  settlers  were  scattered  and,  seek- 
ing safet\-  in  flight  to  more  populous  centers,  did  not  return;  hence  there 
was  a  period  following  the  appearance  of  the  white  man  as  a  settler  in  this 
region  that  the  land  reverted  to  the  waste  and  was  unsought  by  such  as  other- 
wise would  have  gladly  occupied  the  beautiful  park  region  hereabout. 


Though  unpopulated  by  the  white  man  until  the  period  of  the  latter 
fifties,  above  mentioned,  Douglas  county  was  not  unknown  to  civilization, 
for  long  before  its  actual  settlement  white  men  had  been  passing  through 
on  the  old  Red  River  trail  which  marked  the  passage  to  the  Pembina  colony 
and  the  rich  trading  posts  of  the  farther  Northwest,  and  the  groaning  creak 
of  the  ungreased  axles  of  the  Red  river  carts  must  have  been  familiar  sounds 
to  the  savage  denizens  of  the  then  wastes  of  this  lake  region  long  before  the 
white  man  stopped  to  la)-  claim  ti)  one  of  the  fairest  spots  on  the  globe.  The 
old  trail  of  the  Red  River  N'alley  settlements  passed  through  Douglas  county, 
running  about  twelve  miles  south  of  the  present  line  of  the  Great  Northern 
railroad,  and  along  the  line  of  that  famous  trail  there  was  carried  on  a  con- 
siderable commerce  many  years  before  there  were  any  actual  settlements  in 
this  immediate  vicinity. 

Out  of  all  the  confusion  relating  to  statements  covering  the  period  of 
pioneer  davs  it  may  safely  enough  be  declared  that  the  first  definite  settle- 
ment made  by  whites  within  the  boundaries  now  comprising  Douglas  county 
was  during  the  summer  of  1858,  in  August  of  which  year  Alexander  and 
William  Kinkaid  made  their  historic  settlement  at  the  junction  of  the  two 
lakes,  Agnes  and  Winona,  the  present  site  of  the  beautiful  city  of  Alexandria, 
the  county  seat,  which  bears  its  name  in  honor  of  Alexander  Kinkaid.  About 
that  same  time  a  settlement  was  made  within  the  present  limits  of  Holmes 
City  township  by  one  Holmes,  Noah  Grant  and  W.  S.  Sandford.  Both 
parties  arrived  at  their  respective  places  of  settlement  at  very  nearly  the 
same  time,  but  which  came  first  is  a  difficult  matter  to  determine  at  this  late 
date.  By  cfimmon  consent  the  Kinkaids  alwa\s  have  been  accorded  the 
honor  of  being  regarded  as  the  pioneers,  but  a  brief  historical  sketch  of 
Douglas  county  accompanying  a  plat-book  of  the  county  published  in  the 
middle  eighties  savs  that  "some  of  the  leading  old  settlers  claim  that  the 


Holmes  City  party  had  been  here  some  weeks  before  the  Kinkaids  arrived." 
However  that  may  be,  it  is  certain  that  in  August,  1858,  both  parties  were 
on  the  ground.  Messrs.  Holmes,  Grant  and  Sandford  came  together  from 
Shakopee.  Mr.  Holmes,  who  was  regarded  as  the  leader  of  the  party,  became 
the  leader  in  that  community  during  the  short  time  he  remained  there  and 
when  the  township  came  to  be  named  it  was  given  the  name  of  Holmes  City 
in  his  honor,  while  the  little  lake  on  which  the  settlement  called  Holmes  City 
was  established  became  known  as  Grant's  lake,  in  honor  of  Noah  Grant,  an 
immediate  contemporary  of  Holmes.  Mr.  Holmes  only  remained  a  year  or 
two  and  then  returned  to  Shakopee.  Noah  Grant  enlisted  in  the  army  dur- 
ing the  Civil  War  and  upon  the  completion  of  his  military  service  returned 
to  Douglas  county,  but  in  1867  went  South,  where  he  afterwards  made  his 
home.  Sandford,  it  is  said,  left  the  county  at  or  before  the  time  of  the 
Sioux  rebellion. 


Alexander  and  William  Kinkaid,  bachelor  brothers,  were  natives  of 
Wilmington,  Delaware,  who,  some  years  prior  to  1858,  the  time  of  their 
settlement  in  Douglas  county,  had  come  West  and  had  put  in  their  fortunes 
with  those  early  settlers  who  had  come  to  Minnesota  in  territorial  days.  For 
some  time  they  sojourned  at  St.  Peter,  which  then  had  aspirations  to  become 
the  capital  of  the  state,  and  then  pushed  on  northwest  into  Pope  county/ 
locating  on  White  Bear  lake,  where  they  started  a  settlement  which  later 
developed  into  the  thriving  town  of  Glenwood.  The  following  summer,  the 
summer  of  1858,  they  came  on  farther  to  the  northwest  on  a  prospecting 
expedition  and  upon  arriving  at  the  banks  of  Lake  Agnes  became  so  deeply 
impressed  by  the  beauty  of  the  spot  that  they  determined  there  "to  pitch  their 
tent,"'  and  thus  was  the  city  of  Alexandria  brought  into  being.  Returning 
to  White  Bear  lake  for  their  belongings  the  Kinkaid  brothers  soon  made 
their  way  back  to  Lake  Agnes  and  in  August  of  that  year  made  a  perma- 
nent location  on  the  site  previously  selected,  being  probably  the  first  white  men 
who  had  visited  that  particular  spot.  It  was  not  long  until  other  settlers 
were  attracted  to  the  spot  and  thus  a  thriving  settlement  presently  sprang 
up  on  the  attractive  rise  of  ground  to  the  south  of  Lake  Agnes  and  on  the 
east  shore  of  Lake  Winona,  the  site  now  covered  by  the  city  of  Alexandria. 
The  Kinkaid  brothers  built  a  log  cabin  on  the  knoll  just  south  of  where  the 
Great  Northern  railway  station  now  stands,  and  upon  the  arrival  of  other 
settlers  almost  immediately  thereafter  became  instrumental  in  forming  a 
townsite  company,  with  a  view  of  attracting  others  and  thus   establishing 


a  city  in  the  then  wilderness.  They  secured  the  services  of  Gen.  T.  F.  Bar- 
rett, of  St.  Cloud,  a  government  surveyor,  who  surveyed  and  platted  the 
townsite  and  the  same  was  named  Alexandria,  in  honor  of  the  founder, 
Alexander  Kinkaid.  In  order  to  promote  the  sale  of  lots  and  advertise  the 
attractiveness  of  the  new  settlement,  the  Kinkaid  brothers  organized  a  town- 
site  company,  which  included  besides  themselves  Col.  John  Ball,  of  Winona; 
George  F.  Bratt,  of  St.  Cloud;  H.  T.  Welles,  of  Minneapolis,  and  A.  P.. 
Wilson  and  P.  L.  Gregory,  of  St.  Anthony.  Though  the  township  at  that 
time  had  been  run,  it  had  not  been  sub-divided  and  the  land  hereabout  had 
not  been  fully  surveyed.  It  is  narrated  that  through  the  agency  of  P.  L. 
Gregory  four  hundred  and  forty  acres  of  land'  were  located,  the  same  being 
covered  by  Sioux  half-breed  script,  obtained  for  this  purpose  by  H.  T. 
Welles  from  Franklin  Steele,  of  Minneapolis,  and  to  secure  him  for  the 
advance  made,  the  title  to  the  town  site  was  vested  in  Mr.  Welles.  William 
Kinkaid  remained  at  the  new  settlement  until  1861,  in  which  year  he  received 
an  appointment  to  a  government  clerkship  and  removed  to  Washington, 
D.  C,  where  he  died  some  time  afterward.  Alexander  Kinkaid  was  made 
postmaster  of  the  new  town  of  Alexandria,  when  a  station  was  established 
there  late  in  1858,  the  mail  route  at  that  time  being  from  St.  Cloud  to  Ft. 
Abercrombie,  the  mail  then  being  carried,  most  of  the  time  on  foot,  by  one 
Evans,  after  whom  the  town  of  Evansville  afterward  came  to  be  named. 
The  postoffice  at  first  was  kept  in  the  Kinkaid  cabin,  but  when  J.  H.  Van 
Dyke  presently  started  a  little  store  the  office  was  removed  to  the  same  and 
later  \'an  Dyke  was  made  postmaster.  Alexander  Kinkaid  continued  to 
take  a  prominent  part  in  the  affairs  of  the  new  settlement,  being  one  of  the 
most  active  promoters  of  the  growing  village,  but  about  1868  went  to  Cali- 
fornia, where  it  is  believed  he  sjient  the  remainder  of  his  life. 


For  some  time  after  the  establishment  of  the  new  settlement  all  the 
travel  to  and  from  Alexandria— what  little  there  was — came  from  the  south, 
along  the  edge  of  the  prairie,  following  the  line  taken  by  the  Kinkaids  upon 
coming  into  this  country.  The  old  trail  to  the  Red  River  settlements  passed 
through  the  county,  but  there  was  very  little  travel  upon  that.  A  year  or 
two  after  the  Kinkaids  came  they  opened  a  road  north  from  the  new  town- 
site  and  in  1859  the  government  troops  cut  a  road  through  the  timber,  east 
and  west,  establishing  a  military  road,  which  afterward  became  a  stage  and 
state  road  and  which,  with  a  few  changes  in  its  course,  is  now  one  of  the 


most  extensively  traveled  highways  in  this  part  of  the  state,  its  course  being 
throvigh  the  towns  of  Osakis,  Alexandria,  Brandon  and  Evansville. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  year  1858  there  was  very  little  addition 
to  the  population  of  the  county,  though  among  those  who  came  before  the 
spring  of  1859  were  the  families  of  P.  L.  Gregory,  James  Bedman,  Charles 
Cook,  J.  A.  James  and  Hugh  O'Donnell.  It  was  from  St.  Cloud  that  P.  L. 
Gregory  made  his  way  to  this  section  and  he  became  a  member  of  the  Alexan- 
dria Town  Site  Company,  and  for  several  years  took  a  prominent  part  in 
the  work  of  developing  the  new  settlement.  Tlie  townsite  company  put  up 
a  log  hotel  near  Kinkaid's  building  and  Gregory  moved  his  family  from  St. 
Cloud  and  occupied  the  hotel,  the  family  making  their  way  from  St.  Cloud, 
a  distance  of  seventy  miles,  by  ox-team.  For  several  years  the  Gregory  hotel 
was  a  favorite  resort  of  the  pioneers  and  is  still  often  referred  to  in  tales 
of  the  old  days  hereabout.  Some  years  after  locating  at  Alexandria  Gregory 
was  elected  as  a  representative  from  this  district  to  the  state  Legislature  and 
returned  to  St.  Cloud  for  residence.  James  Bedman,  who  also  arrived  in  the 
fall  of  1858,  was  an  Englishman  and  a  blacksmith  by  trade.  He  took  a 
claim  on  the  rise  northwest  of  Lake  Agnes  and  opened  a  little  blacksmith 
shop  in  which  he  followed  his  trade.  Charles  Cook,  also  a  native  of  Eng- 
land, arrived  with  Bedman  from  Kandota,  in  Stearns  county,  but  in  1867 
he  returned  to  his  native  land.  Soon  after  the  war  broke  out  J.  A.  James, 
whose  name  is  noted  above,  enlisted  for  service  and  did  not  return  to  Alex- 
andria. Hugh  O'Donnell,  who  did  good  work  for  the  townsite  company, 
later  took  a  claim  nearby,  but  left  in  1861  and  years  afterward  was  heard 
from  as  a  resident  of  Pembina.  Among  others  who  came  in  the  summer  of 
1858  were  N.  F.  Barnes  and  Glendy  King,  the  former  of  whom  came  from 
the  state  of  Maine  and  the  latter  from  Philadelphia.  Barnes  settled  on  a 
farm  east  of  Lake  Agnes,  but  in  1866  went  to  St.  Cloud,  whence  he  later 
went  to  California.  King  settled  at  the  south  end  of  Lake  Winona,  but  in 
1 861  returned  East,  which  section  did  not  permanently  claim  him,  however, 
for  in  the  early  eighties  word  was  received  that  he  had  been  killed  in  the 
Indian  Territory. 

As  word  of  the  new  settlement  over  in  the  lake  country  became  circu- 
lated others  became  attracted  to  the  spot  and  during  the  year  1859  quite  a 
number  of  settlers  arrived  in  the  county,  the  most  of  whom  settled  in  Alexan- 
dria or  in  that  immediate  vicinity.  Among  these  were  J.  H.  Van  Dj'ke,  A. 
Darling  and  family,  James  F.  Dicken,  James  Barr  and  family,  Myron  Col- 
oney  and  S.  B.  Cowdry.  \^an  Dyke,  who  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania, 
moved  over  from  St.  Cloud,  arriving  at  Alexandria  in  the  spring  of   1859. 


During  that  summer  he  put  up  a  log  house  on  the  height  overlooking  the 
lake,  south  of  where  the  Great  Northern  freight  depot  now  stands,  and  in 
that  building  opened  up  a  small  store,  the  first  general  store  in  Douglas 
county,  and  there  continued  doing  business  until  the  time  of  the  Indian  out- 
break, when  the  building  was  torn  down  and  the  goods  moved  within  the 
walls  of  the  stockade  which  the  government  meanwhile  had  erected  on 
the  same  height  overlooking  the  lake  nearby  the  store,  which  also  had  been 
used  as  a  postofifice  and  was  thus  regarded  as  the  center  of  the  new  com- 
munity. A.  Darling,  who  had  come  over  from  the  neighborhood  of  Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin,  took  a  claim  on  the  banks  of  Lake  Darling,  and  there  he  and  his 
family  remained  until  the  time  of  the  Indian  outbreak,  when  they  left  for 
Missouri,  intending  to  return  when  things  had  quieted  down  in  this  section, 
but  in  August.  1864.  Mr.  Darling  was  slain  by  Southern  bushwhackers  and 
his  family  returned  to  the  homestead  farm  on  Lake  Darling,  and  there  estab- 
lished their  home  anew.  It  was  in  the  spring  of  1859  that  James  F.  Dicken, 
who  is  still  living  in  Douglas  county,  one  of  its  best-known  and  most  hon- 
ored residents,  had  his  first  sight  of  this  favored  region.  He  passed  through 
the  new  settlement  at  Alexandria  on  his  way  West  on  a  prospecting  trip,  but 
returned  in  the  fall,  accompanied  by  Burton  Sparry  and  Henry  Whitcomb, 
and  established  himself  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Ida  for  the  purpose  of  trap- 
ping and  trading  with  the  Indians.  In  August.  1862,  he  enlisted  in  the  First 
^Minnesota  Cavalry,  under  Colonel  McPhail.  and  remained  in  the  service  for 
thirteen  months,  at  the  end  of  which  term  of  service  he  went  to  Missouri,  in 
Vvhich  state  he  renewed  the  acquaintance  of  the  family  of  A.  Darling,  mar- 
ried one  of  the  daughters  of  the  family  and  in  1864  returned  to  Douglas 
countv,  which  has  ever  since  been  his  place  of  residence,  his  home  long  hav- 
ing been  at  his  pleasant  place  one  mile  east  of  Garfield. 

Among  the  other  original  settlers  whose  memories  have  been  recalled 
was  James  Barr,  who  also  arrived  in  1859,  having  come  West  from  Phila- 
delphia. He  entered  a  claim  near  the  Darling  place  and  remained  there  for 
several  years,  later  becoming  a  resident  of  Ida  township  and  still  later 
moving  on  farther  west  and  settling  in  the  Dakotas.  Myron  Coloney, 
another  of  the  settlers  of  1859,  ^*  referred  to  in  contemporary  accounts  as 
having  been  (|uite  a  character  among  the  earl\-  settlers.  He  had  for  some 
time  been  engaged  in  editorial  work  on  one  of  the  St.  Louis  newspapers,  was 
a  writer  of  much  talent  and  took  an  active  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  new 
settlement.  He  took  a  claim  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Ida  and  there  estab- 
lished his  home,  building  a  log  cabin  into  which  he  moved  his  effects,  among 
which  was  a  fine  piano,  his  wife  having  been  an  accomplished  musician.     It 


was  in  the  neighborhood  of  James  F.  Dicken's  place  on  Lake  Ida  that  the 
Coloneys  settled  and  Mr.  Dicken  found  pleasant  relief  from  his  lonely  bache- 
lor quarters  in  the  agreeable  companionship  of  his  neighbors.  When  the 
settlers  were  warned  to  flee  at  the  beginning  of  the  Indian  outbreak  the 
Coloneys  returned  to  St.  Louis,  leaving  their  domestic  belongings  behind, 
and  not  long  afterward  their  house  overlooking  the  lake  was  destroyed  by 
lire,  the  first  piano  in  Douglas  county  thus  being  reduced  to  ashes.  S.  B. 
Cowdry,  a  native  of  the  state  of  New  York,  whose  name  is  noted  above  as 
one  of  the  arrivals  in  1859,  took  as  a  claim  a  farm  in  La  Grande  township, 
afterward  owned  by  G.  C.  Whitcomb,  but  a  year  later  left  his  claim  shanty 
and  moved  into  the  settlement  at  Alexandria,  where  he  took  charge  of  the 
hotel  whicli  Charles  Cook,  the  Englishman,  had  just  given  up,  the  profits  of 
the  humble  inn  not  having  been  sufficiently  remunerative  to  pro\e  attractive. 
When  the  outbreak  occurred  Cowdry  joined  the  others  in  the  general  fiight 
to  St.  Cloud  and  did  not  return. 


In  the  meantime  there  was  beginning  to  be  some  form  to  the  civic 
affairs  of  the  new  community  and  a  county  government,  for  certain  local 
purposes,  had  been  set  up.  For  some  years  after  the  creation  of  Douglas 
county  by  the  Legislature  it  had  been  attached  to  Stearns  county  for  civil 
and  judicial  purposes,  but  in  1859,  there  then  having  come  to  be  a  consid- 
erable settlement  in  and  about  the  center  of  the  county,  a  move  was  started 
to  organize  Douglas  for  administrative  purposes.  In  this  movement  P.  L. 
Gregory  is  said  to  have  been  the  active  leader  and  an  election  was  held — the 
first  election  in  Douglas  county — in  Gregory's  hotel.,  Not  all  of  the  settlers 
were  willing  thus  to  assume  the  responsibilities  of  government  and  it  is 
narrated  that  only  a  few  voted.  The  returns  of  the  election  therefore  were 
not  recognized  by  the  authorities  and  the  election  was  held  to  be  void.  How- 
ever, during  the  session  of  the  Legislature  in  the  winter  of  1858-59,  a  bill 
had  been  passed  authorizing  the  organization  of  Douglas  county  for  certain 
local  purposes  essentially  administrative  in  their  character  and  it  was  not 
long  after  the  failure  of  the  first  citizens  to  e.xercise  their  right  to  the  fran- 
chise that  the  governor  appointed  J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  S.  B.  Cowdry  and  A. 
Darling  as  a  board  of  commissioners  to  set  on  foot  a  local  government  here- 
aI)out.  This  board  convened  at  .the  Van  Dyke  store  and  appointed  the  fol- 
lowing countv  officers:    Register  of  deeds,  Alexander  Kinkaid;  sherifl:,  J.  A. 



Adams;  probate  judge,  P.  L.  Gregory.  This  organization  was  maintained 
until  the  time  of  the  Indian  outbreak,  when  it,  as  well  as  all  other  local 
matters,  was  abandoned  and  all  records  that  had  been  made  were  lost.  Noth- 
ing further  was  done  in  the  matter  of  local  government  until  1866,  by  which 
time  definite  settlement  again  was  being  re-established,  when  the  county  was 
organized  on  a  permanent  and  continuing  basis,  the  details  of  which,  as  well 
as  the  general  history  of  the  county  government,  are  set  out  elsewhere  in  this 
volume  in  the  chapters  relating  to  the  organization  of  Douglas  county  and 
to  the  officials  of  the  same. 

While  the  settlement  at  Alexandria  was  beginning  to  take  form,  it  being 
the  first  settlement  in  the  county,  other  portions  of  the  county  also  were 
beginning  to  be  recognized  as  exceedingly  desirable  points  for  settlement 
and  during  the  years  of  1859  and  i860  several  small  settlements  sprang  up. 
.\t  the  point  where  the  thriving  village  of  Brandon  now  stands  Henry  Gagar 
settled  and  it  was  not  long  until  others  had  joined  him  at  that  desirable 
point,  c|uite  a  little  settlement  presently  being  formed  there,  to  which  the 
name  of  Chippewa  was  given,  the  large  lake  in  that  vicinitv  also  being  gi\en 
the  name  of  Chippewa  lake,  the  headwater  of  the  Chippewa  river  which 
drains  the  western  part  of  the  county  and  empties  into  the  Minnesota  river 
at  Montevideo,  in  Chippewa  county,  this  state.  Afterward  the  \'illage  of 
Chippewa  was  rechristened  Brandon,  in  honor  of  the  birthplace  in  Ver- 
mont of  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  after  whom  the  county  was  named.  In 
the  southeastern  part  of  the  county  there  also  was  noted  the  beginning  of  a 
settlement  in  1859,  John  Potter  having  taken  a  claim  where  tlie  village  of 
Osakis  now  stands,  and  within  a  year  afterward  Joshua  Fairfield,  Robert 
Wyman,  Benjamin  Pease,  William  Husted  and  others  took  claims  nearby 
or  farther  up  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  count}-.  About  the  same  time  Xels 
Olson  took  a  claim  on  Maple  lake,  in  what  afterward  became  Hudson  town- 
ship, and  during  the  year  i860  the  western  part  of  the  county  also  began  to 
take  on  something  of  the  aspect  of  settlement.  The  year  before,  in  1859, 
Burbank  &  Company  having  established  their  stage  line  through  this  part 
of  the  country,  a  station  was  established  at  the  point  now  known  as  Evans- 
ville  and  1-^vans.  the  first  mail  carrier,  after  whom  the  town  was  named,  had 
put  up  a  little  shant\-  there.  In  i860  Mr.  Rogers  settled  there  and  kept  the 
station  and  it  was  not  long  until  others  had  settled  in  that  part  of  the  count^•, 
among  those  resident  in  the  Evans  neighborhood  at  the  time  of  the  Indian 
outbreak  having  been  the  Canfields,  the  Does,  Samuel  Thompson,  the  Per- 
fountaines,  the  LaBrands,  Miner  VanLoon,  H.  Blackwell,  Thomas  Cowing, 
J.  W.    Barr,   Robert  Ridley.   George  Bancroft,  George  Kinkaid  and    James 


Shotwells.  By  this  time  roads  were  beginning  to  be  opened  up  in  addition 
to  the  stage  Hne  and  the  old  military  trail  and  the  Red  River  trail  and  there 
was  on  all  sides  an  appearance  of  activity  presaging  early  and  populous  set- 
tlement. Numerous  farms  were  beginning  to  be  developed  and  the  fair  lake 
region  comprised  in  what  is  now  Douglas  county  gave  promise  of  becoming 
at  once  one  of  the  most  desirable  points  of  settlement  in  the  western  part 
of  the  state.  More  and  more  frequent  were  the  inquiries  at  the  land  office 
regarding  locations  in  this  section  and  all  seemed  well  with  Douglas  county, 
the  future  apparently  being  full  of  promise,  when  the  dread  event  occurred 
that  proved  a  set  back  for  all  of  western  Minnesota  and  on  down  the  fair 
valley  of  the  Minnesota  river,  a  set  back  from  which  Douglas  county  did 
not  recover  for  several  years,  during  which  the  county  was  practically  depopu- 
lated, the  courageous  and  hopeful  settlers  who  had  come  here  in  the  period 
following  1859  and  up  to  the  summer  of  1862  having  fled  in  the  face  of  a 
savage  uprising  which  for  a  time  threatened  to  sweep  before  it  the  force  and 
the  authority  of  the  white  man  in  the  new  state. 

The  influence  of  the  earlier  phases  of  the  Civil  War  had  been  little  felt 
this  far  west,  the  absence  of  railroads  and  telegraph  leaving  the  settlers  in 
practical  ignorance  of  the  disastrous  struggle  then  being  waged  between  the 
states,  so  much  so  that  the  extent  of  the  war  had  hardly  been  realized  out 
this  way,  though  several  of  the  settlers  had  responded  to  the  call  to  arms 
and  had  enlisted  in  the  service  of  their  country  against  the  rebellion  of  a 
section.  But  when  the  news  came  in  August,  1862,  that  the  Indians  had 
arisen  and  had  declared  war  on  the  whites  in  Minnesota,  the  dreams  of 
peaceful  and  undisturbed  habitation  out  here  were  rudely  dashed  and  the 
history  of  Douglas  county  was  set  back  for  three  or  four  vears,  or  until 
the  eventual  re-establishment  of  secure  conditions  in  the  wilderness  made 
tenable  the  return  of  the  settlers  who  had  scattered  and  fled  to  more  populous 
points  upon  the  wild  cry  of  alarm  that  followed  the  Sioux  uprising  of  1862. 
And  thus  closed  the  first  period  of  the  history  of  Douglas  county,  the 
pioneer  period,  the  period  of  the  first  settlement,  when  the  foundations  were 
laid  for  the  noble  structure  of  social,  civic,  religious  and  commercial  develop- 
ment that  later  was  to  be  erected  here.  Of  the  tragic  incidents  connected 
with  the  Sioux  uprising,  in  its  relation  to  this  part  of  the  state,  details  are 
set  out  elsewhere  in  a  chapter  devoted  to  that  outbreak ;  of  the  resumption  of 
settlement  after  the  uprising  had  been  effectually  put  down,  details  also  are 
set  out  elsewhere  in  the  chapters  relating  to  the  organizations  of  townships 
and  villages,  and  there  is  therefore  no  need  to  dwell  here  upon  that  tragic 
incident  which  interrupted  the  course  of  empire  in  Douglas  count\-  bv  driv- 


ing  the  pioneers  into  retreat  or  to  include  in  this  chapter  on  the  early  settle- 
ment of  the  county  the  details  of  the  establishment  of  a  permanent  govern- 
ment hereabout  or  of  the  real  settlement  which  came  about  in  due  course 
when  the  white  man  came  into  undisputed  possession  of  this  fair  region  and 
no  longer  stood  in  terror  of  the  relentless  fury  of  the  savages.  Suffice  it  to 
say  that  there  had  been  established  here  before  the  Sioux  uprising  an  out- 
post of  civilization  and  that  on  the  foundation  then  laid  there  has  arisen  one 
of  the  finest  and  most  substantial  social  structures  in  all  the  great  state  of 


From  a  series  of  letters  relating  to  pioneer  days,  written  by  V.  D. 
'  Nichols,  a  pioneer  of  Douglas  county,  now  residing  at  San  Jose,  California, 
and  published  in  the  Brandon  Echo  during  the  summer  of  1906,  it  is  pointed 
out  that  Douglas  county  was  first  settled  at  Alexandria  and  at  Holmes  City 
in  1858.  The  country  then  was  a  perfect  wilderness,  the  undisputed  hunt- 
ing ground  of  the  Indians,  who  found  much  wild  game  roaming  everywhere 
through  the  heavy  timbers  and  over  the  grassy  prairie  land.  One  of  the 
early  Holmes  City  settlers  killed  more  than  ninety  deer  in  one  winter.  The 
chief  source  of  livelihood  for  those  early  pioneefs  was  hunting,  trapping  and 
fishing.  The  settlers  did  not  begin  to  come  out  here  in  any  yery  large  num- 
bers for  some  time  after  the  desirability  of  this  region  as  a  place  of  residence 
had  been  demonstrated,  the  Indian  massacre  keeping  the  first  stream  of 
immigration  out  this  way  from  penetrating  too  far  into  the  wilderness.  But 
with  the  close  of  the  Civil  War  and  the  establishment  of  a  sense  of  security 
against  Indian  depredations,  numbers  began  to  prospect  for  new  homes  in 
this  section  and  considerable  settlements  began  to  form.  In  addition  to  the 
settlement  at  Alexandria,  already  referred  to,  in  1866,  a  considerable  number 
of  settlers  had  arrived  in  the  neighborhood  of  old  Chippewa,  which  had  first 
been  settled  by  Henry  Gager  in  1861  and  which  later  took  its  present  name 
of  Brandon. 

Among  the  first  of  these  colonists  were  Hans  P.  Hanson,  Ole  Thomp- 
son, Haagen  Holing  and  John  Thorkelson,  who  came  over  from  Goodhue 
county  by  ox-team,  with  covered  wagons  and  a  few  head  of  cattle.  I'hey 
had  heard  of  the  excellent  land  in  this  region  that  could  be  secured  cheaply. 
Some  bought  their  farms  for  $1.25  an  acre  and  others,  who  bought  from 
speculators,  paid  from  $2.50  to  $3.50  the  acre.  Traveling  was  extremely 
slow  and  difficult,  as  there  were  practically  no  roads  and  a  bridge  was  almost 
wholly  unknown.     If  the\-  came  to  a  stream,  the  only  way  was  to  plunge 


in  and  get  across  as  best  they  could.  The  drivers  had  to  lead  their  oxen 
and  were  therefore  compelled  to  wade  along,  sometimes  waist  deep.  It 
might  happen  that  the  heavy  load,  consisting  of  wife  and  children  and  the 
most  essential  household  goods,  would  get  stuck  in  mid-stream.  Then  the 
only  way  was  to  carry  the  load  across  to  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river  and 
get  the  wagon  out  as  best  they  could.  In  addition  to  these  difficulties,  the 
mosquitoes  were  so  thick  that  the  travelers  could  hardly  breathe  without 
choking  on  them  and  the  pests  worked  a  great  hardship  on  cattle. 

The  parties  above  mentioned  located  on  the  farms  on  which  they  estab- 
lished their  permanent  homes,  with  the  exception  of  H.  P.  Hanson,  who 
bought  the  eighty  north  of  the  John  A.  Olson  place,  where  he  at  once  began 
to  erect  a  sod  hut.  Meanwhile,  they  did  their  cooking  and  housekeeping  in 
the  covered  wagons.  Three  days  after  their  arrival,  Thorston  Hanson  was 
born,  thus  having  the  distinction  of  having  been  the  first  white  child  born  in 
the  township  of  Brandon.  The  hardships  and  privations  these  people  had  to 
undergo  were  distressing.  The  swarms  of  mosquitoes  and  flies  drove  the 
people  and  the  cattle  almost  frantic.  It  had  rained  almost  continuously  all 
summer,  so  every  low  place  was  full  of  water,  an  ideal  breeding  spot  for  the 
mosquitoes.  The  cattle,  tormented  by  the  pestilential  insects,  would  stray 
off  through  the  thick  underbrush  in  the  wild  woods  and  in  the  marshes.  The 
grass  was  so  high  as  almost  to  conceal  them  and  to  follow  them  was  a  most 
difificult  task,  to  say  nothing  of.  the  disagreeable  work  of  hunting  for  them 
through  the  tall,  stiff  and  sharp  slough  grass  and  thick  timber,  tormented 
continually  by  clouds  of  mosquitoes. 


The  first  piece  of  land  taken  up  in  the  township  of  Brandon  was  the 
place  taken  Ijy  Henry  Gager,  shortly  after  or  about  the  time  the  stage  route 
was  opened  between  St.  Cloud  and  Ft.  Abercrombie,  on  the  Red  river,  near 
the  present  city  of  Breckenridge,  this  state;  Burbank  &  Waite,  who  held  the 
mail  contract,  having  induced  Gager  to  enter  a  tract  of  land  there,  open  up 
a  farm  and  keep  a  stage  station  for  them,  other  stations  established  in  this 
section  having  been  those  at  Osakis,  Alexandria,  Evansville  and  Pomme  de 
Terre.  Gager  opened  a  farm  at  Chippewa  lake  and  kept  the  station  until 
the  Indian  outbreak  in  1862,  when  he  was  driven  out.  There  was  another 
settler  named  Austin,  whose  house  stood  where  later  the  school  house  in  dis- 
trict No.  76  was  erected.  He  and  some  others  came  back  after  cattle  and 
Austin  was  killed  by  Indians  near  where  the  village  of  Evansville  now  is 


situated.  A  few  weeks  later  the  government  had  the  government  mail  route 
open  again.  Stockades  were  put  up  at  Alexandria,  Chippewa  and  Pomme 
de  Terre  and  soldiers  were  stationed  there  for  defense,  and  most  of  the 
scattered  settlers  came  back. 

In  1865  George  Freundrich  bought  the  Gager  place  and  in  1866  settlers 
began  coming  in,  the  first  settlers  in  that  part  of  the  county  making  Chippewa 
City  their  headquarters.  In  1867  came  the  flood,  when  the  roads,  bad  enough 
before,  for  awhile  became  impassible.  As  the  nearest  place  at  which  the 
settlers  could  get  flour  or  other  provisions  was  at  St.  Cloud,  one  hundred 
and  four  miles  away,  starvation  stared  them  in  the  face.  Luckily,  an  ox- 
train  loaded  with  supplies  for  one  of  the  frontier  forts  was  wending  its  way 
through  the  county  at  the  t4me  and  as  it  could  not  proceed,  these  supplies 
were  sold  to  the  settlers  in  the  vicinity  of  Chippewa.  In  1868  settlers  came 
in  briskly  and  the  township  was  organized  under  the  name  of  Chippewa 
Lake.  George  Cowing  put  up  a  store  across  the  road  from  Richard  Peffer's 
house.  Metz  &  Cotois  put  up  the  Pefifer  building  for  a  store.  Joseph  Med- 
bery  put  up  a  blacksmith  shop.  A  townsite  was  laid  out,  the  postoffice  of 
Chippewa  Lake  was  established  and  there  became  the  center  of  civilization 
for  many  miles  about.  Later  the  name  of  the  postoffice  was  changed  to 
Brandon,  in  further  honor  to  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  in  whose  honor  the  county 
was  named,  Brandon,  Vermont,  having  been  "the  Little  Giant's"  birthplace. 
Other  centers  of  settlement  sprang  up  and  at  last,  in  1878,  came  the  railroad 
and  New  Brandon.  Old  Brandon  went  back  to  a  quiet,  well-tilled  farm. 
Meantime,  Freundrich  sold  it  out  to  Peffer,  Hoplin  and  others,  Peffer  getting 
the  old  farm.  But  none  of  the  old  timers  ever  forgot  the  "great  old  times" 
at  Chippewa  lake  or  the  many  hunting  and  fishing  stories  told  there. 


The  present  generation  cannot  realize  all  the  hardships  the  early  settlers 
endured  in  opening  up  the  land.  Of  these  hardships,  the  mosquitoes  were 
probably  the  most  difficult  to  endure.  Bad  roads,  the  lack  of  every  conven- 
ience of  living  and  such  things  were  expected  beforehand  and  so  could  be 
endured,  but  the  little  insect  pests  were  almost  unendurable.  V.  D.  Nichols 
recalls  that  on  more  than  one  night  no  one  could  get  a  "wink"  of  sleep.  "The 
early  settlers  did  not  have  houses  from  which  the  pests  could  be  entirely 
excluded  and  I  have  known  them  to  so  swarm  in  the  houses  that  they  would 
put  out  the  light  in  a  few  minutes  time,  their  dead  bodies  clogging  the  wick. 
Out  of  doors,  toward  evening,  it  was  almost  impossible  to  breathe  on  account 


of  them.  A  man's  clothing  would  become  so  covered  that  he  simply  would 
look  gray  with  them.  The  poor  cattle  would  rush  madly  through  the  bushes 
trying  to  brush  them  off  and  often  stray  a  long  way  off.  I  have  known 
grown  men  to  give  up  and  cry  from  the  pain  of  their  bites  and  the  hopelessness 
of  getting  any  rest  from  them." 

BRANDON    township's  FIRST    HOMESTEAD. 

The  first  homestead  entered  in  the  township  of  Brandon  (old  Chippewa 
Lake),  taken  up  after  the  Indian  outbreak  of  1862,  was  on  an  entry  made 
by  John  C.  Nichols,  while  on  the  same  day  his  cousin,  John  J.  Nichols,  entered 
a  neighboring  place.  Someone  had  filed  on  the  place  in  1862  and  had  broken 
about  five  acres  on  it,  but  never  returned  after  the  outbreak.  The  Nichols 
boys  arrived  from  VVolcottville,  Indiana,  early  in  1866  and  were  the  very  first 
settlers  to  come  into  the  township  after  it  again  began  to  settle  up,  the  party 
above  referred  to  as  having  come  from  Goodhue  county,  having  come  a  few 
months  later.  After  selecting  land,  it  was  necessary  to  go  to  St.  Cloud,  one 
hundred  and  four  miles  distant,  to  locate,  as  the  land  office  was  there  at  that 
time,  it  being  some  years  later  that  it  was  moved  to  Alexandria.  St.  Cloud 
also  was  the  point  from  which  all  supplies  were  drawn.  John  C.  Nichols  was 
a  member  of  the  first  board  of  supervisors  of  Brandon  township  and  was 
supervisor  from  the  time  the  township  was  organized  in  1868  to  1878,  most 
of  the  time  chairman  of  the  board.  He  sold  out  in  1879  and  moved  to 

In  1867  Antoine  Pelliser  entered  a  tract  of  eighty  acres  right  north  of 
Baumbach  lake  and  broke  twenty  acres  of  the  same  that  same  season,  the 
next  spring,  in  March,  1868,  selling  the  farm  to  Fred  von  Baumbach,  who 
took  up  an  additional  tract  adjoining  as  a  homestead  and  built  his  first  log 
house  where  the  Nootnagle  house  later  was  erected,  and  farmed  the  land 
imtil  his  election  in  1872  to  the  office  of  county  auditor,  when  he  moved  to 
Alexandria,  where  he  is  still  living.  In  1876  he  sold  his  farm  to  Dr.  Charles 
Nootnagle,  who  two  years  later  gave  the  place  to  his  sons,  Herman  and 
Fred.  Mr.  von  Baumbach  was  quite  a  horticulturist  and  on  his  place  were 
planted  the  first  fruit  trees  in  Brandon  township ;  or  rather  there  and  on  the 
V.  D.  Nichols  place,  the  two  getting  one  dozen  small  crab-apple  trees  and 
each  planted  six. 

William  Kappahahn  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Millerville  town- 
ship, having  arrived  there  from  Northfield  on  March  8,  1867.  At  that  time 
there  was  about  three  or  four  feet  of  snow  on  the  ground  and  he  and  another 


man  who  had  come  up  here  with  government  supplies,  had  to  wade  through 
the  wet  snow.  It  was  beginning  to  meU  and  the  streams  had  to  be  forded. 
At  one  place  below  Alexandria  they  had  to  wait  two  days  before  the  water 
was  low  enough  for  them  to  undertake  the  ford.  Mr.  Kappahahn  had  been 
through  this  country  a  few  years  previously  with  General  Sibley's  force  dur- 
ing the  Indian  outbreak.  One  of  the  worst  difficulties  he  had  to  contenc? 
against  after  locating  was  the  mosquitoes.  The  people  much  of  the  time 
during  the  summers  could  not  work  on  account  of  the  pests.  About  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  they  had  to  build  smudge  fires,  to  which  the  cattle 
would  come  bellowing.  Often  the  cattle  would  be  so  thickly  covered  with 
mosquitoes  that  the  settlers  had  to  take  a  hoe  and  scrape  the  insects  off. 


The  district  school  houses  of  the  pioneer  period  were  not  so  well 
equipped  with  blackboards,  desks,  charts,  mechanical  appliances  and  the  like 
as  the  schools  of  the  present  date.  The  seats  were  made  from  heavy  boards, 
with  wooden  pegs  driven  into  them  for  legs  and  the  pupils  had  to  make  use 
of  their  knees  in  lieu  of  a  desk ;  and  not  very  many  were  troubled  with  curva- 
ture of  the  spine  on  that  account,  either. 


Conditions  and  modes  of  life  in  Douglas  county  today  differ  greatly 
from  those  of  the  pioneer  days.  To  those  who  have  lived  here  from  the 
beginning,  the  changes  have  come  about  so  gradually  that  to  a  large  extent 
they  have  escaped  notice;  and  to  the  younger  generation  some  of  the  expe- 
riences of  the  early  settlers  seem  like  tales  from  a  story  book  rather  than 
actual  occurrences. 

For  many  }'ears  the  only  travel  was  on  foot  or  with  ox-teams  and  was 
necessarily  slow  and  monotonous,  except  on  the  rare  occasions  when  the 
"steers"  would  take  it  into  their  heads  to  run  awa_\",  and  then  for  a  time 
it  was  neither  slow  nor  monotonous. 

Parts  of  the  county  were  sparsely  settled  and  even  on  some  of  the  main 
roads  through  the  big  woods — especially  was  this  true  near  .\lexandria — 
one  could  travel  for  miles  without  seeing  a  human  habitation  or  meeting  a 
single  person.  But  the  scenery  along  the  roads  was  magnificent,  especially 
in  the  autumn,  after  the  foliage  had  been  touched  by  the  early  frosts,  and 
the  deep  red  of  the  high-bush  cranberries  and  the  dark  blue   of  the   wild 


grapes,  both  of  which  were  plentiful,  mingled  with  the  multi-colored  leaves 
of  the  trees  and  shrubs. 

Perhaps,  because  of  the  fact  that  houses  were  far  apart  and  travel  was 
slow,  the  people  were  sociable  and  hospitable  to  a  degree,  and  a  house  near 
one  of  the  roads  was  seldom  without  one  or  more  guests  over  night,  although 
the  house  was  very  small  and  the  accommodations  most  scanty. 


The  day  of  farm  machinery  had  not  arrived  and  for  many  years,  espe- 
cially on  the  farms  in  the  timber,  the  numerous  stumps  were  such  serious 
obstacles  to  the  use  of  machinery  that  the  latter  could  not  have  been  used, 
even  if  the  owner  had  the  means  to  buy  it.  The  hay  was  cut  with  a  scythe, 
cocked  by  the  pitchfork  and  carried  to  the  stack  on  poles.  To  those  who 
are  unfamiliar  with  this  operation  it  may  be  stated  that  a  cock  was  a  round 
pile  of  hay,  built  quite  high  and  in  such  a  way  that  it  would  shed  rain,  and 
of  such  a  size  that  twenty  cocks  would  ordinarily  make  a  ton.  In  stacking 
these  cocks  into  large  and  permanent  stacks,  two  men  would  provide  them- 
selves with  two  strong  poles  about  ten  feet  long  and  pointed  at  the  ends. 
These  poles  would  be  run  under  the  cock  of  hay  about  three  feet  apart, 
one  man  would  take  hold  of  the  ends  of  these  poles  on  one  side  of  the  cock 
and  the  other  man  would  do  the  same  on  the  other  side,  and  the  cock  would 
then  be  lifted  and  carried  to  the  stack.  If  the  men  were  strong  they  would 
not  be  content  to  carry  one  cock,  but  would  put  one  on  top  of  another  and 
carry  both  to  the  stack  at  one  time. 

Wheat  and  other  small  grain  was  cut  with  a  cradle,  an  implement  con- 
sisting of  a  large  and  long  scythe  to  which  was  affixed  a  frame  consisting 
of  four  "fingers,"  or  prongs,  of  wood  nearly  as  long  as  the  scythe  blade 
and  about  eight  inches  apart.  The  contrivance  bore  a  remote  resemblance 
to  the  cradle  in  which  babies  were  rocked  to  sleep — hence  the  name.  By 
means  of  this  cradle  the  grain  would  be  cut  and  laid  in  even  swathes  that 
could  easily  be  raked  into  bundles  and  bound  up.  Grain  seeders  were 
unknown  and  the  grain  was  sown  broadcast  by  hand.  Corn  and  potatoes 
were  cultivated  entirely  by  the  hand  hoe.  Wheat  was  threshed  out  on  the 
house  floor  with  sticks  and  flails  and  thrown  across  the  room  to  separate  the 
grain  from  the  chaff,  but  threshing-machines  were  s6on  introduced.  For 
many  years  the  threshing-machines  were  operated  by  horse  power,  and 
usually  five  teams  of  horses  were  used  to  run  a  machine. 



The  first  railroad  trains  that  operated  in  the  county  were  quite  different 
from  the  present  ones.  That  was  the  day  before  steel  rails  were  used  and 
the  soft  iron  rails  soon  became  flattened  out  even  though  the  locomotives 
and  cars  then  in  use  were  much  lighter  than  those  of  the  present  day.  For 
a  number  of  years  wood-burning  engines  were  used  and  the  wood  for  these 
engines  was  cut  near  the  railroad  in  the  winter  time,  hauled  to  the  track 
and  piled  up  in  ranks  generally  six  feet  high.  In  places  these  ranks  of  cord- 
wood,  often  four  or  five  in  number,  would  extend  almost  continuously  for 
miles  along  the  track.  Then  in  the  summer  or  fall  a  crew  of  five  or  six 
men  would  come  along  with  a  circular  saw,  operated  by  a  steam  engine,  and 
saw  the  cordwood  in  two.  the  proper  length  for  use  in  the  engines.  This 
was  before  the  day  of  the  traction  steam  engine  and  the  saw-rig  engine 
would  be  pushed  by  the  men  from  place  to  place  on  planks. 

When  a  train  came  along  and  wanted  fuel  it  would  simply  stop  any- 
where along  the  right-of-way  where  some  of  this  sawed  cordwood  was  to 
be  found,  the  train  crew  would  get  off  and  throw  on  a  sufficient  supply  of 
wood  and  then  start  on  their  way  rejoicing.  It  can  readily  be  seen  that  in 
those  days  it  took  more  than  four  hours  to  run  from  Alexandria  to  St.  Paul. 


Though  the  country  was  thinly  settled  and  the  pupils  not  always  numer- 
ous, schools  were  very  early  established  everywhere.  The  buildings  were 
usually  constructed  of  logs  and  were  very  small.  The  school  house  in  dis- 
trict Xo.  22.  where  the  writer  obtained  all  of  his  schooling  below  the  high 
school,  was  about  eighteen  feet  long  by  sixteen  feet  wide,  and  at  times  there 
was  an  attendance  of  more  than  fifty  pupils  of  almost  all  sizes  and  ages. 
Sometimes  the  teachers  were  very  well  educated  and  again  their  scholastic 
qualifications  were  more  or  less  limited.  The  writer  can  very  well  remem- 
ber that  one  of  the  teachers  of  this  school,  in  all  seriousness,  told  the  pupils 
that  no  one  had  been  able  to  get  near  the  south  pole  because  of  the  extreme 
heat  which  prevailed  there.  And  he  inspired  the  youngsters  with  much 
admiration  and  considerable  awe  for  the  knowledge  bound  up  in  "Robin- 
son's Common-School  Arithmetic"  by  solemnly  stating  that  only  two  per- 
sons in  all  the  world  were  far  enough  advanced  in  mathematical  knowledge 
to  know  all  that  that  book  contained.  One  of  these  was  the  author  of  the 
book  and  the  other  the   King  of   England.      Presumably   this   teacher   was 


even  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  the  good  Queen  Victoria  then  reigned  in 
England.  In  those  days  the  attendance  at  school  was  mostly  in  the  winter 
time  and  if  a  boy  attended  school  as  much  as  two  or  three  months  during 
the  3-ear,  it  was  generally  thought  that  he  was  preparing  himself  for  the 


For  many  years  money  was  scarce  and  the  settlers  had  little  of  it  to 
spend.  Overcoats  and  overshoes  were  unknown,  and  frozen  toes  were  very 
common.  However,  a  home-made  remedy  consisting  of  a  poultice  made 
from  unslacked  lime  and  melted  pork  made  short  work  of  frostbites.  In 
many  families  whitefish,  caught  in  the  nearby  lakes  in  the  fall 'of  the  year 
and  salted  down,  was  an  almost  daily  article  of  food. 

Although  the  people  were  sociable  and  hospitable,  it  seemed  that  quar- 
rels and  fights  were  much  more  common  then  than  now.  And,  as  the 
British  General  Gage  remarked  about  the  boys  of  Boston,  the  pugnacious 
and  belligerent  spirit  of  tlieir  elders  was  reflected  in  the  youngsters,  and  if  a 
number  of  country  boys  went  to  Alexandria  on  a  Fourth  of  July  or  other 
holiday,  they  would  expect  to  have  a  fight  with  the  city  boys  before  they  got 
l^ack  again. 


The  Sioux  Outbreak  and  the  Old  Stockade. 

"There  have  been  many  theories  advanced  to  account  for  the  Sioux  out- 
break of  1862,  but  they  are  for  the  most  part  superficial  and  erroneous," 
declares  the  Rev.  Edward  Duffield  Neill  in  his  comprehensive  "History  of 
Minnesota."  Little  Crow,  in  his  written  communications  to  Colonel  Sibley, 
explaining  the  causes  which  had  provoked  hostilities  on  the  part  of  the 
Indians,  makes  no  allusion  to  the  treaties,  but  stated  that  his  people  had  been 
driven  to  acts  of  violence  b}-  the  suffering  brought  upon  them  by  the  delay  in 
the  payment  of  their  annuities,  and  by  the  bad  treatment  they  had  received 
from  the  traders.  In  fact,  nothing  has  transpired  to  justify  the  conclusion 
that  when  the  bands  first  assembled  at  the  agency,  there  was  anything  more 
than  the  usual  chronic  discontent  among  them,  superinduced  by  the  failure 
of  the  government,  or  its  agents,  faithfully  to  carry  out  the  stipulations  of 
the  different  treaties.  During  the  trial  of  the  prisoners  before  the  military 
commission  every  effort  was.  made  to  elicit  evidence  bearing  upon  the  out- 
break and  the  motives  which  actuated  the  leaders  in  inaugurating  the  bloody 
work.  The  only  inference  that  can  be  drawn  from  all  these  sources  of  infor- 
mation is,  that  the  movement  was  not  deliberate  and  predetermined,  but  was 
the  result  of  various  concurrent  causes,  such  as  the  long  delay  in  the  payment 
of  the  annuities  after  the  Indians  were  asseml^led,  and  an  insufficient  supply 
of  food  in  the  interim ;  dissatisfaction  with  the  traders ;  alleged  encroach- 
ment of  settlers  upon  the  Indian  reservation;  ill-feeling  of  the  pagan  Indians 
against  the  missionaries  and  their  converts  and  the  predictions  of  the 
medicine-men  that  the  Sioux  would  defeat  the  white  men  in  battle  and  then 
reoccupy  the  whole  country  after  clearing  it  of  the  whites.  Add  to  these 
the  facts,  well  known  to  the  Indians,  that  thousands  of  young  and  able- 
bodied  men  had  been  dispatched  to  aid  in  suppressing  the  Southern  rebellion 
and  that  but  a  meager  force  remained  to  garrison  Ft.  Ridgeh-  and  Ft.  Aber- 
crombie,  the  only  military  posts  in  proximity  to  their  countrv,  and  it  will  be 
perceived  that,  to  savages  who  held  fast  to  their  traditional  attachment  to 
the  British  crown,  and  were  therefore  not  friendly  to  the  Americans,  the 
temptation  to  regain  their  lost  possessions  must  have  been  strong.     It  was 


fresh  in  their  minds,  also,  and  a  frequent  subject  of  comment  on  their  part, 
that  the  government  had  taken  no  steps  to  punish  Ink-pah-du-tah  and  his 
small  band,  who  had  committed  so  many  murders  and  other  outrages  upon 
citizens  at  Spirit  Lake  in  1857. 


It  is,  ho\ve\'er.  by  no  means  certain  that  all  of  these  considerations 
combined  would  have  resulted  in  open  hostilities,  save  for  an  occurrence 
which  proved  to  l>e  the  application  of  the  torch  to  the  magazine.  Five  or 
six  young  warriors,  wearied  of  the  inaction  of  a  stationary  camp  life,  accord- 
ing to  Neill,  made  an  excursion  along  the  outer  line  of  the  Big  Woods  in 
a  northern  direction,  with  the  avowed  intention  of  securing  the  scalp  of  a 
Chippewa,  if  practicable.  Being  unsuccessful  in  their  search,  they  retraced 
their  steps  to  Acton,  a  small  settlement  in  Meeker  county,  on  August  17, 
1862,  and  through  some  means  they  obtained  whisky  and  drank  freely.  They 
made  a  demand  for  more  liciuor  from  a  man  named  Jones  and  were  refused, 
whereupon  the  infuriated  savages  fired  upon  and  killed  not  only  Jones,  but 
two  other  men,  ^^^ebster  and  Baker,  and  an  elderly  woman  and  a  young  girl. 
Terrified  at  their  own  violence  and  fearful  of  the  punishment  due  to  their 
crimes,  these  savages  made  their  way  back  to  the  camp  at 'the  Lower  Agenc)', 
confessed  their  guilt  to  their  friends  and  implored  protection  from  the  venge- 
ance of  the  outraged  laws.  They  all  belonged  to  influential  and  powerful 
families  and  when  the  whole  affair  had  been  discussed  in  solemn  conclave  in 
the  "Soldiers  Lodge"  it  was  determined  that  the  bands  should  make  common 
cause  with  the  criminals,  and  the  following  morning  was  fixed  upon  for  the 
e.xtermination  of  the  unsuspecting  whites  at  the  agencies  and  of  all  the  white 
settlers  within  reach. 

According  to  Holcombe's  history  of  the  outbreak  it  was  about  August 
12  that  twenty  Lower  Indians  went  over  into  the  big  woods  of  Meeker  and 
McLeod  counties  to  hunt.  Half  a  dozen  of  the  Rice  Creek  band  were  of  the 
party.  One  of  Shakopee's  band,  named  Island  Cloud,  had  business  with 
Capt.  George  C.  Whitcomb,  of  Forest  City,  later  commander  of  the  stockade 
at  Alexandria,  concerning  a  wagon  which  the  Indian  had  left  with  the  captain. 
Reaching  the  hunting  grounds  in  the  southern  part  of  Meeker  county,  the 
party  divided.  Island  Cloud  and  four  others  proceeding  to  Forest  City  and 
the  remainder  continuing  in  the  township  of  Acton.  On  the  morning  of 
August  17  four  Rice  Creek  Indians  were  passing  along  the  Henderson  and 
Pembina  road,  in  the  central  part  of  Acton  township.     Their  names  in  Eng- 


lish  were  Brown  Wing,  Breaks  Up  and  Scatters,  Ghost  That  Kills  and 
Crawls  Against  and  none  was  more  than  thirty  years  of  age.  As  these 
Indians  were  passing  the  house  and  premises  of  Robinson  Jones,  four  miles 
south  of  the  present  site  of  Grove  City,  one  of  them  found  some  hen's  eggs 
in  a  fence  corner  and  proceeded  to  appropriate  them.  One  of  his  comrades 
remonstrated  against  the  taking  of  the  eggs,  because  they  belonged  to  a 
white  man,  and  a  discussion  amounting  to  a  quarrel  resulted.  The  Ghost 
Killer  and  his  three  companions  went  to  the  Jones  house  and,  according  to 
the  statement  that  Jones  presently  made  to  his  family,  demanded  whisky 
whicii  he  declined  to  give  them.  Alarmed  at  their  menacing  attitude,  Jones 
fled  from  his  house  to  that  of  his  stepson,  Howard  Baker,  living  half  a  mile 
north,  whither  his  wife  had  gone  a  day  or  two  before  and  where  at  the  time 
was  staying  a  young  couple,  Viranus  Webster  and  wife,  Wisconsin  folk, 
who  were  seeking  a  homestead  in  Minnesota.  UiX)n  leaving  his  home  Jones 
left  his  foster  children,  Clara  D.  Wilson,  a  girl  of  fifteen,  and  the  latter's 
baby  brother.  Walking  leisurely,  the  Indians  followed  Jones  to  the  Baker 
house  and  there,  after  some  apparently  friendly  parley,  shot  and  killed  Jones, 
Baker,  Webster  and  Mrs.  Jones,  after  which  they  returned  to  the  Jones 
house  and  shot  Clara  Wilson  through  the  heart,  but  did  not  molest  the  infant. 
Mrs.  Baker  and  Mrs.  Webster  made  their  way  to  the  home  of  the  nearest 
settler  and  the  neighborhood  was  aroused,  the  word  of  the  murders  being 
passed  on  to  all  the  adjoining  settlements. 

THE    historian's    CONCLUSION. 

Holcombe  concludes  that  "all  of  the  attendant  circumstances  proye  that 
the  murder  of  the  five  persons  at  .Vcton  was  not  concocted  by  any  other 
Indians  than  the  four  that  did  the  deed,  and  that  they  had  po  accessories 
before  or  after  the  fact.  It  was  not  perpetrated  because  of  dissatisfaction 
at  the  delay  in  the  payment,  nor  because  there  were  to  be  soldiers  at  the  pay 
table;  it  was  not  occasioned  by  the  sale  of  the  ten-mile  strip  of  the  reserva- 
tion, nor  because  so  many  white  men  had  left  Minnesota  and  gone  into  the 
Union  army.  It  was  not  the  result  of  the  councils  of  the  soldiers'  lodge, 
nor  of  anv  other  Indian  plot.  The  twenty  or  more  Indians  who  left  Rice 
Creek  on  .\ugust  \2  for  the  hunt  did  not  intend  to  kill  white  people;  if  they 
had  so  intended,  Island  Cloud  antl  all  the  rest  would  have  been  present  at 
and  have  participated  in  the  murders  at  Baker's  and  Jones',  and  carried  off 
much  portable  jiroperty,  including  horses.  The  trouble  started  as  has  been 
stated — from  finding  a  few  eggs  in  a  white  man's  fence  corner." 


About  six  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  next  day,  August  i8,  1862, 
according  to  NeilFs  account,  a  large  number  of  Sioux  warriors,  armed  and 
in  their  war  paint,  assembled  about  the  buildings  at  the  Lower  Agency.  It 
had  been  rurpored  purposely  in  advance  that  a  war-party  was  to  take  the  field 
against  the  Chippewas,  but  no  sooner  had  the  Indians  assumed  their  several 
positions,  according  to  the  program,  than  an  onslaught  was  made  indiscrim- 
inately upon  the  whites,  and  with  the  exception  of  two  or  three  men  who 
concealed  themselves,  and  a  few  of  the  women  and  children  who  were  kept 
as  captives,  no  whites  escaped  destruction  but  George  H.  Spencer,  who 
although  twice  seriously  wounded,  was  saved  from  instant  death  by  the  heroic 
intervention  of  his  Indian  comrade,  Wak-ke-an-da-tah,  or  "Red  Lightning." 
A  number  of  persons  also  were  slain  at  the  LTpper  Agency,  but  through  the 
agency  of  "Other  Day,"  a  Christian  Indian,  the  missionaries,  the  Rev. 
Stephen  R.  Riggs  and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Thomas  Williamson  and  their  families 
and  others,  numbering  in  all  about  sixty  persons,  were  saved,  the  party  being 
conducted  safely  through  the  Indian  country  to  the  white  settlements. 


The  massacre  of  the  people,  the  pillage  of  stores  and  dwellings,  and  the 
destruction  of  the  buildings  having  been  consummated,  parties  were  dis- 
patched to  fall  upon  the  settlers  on  farms  and  in  villages  along  the  entire 
frontier,  extending  nearly  two  hundred  miles.  The  scenes  of  horror  con- 
sequent upon  the  general  onslaught  can  better  be  imagined  than  described. 
Fortimate,  comparatively  speaking,  was  the  lot  of  those  who  were  doomed 
to  instant  death,  and  thus  spared  the  agonies  of  lingering  tortures  and  the 
superadded  anguish  of  witnessing  outrages  upon  the  persons  of  those  near- 
est and  dearest  to  them.  The  fiends  of  hell  could  not  invent  more  fearful 
atrocities  than  were  perpetrated  by  the  savages  upon  their  victims.  The 
bullet,  the  tomahawk  and  the  scalping-knife  spared  neither  age  nor  sex,  the 
only  prisoners  taken  being  the  young  and  comely  women,  to  minister  to  the 
brutal  lusts  of  their  captors,  and  a  few  children.  In  the  short  space  of 
thirty-six  hours,  as  nearly  as  could  be  computed,  eight  hundred  whites  were 
cruelly  slain.  Almost  every  dwelling  house  along  the  extreme  frontier  was 
a  charnel  house,  containing  the  dying  or  the  dead.  In  many  cases  the  torch 
was  applied  and  maimed  and  crippled  sufferers,  unable  to  escape,  were  con- 
sumed with  their  habitations.  The  alarm  was  communicated  by  refugees  to 
the  adjacent  settlements,  and  soon  the  roads  leading  east  and  to  the  pro- 


tected  centers  were  crowded  by  thousands  of  men,  women  and  children,  in 
the  wild  confusion  of  sudden  flight. 

After  accomphshing  their  mission  of  death  the  savages  assembled  in 
force  and  attempt  to  take  Ft.  Ridgcly  by  a  coup  de  main.  In  this  they 
were  foiled  by  the  vigilance  and  determination  of  the  garrison,  aided  by 
volunteers  who  had  escaped  from  the  surrounding  settlements.  The  attack 
was  continued  for  several  days,  but  without  success.  The  town  of  New  Ulm 
also  was  assailed  by  a  strong  force  of  the  savages,  but  was  gallantly  defended 
by  volunteers  from  the  neighboring  counties,  under  the  command  of  Col. 
C.  H.  Flandrau.  Captain  Dodd,  an  old  and  prominent  citizen  of  St.  Peter, 
was  among  the  killed  at  this  latter  point.  Ft.  Abercrombie,  on  the  Red  river, 
also  suffered  a  long  and  tedious  siege  by  the  bands  of  Sioux  from  the  Lac 
qui  Parle  country,  until  relie\ed  by  a  force  dispatched  by  Governor  Ramsey 
from  St.  Paul. 


The  first  advices  of  the  outbreak  reached  the  state  capital  on  the  day 
succeeding  the  massacre  at  the  Lower  Agency!  Instant  preparations  were 
made  by  Governor  Ramsey  to  arrest  the  progress  of  the  savages.  At  his 
personal  solicitation,  Henry  FI.  Sibley,  a  resident  of  JMendota,  whose  long 
and  intimate  acquaintance  with  Indian  character  and  habits  was  supposed 
to  render  him  peculiarly  fitted  for  the  position,  consented  to  take  charge  of 
military  operations.  He  accordingly  was  commissioned  by  the  governor, 
colonel  commanding,  and  upon  him  in  person  devolved  the  conduct  of  the 

Unfortunately,  the  state  of  Minnesota  was  lamentably  deficient  in  the 
means  and  appliances  requisite  to  carry  on  successfully  a  war  of  the  formid- 
able character  which  this  threatened  to  assume.  The  Sioux  alhed  bands 
could  bring  into  the  field  from  eight  hundred  to  one  thousand  warriors,  and 
they  might  be  indefinitely  reinforced  by  the  powerful  divisions  of  the  prairie 
Sioux.  Those  actually  engaged  in  hostilities  were  good  marksmen,  splen- 
didly armed,  and  abundant!)-  supplied  with  ammunition.  They  had  been 
victorious  in  several  encounters  with  detachments  of  troops,  and  had  over- 
whelming confidence  in  their  own  skill.  On  the  other  hand,  the  state  had 
already  dispatched  five  thousand,  more  or  less,  of  her  choicest  young  men 
to  the  South,  her  arsenal  was  stripped  of  all  the  arms  that  were  effective, 
and  there  was  little  animuniticMi  on  hand,  and  no  rations.  There  was  no 
government  transportation  to  be  had  and  the  prospect  was  not  by  any  means 
favoral)le.     Goveror  Ramsey,   notwithstanding,   acted  with  promptness  and 

OLD    STtXKADK    AT    AI.EXAXDUIA.       FlidM     A    CUAYOX     DltAWIXC    MADE     IX 
1MI2.    DIKIXi;    THE    DAYS    OF    .MILITAKY    AfTIVITY    THERE. 


vigor.  He  telegraphed  for  arms  and  ammunition  to  tiie  war  department  and 
to  the  governors  of  adjoining  states.  He  authorized  also  the  appropriation 
for  the  public  use  of  the  teams  belonging  to  individual  citizens,  and  adopted 
such  other  measures  as  the  emergency  demanded. 

There  were  at  Ft.  Snelling,  happily,  the  nuclei  of  regiments  tliat  had 
been  called  into  service.  Colonel  Sibley  left  Ft.  Snelling  with  four  hundred 
men  of  the  Sixth  Regiment,  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  early  on  the 
morning  of  August  20.  Upon  an  inspection  of  the  arms  and  cartridges 
furnished,  it  was  fovmd  that  the  former  comprised  worthless  Austrian  rifles, 
and  the  ammunition  was  for  guns  of  a  larger  and  different  calibre.  The 
command  was  detained  several  days  at  St.  Peter,  engaged  in  swedging  the 
balls  so  as  to  fit  the  arms  and  in  preparing  canister-shot  for  the  six-pounders. 
Meantime  arms  of  a  better  quality  were  received,  reinforcements  of  troops 
arrived  and  the  column  took  up  the  line  of  march  for  Ft.  Ridgley,  which  was 
reached  without  interruption,  and  the  troops  went  into  camp  a  short  distance 
from  the  post,  to  await  the  reception  of  rations  and  to  make  the  final  prepara- 
tions for  an  advance  upon  the  hostile  Indians,  who  had  drawn  in  their 
detached  parties  and  were  concentrating  for  a  decisive  battle. 


Scouts  were  dispatched  to  ascertain  the  location  of  the  main  Indian 
camp,  and  upon  their  return  they  reported  no  Indians  below  Yellow  Medicine 
river.  A  burial  party  of  twenty  men,  under  the  escort  of  one  company  of 
infantry  and  the  available  mounted  force,  in  all  about  two  hundred  men, 
under  the  command  of  Major  J.  R.  Brown,  was  detailed  to  proceed  and 
inter  the  remains  of  the  slain  at  the  Lower  Agency  and  at  other  points  in 
the  vicinity.  The  duty  was  performed,  fifty-four  lx>dies  buried,  and  the 
detachment  was  en  route  to  the  settlements  on  Beaver  river  and  had  encamped 
for  the  night  near  Birch  Coolie,  a  long  and  wooded  ravine  debouching  into 
the  Minnesota  river,  when,  about  dawn  the  following  morning,  the  camp  was 
attacked  by  a  large  force  of  Indians,  twenty-five  men  killed  or  mortally 
wounded  and  nearly  all  the  horses,  ninety  in  number,  shot  down.  Provi- 
dentially, the  volleys  of  musketry  were  heard  at  the  main  camp,  although 
eighteen  miles  distant,  and  Colonel  Sibley  marched  to  the  relief  of  the 
beleaguered  detachment,  drove  off  the  Indians,  buried  the  dead,  and  the 
weary  column  then  retraced  its  steps  to  the  camp. 

The  period  spent  in  awaiting  necessary  supplies  of  provisions  was  made 



useful  in  drilling  the  men  and  bringing  them  under  discipline.  So  soon  as 
ten  days'  rations  had  been  accumulated,  Colonel  Sibley  marched  in  search  of 
the  savages,  and  on  September  23,  1862,  was  fought  the  severe  and  decisive 
battle  of  Wood  Lake.  The  action  was  commenced  by  the  Indians  and  was 
bravely  contested  by  them  for  more  than  two  hours,  when  they  gave  way  at 
all  points  and  sent  in  a  flag  of  truce,  asking  permission  to  remove  their  dead 
and  wounded,  which  was  refused.  A  message  was  sent  back  to  Little  Crow, 
the  leader  of  the  hostile  Indians,  to  the  efifect  that  if  any  of  the  white  pris- 
oners held  by  him  received  injury  at  the  hands  of  the  savages,  no  mercy 
would  be  shown  the  latter,  l>ut  that  they  would  be  pursued  and  destroyed 
without  regard  to  age  or  sex. 

The  success  at  Wood  Lake  was  i:ot  achieved  without  serious  loss.  Two 
officers  were  severely  wounded  and  nearly  forty  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates  were  killed  or  wounded.  The  loss  of  the  enemy  was  much 
greater,  a  half-breed  prisoner  stating  it  at  thirty  killed  and  a  larger  number 
wounded.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Marshall  and  Major  Bradley,  of  the  Seventh 
Regiment,  distinguished  themselves,  the  former  leading  a  charge  of  five  com- 
panies of  his  own  and  two  companies  of  the  Sixth  Regiment,  which  cleared 
a  ravine  of  the  enemy,  where  they  had  obtained  shelter.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Averill  and  Major  McLaren,  of  the  Sixth  Regiment,  also  performed  signal 
service,  as  did  all  the  officers  and  men  of  both  regiments.  The  Third  Regi- 
ment, composed  of  fractions  of  six  companies,  fought  gallantly,  having  for  a 
time,  in  conjunction  with  the  Renville  Rangers,  borne  the  brunt  of  the  fight, 
and  their  loss  was  great  in  proportion. 


One  of  the  main  objects  of  the  campaign,  the  deliverance- of  the  white 
captives,  was  yet  to  be  accomplished,  and  required  the  exercise  of  much  judg- 
ment and  caution.  There  was  good  reason  to  fear  that,  in  the  exasperation 
of  defeat,  the  helpless  prisoners  might  fall  victims  to  the  savages.  Colonel 
Sibley,  therefore,  delayed  his  march  towards  the  great  Indian  camp  until 
the  second  day  after  the  battle,  to  allow  time  to  the  friendly  element  to 
strengthen  itself  and  to  avoid  driving  the  hostile  Indians  into  desperate  meas- 
ures against  their  prisoners.  On  the  25th  of  September,  the  column,  with 
drums  beating  and  colors  flying,  filed  past  the  Indian  encampment  and  formed 
camp  within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  it,  on  the  heights  overlooking  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Chippewa  and  the  Minnesota  rivers,  at  a  point  about  two  miles 
southwest  of  the  present  city  of  Montevideo.     Colonel  Sibley,  with  his  staff 


and  field  officers/ then  proceeded  to  the  lodges  of  the  Indians  and  directed 
that  all  the  captives  should  be  delivered  up  to  him,  which  was  forthwith  done ; 
a  sight  thus  being  presented  that  sufficed  to  suiifuse  the  eyes  of  strong  men 
with  tears.  Young  and  beautiful  women,  who  had  for  weeks  endured  the 
extremitv  of  outrage  from  their  brutal  captors,  followed  by  a  crowd  of  chil- 
dren of  all  ages,  came  forth  from  the  lodges,  hardly  realizing  that  the  day 
of  their  deliverance  had  arrived.  Convulsive  sobbing  was  heard  on  every 
side  and  the  poor  creatures  clung  to  the  men  who  had  come  to  their  relief, 
as  if  they  feared  that  some  savage  would  drag  them  away.  They  were  all 
escorted  tenderly  to  the  tents  prepared  for  their  reception  and  made  as  com- 
fortable as  circumstances  would  admit.  The  number  of  pure  whites  thus 
released  amounted  to  about  one  hundred  and  fifty,  including  one  man  only, 
George  H.  Spencer,  whose  preservation  by  "Red  Lightning"  has  been  noted 
above.  Mr.  Spencer  expressed  his  gratitude  to  Colonel  Sibley  that  the  latter 
had  not  made  a  forced  march  upon  the  camp  after  the  battle,  stating  emphatic- 
ally that  if  such  a  course  had  been  pursued,  it  was  the  determination  of  the 
hostile  Indians  to  cut  the  throats  of  the  captives  and  then  disperse  to  the 
prairies.  There  were  deli^■ered  also  nearly  two  hundred  and  fifty  half-breeds, 
who  had  been  held  as  prisoners. 


Two  of  the  principal  objects  of  the  campaign,  the  defeat  of  the  savages 
and  the  release  of  the  captives,  having  thus  been  consummated,  there  remained 
but  to  punish  the  guilty.  Many  of  these,  with  Little  Crow,  had  made  their 
escape  and  could  not  be  overtaken,  but  some  of  the  small  camps  of  refugees 
were  surrounded  and  their  inmates  brought  back.  The  locality  where  these 
events  transpired  was  appropriately  called  Camp  Release  and  the  spot  has 
been  marked  by  a  grateful  state  by  the  erection  of  a  beautiful  granite  shaft, 
suitably  inscribed,  commemorating  the  deeds  of  Colonel  Sibley's  relief  expedi- 
tion and  the  release  of  the  captives. 

At  the  proper  time  the  Indian  camp  was  surrounded  by  a  cordon  of 
troops  and  four  hundred  of  the  warriors  were  arrested,  chained  together  in 
pairs,  and  placed  in  an  enclosure  of  logs  made  by  the  troops,  under  strong 
guard.  Others  who  were  known  to  be  innocent  were  not  interfered  with. 
Colonel  Sibley  constituted  a  military  commission,  with  Colonel  Crooks,  com- 
manding the  Sixth  Regiment,  as  president,  for  the  trial  of  the  prisoners.  A 
fair  and  impartial  hearing  was  accorded  to  each  and  the  result  was  the  find- 
ing of  three  hundred  and  three  guilty  of  participation  in  the  murder  of  the 


whites,  and  the  sentence  of  death  by  hanging  was  passed  upon  them.  Others 
were  convicted  of  robbery  and  pillage  and  condemned  to  various  terms  of 
imprisonment,  and  a  few  were  acquitted.  The  witnesses  were  composed  of 
the  released  captives,  including  mixed  Ijloods,  and  of  Christian  Indians,  who 
had  refused  to  join  Little  Crow  in  the  war. 

The  preparations  for  the  execution  of  the  guilty  Indians  were  brought 
to  a  summary  close  by  an  order  from  President  Lincoln  prohibiting  the  hang- 
ing of  any  of  the  convicted  men  without  his  previous  sanction,  sentimental 
persons  in  the  East  having  demanded  of  the  President  a  review  of  the  pro- 
ceeding of  the  military  court.  The  people  of  the  state  were  highly  indig- 
nant at  this  suspension  and  an  energetic  protest  was  made  by  their  senators 
and  representatives  in-  Washington.  Finally,  after  much  delay,  Colonel 
Sibley  was  directed  to  carry  out  the  sentence  of  the  commission  in  certain 
cases  specified,  and  on  December  26,  1862,  thirty-eight  of  the  criminals  were 
executed  accordingly  at  Mankato,  on  the  same  scaffold,  under  the  direction 
of  Colonel  Miller,  commanding  that  post.  The  remainder  of  the  condemned 
were  sent  to  Davenport,  Iowa,  early  in  the  spring,  where  they  were  kept  in 
confinement  for  more  than  a  year,  a  large  number  dying  of  disease  in  the 
meantime.  Those  that  remained  eventually  were  dispatched  to  a  reservation 
on  the  Upper  Missouri,  where  the  large  number  of  prisoners  taken  by  Colonel 
Sibley,  principally  women  and  children,  had  already  been  placed. 


When  the  stage  brought  the  news  to  the  Alexandria  settlement  during 
those  fateful  days  in  August,  1862,  that  the  Indians  were  collecting  and 
putting  on  the  war  paint  at  the  Yellow  Medicine  agency,  much  alarm  was 
created  in  the  hamlet  and  throughout  the  county,  for  trouble  had  been  feared 
for  some  time,  and  the  settlers  were  warned  to  flee  if  they  desired  safety. 
When  the  stage  driver  brought  the  news  of  the  uprising  all  the  settlers  in  the 
vicinity  of  Alexandria  congregated  on  the  town  site  and.  held  a  "council  of 
war.'"  .\fter  some  discussion  of  the  news  it  was  decided  that  the  alarm 
must  lie  a  hoax  and  the  farmers  were  advised  to  return  to  their  fields,  which 
they  did.  I'our  days  later  a  messenger  from  Go\  ernor  Ramsey  reached  this 
part  of  the  state,  driving  post  haste,  distributing  arms  and  ammunition  and 
cornmanding  the  settlers  to  gather  together,  or  rendezvous,  and  arm  them- 
selves for  safety.  At  Alexandria  a  few  muskets  and  some  ammunition  were 
left  with  J.  H.  \'an  Dyke  for  distribution  and  all  the  settlers  that  could  be 
reached  were  notified  to  arm  or  prepare  for  flight.     On  that  same  day  prac- 


tically  all  the  settlers  in  the  community  assembled  at  Alexandria  and  it  was 
then  and  there  decided  that  the  women  and  children  should  at  once  be  taken 
to  Sauk  Center  or  St.  Cloud  for  safety,  and  the  party  lost  no  time  in  setting 
out,  all  save  their  most  valuable  personal  possessions  being  left  behind.  At 
the  same  time  the  settlers  in  the  several  vicinities  of  Holmes  City,  Chippewa 
(Brandon)  and  Evansville  and  the  few  who  had  gathered  in  the  vicinity  of 
Osakis — who  had  not  already  gone,  got  together  and  all  left,  most  of  them 
going  to  Sauk  Center  or  St.  Cloud,  while  others  scattered  in  various  direc- 
tions, it  being  said  that  but  two  of  the  settlers  remained  in  the  county,  Andreas 
Darling  and  N.  P.  Barnes.  They  conveyed  their  families  to  places  of  safety, 
but  returned  straightway  and  remained  on  their  farms,  undisturbed. 

When  the  first  squad  of  refugees  from  this  section  arrived  at  Sauk 
Center  a  consultation  was  held  and  it  was  decided  that  the  men  should  return 
to  their  farms  and  attend  to  their  crops.  Accordingly,  within  a  few  days, 
they  were  on  their  way  back,  most  of  them  being  armed  with  some  kind  of 
a  weapon,  among  those  who  returned  at  that  time  being  recalled  the  names 
of  Messrs  Dicken,  Barr,  Redman,  Darling,  Barnes,  Shotwell,  Cowing,  Can- 
field,  Thompson,  Ridley,  Gager,  Austin,  Lewis,  Rogers  and  several  young 
men.  Upon  their  arrival  at  Alexandria  the  party  found  everything  just  as 
it  had  been  left,  even  the  tables  set  as  they  were  when  the  affrighted  settlers 
had  fled. 


Upon  finding  things  at  the  settlement  undisturbed,  the  party  separated, 
the  settlers  leaving  for  their  respective  farms.  A  number  started  for  the 
Chippewa  settlement  where  Henry  Gager"  s  claim  was  located  and  when  that 
place  was  reached  eight  or  ten  of  the  party,  including  Andrew  Austin  and 
Ben  Lewis  started  for  Evansville  to  see  about  Rogers's  property  and  to  learn 
whether  the  Indians  had  burned  the  house.  Andrew  Austin  and  Ben  Lewis 
were  riding  ponies  and  had  proceeded  on  Cjuite  a  distance  in  advance  of  the 
remainder  of  the  party  who  were  riding  in  a  wagon.  On  the  way  Austin  and 
Lewis  shot  a  hawk  and  stuck  the  feathers  in  their  hats.  When  but  a  short 
distance  from  their  destination  they  were  surprised  by  a  band  of  about  forty 
Indians,  who  sprang  up  from  their  ambush  along  the  trail  and  surrounded 
the  two,  firing  upon  them  at  close  range.  The  party  in  the  wagon  was  far  to 
the  rear  and  unable  to  render  aid  to  the  entrapped  horsemen ;  and,  indeed,  it 
would  have  been  a  mark  of  foolhardiness  for  the  small  party  to  have 
attempted  succor  in  the  face  of  the  overwhelming  odds  presented  i)y  the  much 
superior  liand  of  redskins. 


At  the  first  volley,  Austin  was  seen  to  reel  from  his  horse,  while  Lewis 
headed  toward  the  south,  escaping  the  bullets  of  the  savages,  his  nimble- 
footed  pony  quickly  putting  a  safe  distance  between  him  and  his  red  foe,  and 
was  soon  out  of  sight^never  to  be  heard  of  again  in  this  community.  In  a 
moment  the  Indians  had  gathered  about  the  prostrate  form  of  Austin  and 
those  in  the  wagon  straightway  wheeled  about  and  beat  a  precipitate  retreat 
to  the  point  where  they  had  left  the  rest  of  the  party.  There  they  waited  for 
a  time,  prepared  to  resist  to  the  death  the  expected  attack,  but  as  none  came 
they  presently  all  set  out  on  the  return  to  Sauk  Center,  abandoning  their 
previous  design  of  remaining  on  the  farms  which  they  had  left  at  the  first 
alarm.  Through  the  haste  of  getting  away  a  gun  was  accidentally  dis- 
charged, the  contents  entering  the  back  of  a  girl  who  had  accompanied  the 
party.  At  Sauk  Center  medical  aid  was  secured  and  she  eventually  recovered. 
The  body  of  the  ill-fated  Andrew  Austin  remained  where  it  fell  for  several 
weeks,  a  squad  of  soldiers  that  had  been  dispatched  to  this  part  of  the  state 
then  giving  it  proper  burial,  a  coffin  for  that  purpose  being  obtained  at  Alex- 
andria. The  soldiers  found  that  the  savages  had  cut  off  Austin's  head  and 
one  of  his  hands  and  then  had  cut  out  his  heart. 


After  the  terrible  event  above  related  none  of  the  settlers  returned  to 
Douglas  county  until  after  the  soldiers  were  sent  to  this  section,  which  was 
not  until  the  latter  part  of  October  or  early  in  November,  and  Alexandria 
was  created  a  government  post.  The  first  company  detailed  to  that  post  was 
Company  B,  Twenty-fifth  Wisconsin,  under  Captain  Joshlin,  who  had 
quarters  erected  for  his  command  at  a  point  near  the  original  Kinkaid  log 
cabin,  the  first  house  erected  in  the  county,  about  a  scjuare  south  of  the  pres- 
ent railway  station  of  the  Great  Northern  Railroad .  Company.  About  two 
months  later  Captain  Joshlin's  command  was  relieved  by  Company  K,  Eighth 
Minnesota,  under  command  of  Captain  Rockwood,  who  caused  to  be  erected, 
as  quarters  for  his  command  and  as  a  means  of  greater  security  to  the  set- 
tlers hereabout,  the  famous  old  stockade,  which  for  some  years  was  the  center 
of  social  and  commercial  activity  for  this  whole  region.  The  old  stockade 
was  of  the  familiar  form  of  construction  of  such  structures,  generally,  erected 
with  a  view  to  stability  and  security  against  assault,  the  walls  being  con- 
structed of  logs  set  endways  into  the  ground,  the  enclosure  being  about  ten 
rods  square.  It  was  erected  on  the  hill  near  the  \'an  Dyke  Store,  just  south 
of  the  present  freight  depot  of  the  Great  Northern  Railroad  Company,  and 


the  building  of  it  in  the  period  of  mid-winter  was  quite  a  task  for  the  soldiers 
and  settlers  thus  engaged.  Upon  the  completion  of  the  stockade  practically 
all  the  settlers  who  had  returned  to  the  vicinity  of  Alexandria  moved  into  the 
same,  J-  H.  Van  Dyke  even  moving  his  store  inside,  all  thus  acquiring  a 
greater  sense  of  security  against  possible  further  marauding  bands  of  sav- 
ages, and  thus  the  situation  remained  at  the  settlement  until  the  Indian 
excitement  had  wholly  subsided,  further  fears  of  an  uprising  being  pretty 
generally  at  an  end  before  the  close  of  another  year,  after  which  there  was 
little  excitement  over  the  Indians,  although  it  is  recalled  that  as  late  as  1873 
there  was  a  "scare"  throughout  this  part  of  the  state,  vague  rumors  of  an 
Indian  uprising  driving  not  a  few  of  the  settlers  in  the  sparsely  populated  dis- 
tricts to  more  populous  centers  and  causing  all  to  take  effective  precautionary 
measures  such  as  the  molding  of  bullets  and  seeing  to  it  that  effective  bolts 
were  placed  on  houses,  but  that  rumor  seemed  to  be  a  "false  alarm,"  as  there 
was  found  to  be  no  foundation  for  it  whatever. 

The  troops  remained  at  the  old  stockade  until  the  spring  of  1866,  by 
which  time  a  sufficient  number  of  settlers  had  returned  to  Douglas  county,  or 
new  ones  had  come  in  to  take  the  places  of  those  who  had  fled  during  the 
uprising,  to  pave  the  way  for  the  re-establishment  of  a  formal  local  govern- 
ment again,  Douglas  county  being  officially  and  permanently  reorganized  in 
the  spring  of  1866,  as  set  out  elsewhere.  During  the  time  the  troops  remained 
at  the  stockade  there  generally  was  about  half  a  company  stationed  there. 
Captain  Grosvener,  with  a  company  of  Hatch's  battalion,  succeeded  Captain 
Rockwood  and  he  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  Capt.  G.  C.  Whitcomb,  who 
remained  in  charge  until  the  post  was  discontinued  and  the  soldiers  dis- 
charged in  the  spring  of  1866.  In  the  meantime,  the  Civil  War  had  been 
going  on  and  in  this  great  struggle  Douglas  county  nobly  performed  her 
part  in  raising  men,  her  quota  being  furnished  without  the  painful  necessity 
of  resorting  to  the  draft.  After  it  was  discontinued  the  stockade  fell  into 
disuse,  its  timbers  were  found  useful  for  other  building  purposes  and  it  long 
since  has  been  a  matter  of  memory  only;  but  among  the  old  settlers  the  mem- 
ories that  cluster  around  it  are  imperishable — some  sad,  some  gav,  but  all 
linked  with  that  early  period  that  witnessed  the  permanent  establishment  of 
a  definite  social  order  hereabout,  a  process  in  which  the  old  stockade  plaved 
no  small  part,  the  security  the  presence  of  the  soldiers  there  gave  to  the  set- 
tlers having  been  a  very  pronounced  factor  in  the  restoration  of  civic  condi- 
tions after  the  setback  occasioned  bv  the  dre^d  rising  of  the  Sioux  in  the 
summer  of  1862. 

Organization  of  Douglas  County. 

For  some  time  after  Douglas  county  was  first  set  apart  by  the  state 
Legislature  it  was  attached  to  Stearns  county  for  civil  and  judicial  pur- 
poses. In  1859  a  move  was  started  to  establish  Douglas  as  an  independent 
county.  P.  L.  Gregory  was  the  prime  mover,  and  an  election  was  held — the 
first  in  the  county — at  Gregory's  hotel.  Some  of  the  settlers  were  opposed 
to  the  project,  and  only  a  few  voted.  It  was,  therefore,  given  up,  as  the 
election  was  held  without  authority  and  was  illegal.  At  the  session  of  the 
state  Legislature  in  1858- 1859  a  bill  was  passed  authorizing  the  organiza- 
tion of  Douglas  county  for  certain  purposes,  and  the  Governor  appointed 
J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  S.  B.  Cowdry  and  A.  Darling,  as  the  first  board  of  county 
commissioners.  The  board  met  at  the  store  of  Mr.  Van  Dyke,  at  Alexandria, 
and  appointed  the  following  county  officers:  Alexander  Kinkaid,  register 
of  deeds;  J.  A.  James,  sheriff,  and  P.  L.  Gregory,  judge  of  probate.  This 
organization  was  kept  up  until  the  Indian  outbreak  in  1862,  when  it  was 
abandoned  and  all  records  which  had  been  made  were  lost.  Nothing  further 
was  done  with  official  matters  until  1866.  when  the  count}-  was  permanently 

Douglas  county  was  established  with  its  present  boundaries  by  act  of 
the  Legislature  in  1866,  when  it  was  ordered  that  "The  county  of  Douglas  is 
established  and  bounded  as  follows :  Beginning  at  the  northeast  corner  of 
township  130  north,  range  36  west  from  the  fifth  principal  meridian:  thence 
west  on  the  line  between  townships  130  and  131,  to  the  northwest  corner  of 
township  130,  of  range  40;  thence  south  on  the  line  between  ranges  40  and 
41,  to  the  southwest  corner  of  township  127,  of  range  40;  thence  east  on  the 
line  between  towhships  126  and  127,  to  the  southeast  comer  of  township 
127,  of  range  36;  thence  north  on  the  line  between  ranges  35  and  36,  to  the 
place  of  beginning." 


In  the  si)ring  of  1866  the  governor  appointed  a  new  board  of  commis- 
sioners to  organize  the  countv.  consisting  of  the  following:    J.  H.  A'an  Dvke, 


James  F.  Dicken  and  Donald  Stevison.  This  board  held  its  first  meeting 
on  June  15,  1866,  at  Alexandria,  which  village,  on  account  of  its  being  the 
principal  settlement  and  located  near  the  center  of  the  county,  had  been  desig- 
nated as  the  county  seat.  Mr.  Van  Dyke  was  chosen  chairman  of  the  county 
board  \yhich  then  proceeded  to  appoint  the  following  of¥icers :  J.  Mont 
Smvth,  auditor;  Charles  Cook,  judge  of  probate;  J.  Mont  Smyth,  register 
of  deeds;  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  sheriff;  J.  Mont  Smyth,  clerk  of  the  court; 
William  Shaw,  attorney ;  T.  W.  Moore,  surveyor ;  Thomas  F.  Cowing, 
treasurer;  Robert  Wyman,  coroner. 

At  this  first  meeting  of  the  county  board  two  townships  were  estab- 
lished, Osakis  and  Alexandria.  Osakis  township  consisted  of  congressional 
townships  127  and  128,  range  36,  and  Alexandria  township  included  all  the 
balance  of  the  county.  The  board  appointed  the  first  officers  for  Osakis 
township  as  follows:  William  Shaw,  clerk;  J.  Maguire,  treasurer;  T.  M. 
Works,  assessor;  William  Shaw  and  Roland  Sanderson,  justices;  Thomas 
Adams  and  Charles  Gilbert,  constables.  The  first  officers  apix)inted  for 
Alexandria  township  were:  J.  Mont  Smyth,  clerk;  H.  S.  Rutherford,  treas- 
urer; T.  W.  Sprague,  assessor;  George  Cowing  and  N.  B.  Johnson,  justices; 
John  Johnson  and  Henry  Blackwell,  constables. 

At  the  second  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners,  held  at 
Alexandria  on  October  4,  1866,  a  petition  having  been  presented  from  the 
legal  voters  in  that  territory,  congressional  townships  127  and  128,  ranges 
39  and  40,  were  set  apart  as  a  separate  civil  township,  to  be  known  as 
Holmes  City  township.  The  board  appointed  the  following  judges  and 
clerks  of  the  election  to  be  held  there:  Henry  Blackwell,  N.  B.  Johnson  and 
Xels  Nickelson.  judges;  T.  W.  Sprague  and  Noah  Grant,  clerks. 


When  Douglas  county  was  organized  there  was  a  provision  in  the  laws 
of  the  state  allowing  county  officers,  in  counties  where  there  was  no  court 
house,  to  keep  their  offices  at  their  homes.  For  some  months  this  plan  was 
followed  by  the  first  officers  of  Douglas  county.  At  a  meeting  of  the  county 
board  held  on  January  i,  1867,  Commissioner  Dicken  made  a  motion,  which 
was  formally  adopted,  that  "The  county  auditor  be  instructed  to  procure  an 
office,  furnish  the  same  with  stove  and  the  necessary  furniture,  including  a 
desk  for  the  safe-keeping  of  books  and  papers,  and  also  to  furnish  said  office 
with  fuel,  all  of  which  at  the  expense  of  the  county ;  also  to  procure  a  suit- 
able desk  for  the  clerk  of  the  district  court." 


On  February  2,  1867,  the  board  voted  to  issue  county  order  Xo.  i  for 
twenty-five  dollars,  to  J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  to  pay  for  seals  for  the  clerk  of  the 
court  and  the  register  of  deeds.  At  that  same  meeting  the  board  issued 
county  order  No.  2  for  four  hundred  dollars,  to  W.  E.  Hicks,  J.  H.  Bondy 
and  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  for  county  books. 

In  the  spring  of  1867  \\.  E.  Hicks  and  Thomas  F.  Cowing  erected  a 
frame  building  on  lot  10.  block  59,  in  the  original  plat  of  the  village  of 
Alexandria,  where  N.  P.  Ward's  store  now  stands.  It  was  a  two-story 
structure,  ha\ing  four  rooms  and  an  entry  on  the  first  floor  and  one  large 
room  on  the  second  floor.  On  March  30,  1867,  the  county  commissioners 
voted  to  pay  Hicks  and  Cowing  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  per  annum  for 
the  use  of  this  building  for  county  offices,  the  room  on  the  second  floor  to  be 
used  only  when  required  for  holding  court,  possession  to  be  given  on  June 
I,  1867. 

The  county  officers  established  themselves  in  the  building  on  Main 
street  in  the  fall  of  1867.  Furniture,  stoves  and  fuel  were  provided  and  all 
the  county  business  was  for  a  time  transacted  there.  On  September  4,  1867, 
James  Troag  was  paid  fifty-five  dollars  for  a  fine  hand-made  desk  for  the 
use  of  the  clerk  of  the  court.  At  that  time  none  of  the  county  officers  devoted 
all  their  time  to  the  county  duties  but  had  private  business  which  required 
attention.  Anyone  having  in  hand  a  matter  which  required  the  atten- 
tion of  a  county  official  would  first  find  the  officer  at  his  place  of  busi- 
ness, when  they  would  repair  to  the  building  used  as  a  court  house  and  give 
the  matter  official  consideration.  On  account  of  the  small  amount  of  county 
business  to  be  attended  to  at  that  time,  the  early  officials  soon  found  that  this 
])lan  seriously  interfered  with  their  private  aiTairs  and  secured  permission 
from  the  county  board  to  take  their  books  and  papers  to  their  respective 
stores  and  offices  in  the  village  of  Alexandria. 

On  December  30,  1868,  the  county  auditor  was  instructed  to  lease  the 
.southeast  corner  room  in  the  court  house  to  J.  H.  \'an  Dyke  for  six  months, 
with  the  privilege  of  using  the  room  for  the  county  treasurer  when  necessary, 
Mr.  \'an  D\ke  to  pay  at  the  rate  of  $33.33  per  year,  quarterly  in  advance. 
.\t  the  same  time  the  northeast  corner  room  was  rented  to  Lewis  Lewision, 
register  of  the  United  States  land  office,  at  the  rate  of  $66.66  per  year.  On 
January  6,  1869,  the  register  of  deeds  was  allowed  to  remove  his  books  from 
the  court  house  to  his  office,  and  on  March  9.  that  same  \ear,  the  county 
auditor  removed  his  books  to  his  store.  On  June  22,  1869,  the  southwest 
corner  room,  occupied  by  John  S.  Mower,  superintendent  of  schools,  was 
rented  to  Mr.  ]Mower  for  his  use  as  a  lawver's  office,  the  court  commissioner 













Wlierp  C.  O.  Peterson's  driis  store  now  stiinds.  in  1876  Bob  Walker  bad  bis 
■ksmitli  shop.     The  next  bnildins;  was  the  home  of  the  First  National  Bank 

From  a  photograph  taken  in  1S76,  the  site  now  being  occupied  by  N.  P.  Wardstone.     The  little  bnild- 
ing  was  used  by  James  Walker,  as  a  jewelry  store,  express   office,    postofEce    and    office    of    the    clerk    of 
courts.     The  next  building  was  the  log  store  erected  by  William  E.  Hicks. 


and  sheriff  to  use  the  room  when  needed.  The  same  room  was  rented  to 
John  S.  Randolph  on  September  7,  1869.  The  northwest  corner  room  was 
rented  to  W.  F.  Ball  for  nine  dollars  per  month. 


The  little  frame  building  on  Main  street  continued  to  be  used  more  or 
less  exclusively  for  public  business  for  nine  years,  but  very  early  the  county 
fathers  realized  that  in  time  the  county  would  need  a  real  court  house,  and 
with  wise  foresight  began  negotiations  for  ground  for  a  public  building.  On 
May  26,  1871,  the  board  conferred  with  W.  E.  Hicks  to  secure  a  piece  of 
land  in  the  townsite  of  Alexandria  for  a  pubHc  square  on  which  to  erect 
county  buildings.  Mr.  Hicks  agreed  to  give  the  county  a  bond  for  a  deed  if 
the  commissioners,  on  behalf  of  the  county,  would  bind  themselves  to  com- 
mence the  erection  of  county  buildings  within  three  years  and  complete  them 
in  six  years.  The  commissioners  were  unable  to  give  any  such  assurance 
and  the  project  was  abandoned  for  the  time  being. 

On  March  27,  1875,  Theresa  T.  Hicks,  widow  of  W.  E.  Hicks,  agreed 
to  give  the  county  a  bond  for  a  deed  to  block  34,  in  the  original  townsite  of 
Alexandria,  if  the  county  would  erect  a  court  house  costing  not  less  than 
$10,000  on  or  before  January  i,  1880.  This  amount  was  decided  to  be  more 
than  the  county  could  afford  for  a  building  and  Mrs.  Hicks  was  persuaded  to 
give  the  land  to  the  county  on  condition  that  a  court  house  costing  not  less 
than  three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  would  be  built  before  January  i, 
1878.  The  county  commissioners  at  that  time  were  A.  H.  Ta\lor,  K.  C. 
Rustad,  Roljert  Angus,  Ole  Amundson  and  AI.  J.  Gordon.  On  April  6, 
1876,  they  accepted  the  plans  of  J.  X.  Herder,  for  a  building  fort\'  by  fift}-- 
four  feet.  The  contract  was  awarded  to  Raymond  &  Owen,  of  St.  Cloud, 
who  agreed  to  build  the  court  house  for  three  thousand  four  hundred  and 
forty-seven  dollars. 

J.  N.  Herder,  L.  K.  Aaker  and  A.  J.  Ames  were  appointed  as  a  com- 
mittee to  superintend  the  construction  of  the  building.  This  court  house  was 
completed  and  accepted  on  .\ugust  15,  1876.  It  was  a  two-story  frame 
building,  with  five  office  rooms  on  the  first  floor  and  a  court  room  up-stairs. 
A  fire-proof  vault,  nine  by  twelve  feet,  was  built  at  the  rear  of  the  court 
house,  by  Stephen  King,  at  a  cost  of  six  hundred  and  seventy  dollars.  When 
the  officials  moved  into  this  building  in  the  fall  of  1876  the  county  business 
had  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  the  principal  officers  devoted  all  their 
time  to  their  official  duties.     For  almost  twenty  years  this  building  ser\'ed 


for  conntv  purposes,  when  it  was  replaced  by  a  modern  structure  which 
provided  not  only  larger  working  space,  but  what  was  even  more  important, 
safety  \-aults  for  the  storage  of  the  many  valuable  records  of  the  county. 


Back  in  the  eighties  when  Theodore  Bordsen  was  a  county  auditor  he 
was  largel}-  instrumental  in  establishing  a  fund  for  a  new  court  house.  This 
fund  accumulated  through  the  years  and  finally  grew  to  sufficient  proportions 
to  enable  the  county  to  erect  a  new  building  without  issuing  a  single  dollar's 
worth  of  bonds.  On  July  11,  1893,  the  board  of  county  commissioners 
appointed  a  committee  consisting  of  Fred  von  Baumbach,  L.  J.  Brown,  James 
H.  White,  John  B.  Cowing  and  James  Ouinn,  to  procure  and  select  plans 
and  specifications  for  a  new  court  house.  The  plans  of  Buechner  &  Jacobson 
were  accepted  on  October  10,  1893,  ^.nd  on  January  3,  1894,  the  general  con- 
tract was  awarded  to  Hinckley  &  Powers,  who  agreed  to  put  the  building 
under  roof  during  1894,  for  $26,037.43.  Many  of  the  common  brick  for  this 
building  were  furnished  by  parties  in  this  count}',  namely:  J.  A.  McKay,  of 
Alexandria;  Norton  &  Berg,  of  Evansville,  and  Gilbert  Bracken,  of  Ida. 
The  facing  brick  were  brought  from  St.  Paul. 

Auditor  Fred  von  Baumbach  and  Commissioner  James  H.  White  were 
appointed  as  a  committee  to  superintend  the  construction  of  the  building.  At 
the  time  this  new  court  house  was  erected  the  county  was  suffering  from  a 
serious  industrial  depression ;  cost  of  material  and  labor  was  at  a  low  figure 
and  easily  secured,  and  it  was  principally  for  this  reason  that  Douglas  county 
was  able  to  erect  her  present  handsome  court  house,  including  heating,  light- 
ing, plumbing  and  vault  fixtures,  for  the  sum  of  $35,000. 

The  building  was  completed  and  accepted  in  the  fall  of  1895.  It  is  a 
two-story  brick  structure,  the  facing  being  of  pressed  brick  and  the  trim- 
mings of  Kasota  sandstone.  There  are  eight  offices  on  the  first  floor  and 
five  offices  and  the  court  room  on  the  second  floor.  Fire-proof  vaults  are 
provided  for  the  safe  storage  of  official  records.  A  basement  extends  under 
the  entire  building,  providing  space  for  the  heating  system,  work  shop  and 


On  Tune  2'j,  1867,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  voted  to  authorize 
the  county  attorney  and  George  B.  Cowing  to  fit  up  a  suitable  building  to 
be  used  as  a  county  jail.    On  January,  1868.  the  county  auditor  was  instructed 


to  ask  Charles  A.  Gilman,  then  the  state  senator  from  this  district,  to  pro- 
cure the  passage  of  an  act  authorizing  the  county  to  issue  bonds  for  the 
purpose  of  building  a  jail.  However,  nothing  definite  resulted  from  these 
'various  projects,  and  for  about  two  years  after  the  organization  of  the 
county  prisoners  were  detained  wherever  the  sheriff  saw  fit.  On  Ma}'  30, 
1868,  a  committee  consisting  of  F.  B.  Van  Hosen,  J.  H.  \'an  Dyke  and 
George  C.  Whitcomb  was  appointed  to  get  proposals  and  make  an  estimate 
on  the  cost  of  building  a  jail  twelve  by  fourteen  feed,  to  be  built  of  oak 
timber,  with  walls,  floor  and  ceiling  six  inches  thick.  The  contract  for  a 
building  of  that  description  was  let  on  June  30,  1868,  and  it  was  completed  in 
September,  of  that  year,  at  a  cost  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 

This  first  jail  building  was  located  on  the  rear  of  the  lot  back  of  the 
court  house  on  Main  street.  Some  slight  alterations  and  improvements  were 
made  to  it  at  various  times,  but  it  was  never  more  than  the  old-fashioned 
"calaboose"  common  in  those  days.  After  the  county  oiificials  had  moved 
to  the  new  frame  court  house  in  1876,  the  little  oak  jail  was  sold  to  R. 
A\'egener  for  twenty-five  dollars. 


Plans  for  a  new  brick  jail  drawn  by  H.  L.  Sage  were  accepted  by  the 
county  board  on  February  3,  '1880.  Bids  were  received  on  February,  1880, 
and  the  lowest  was  that  of  J.  N.  Herder,  who  offered  to  put  up  the  building 
for  $8,640.  As  this  was  more  than  the  county  could  afford  to  spend  for  a 
jail  all  bids  were  rejected  and  the  board  advertised  for  plans  of  a  jail 
of  eight  cells  to  cost  more  than  $6,000.  New  plans  of  H.  L.  Sage  were 
accepted  and  the  building  contract  was  awarded  to  John  Aiton  for  $6,250. 

This  brick  jail  was  built  due  east  of  the  frame  court  house,  twenty-five 
feet  west  of  E  street.  Surveyor  John  Abercrombie  determined  the  proper 
grade.  After  the  construction  was  started  the  contractor  was  allowed  two 
hundred  dollars  extra  to  make  the  wall  one  foot  higher  all  around.  The 
building  was  completed  in  the  fall  of  1880,  and  accepted  by  the  county,  but  it 
was  not  long,  however,  until  the  county  officials  realized  that  it  was  a  very 
unsatisfactory  jail  building.  It  was  mostly  underground,  dark  and  damp, 
and  while  it  probably  would  have  been  considered  a  very  proper  prison  in 
the  Middle  Ages,  it  did  not  meet  the  humanitarian  ideals  of  .the  present  dav. 

After  it  had  been  made  to  serve  as  a  county  jail  for  a  number  of  vears 
the  county  grand  juries  began  to  condemn  it  as  an  unfit  place  in  which  to 
confine  prisoners.     The  building  was  dark,  damp  and  unhealthful,  aft'orded 


no  proper  accommodation  fbr  female  prisoners,  was  dangerous  in  case  of 
fire  and  too  small  for  the  county  needs.  In  1899  the  state  board  of  correc- 
tions and  charities  finally  and  formally  condemned  the  jail,  and  on  July  18, 
1899,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  voted  to  erect  a  new  jail  and 
sherifif's  residence.  The  board  at  that  time  consisted  of  Anton  H.  Strom, 
John  F.  Lancleen,  J.  H.  White,  Michael  Hickey  and  Roland  Bentson. 


On  f''ebruary  9,  1900,  the  county  board  accepted  plans  for  a  new  jail 
which  had  been  approved  by  the  state  board  of  corrections  and  charities, 
and  on  March  22,  1900,  the  contract  for  its  erection  was  let  to  Aiton  Brothers, 
for  $8,916.  The  contractor  was  to  pay  $400  for  the  material  in  the  old  jail 
and  remove  the  same  from  the  court  house  grounds.  The  contract  for  heat- 
ing and  ventilating  was  awarded  to  T.  M.  Maguire,  for  $930;  the  contract 
for  the  plumbing  was  given  to  John  M.  Bailey,  for  $620,  and  the  steel  cell 
work  to  the  Diebold  Safe  and  Lock  Company,  for  $4,280.  The  building  was 
completed  and  accepted  by  the  county  on  December  3,  1900. 

It  is  a  two-story  brick  building,  with  sandstone  trimmings,  of  architec- 
tural design  to  harmonize  with  the  court  house,  and  stands  a  short  distance 
southeast  of  the  last  mentioned  building.  Comfortable  C|uarters  for  the 
sherifif  and  family  are  provided  in  the  front  part  of  the  building,  and  ample 
provision  is  made  in  the  rear  for  the  accommodation  of  the  few  persons 
in  Douglas  county  who  need  be  detained  under  law.  The  building  has 
every  modern  convenience. 


The  population  of  Douglas  county  in  1910,  according  to  the  Federal 
census  report,  was  17,669,  of  which  number  4,619  were  foreign  born,  divided 
among  the  principal  foreign  countries  as  follows:  Sweden,  1,998;  Norway, 
960;  Germany,  753;  Austria,  244;  Denmark,  230;  Canada,  116;  Finland, 
86;  all  other  countries,  232.  While  the  different  nationalities  of  the  foreign 
born  population  are  largely  separated  into  distinct  communities  they  are 
all  enthusiastic  patriots  for  the  land  of  their  adoption.  The  population  for 
three  decades  is  set  out  in  the  following  table: 

lino.       I'.KM).       isoo. 

Ale.xjUHlriii    cit.v    3,001  -     2,(isl  2.118 

Alexjiiidiia    townsliip    078  072  470 

Belle    Kiver     fowusliip 719  8!)2  711 

Hr.-iiKldU    tnwiisliin    632  075  570 











191(1  190(1  1S90 

Braiulon   27(j            272            225 

Carlos    towushiiJ    557           597           435 

Carlos  village   1(57          

Evausville  township   474           589           580 

Evausville   village    389           483           452 

Forada    village    66  

Garfield    village    KjO          

Holmes    City    townsliip 682           701            746 

Hudson    towusliip    492 

Ida    township    729 

Kensington    village    , 244 

La  Grand  township 850 

Lake   Mary   township   610 

Leaf   Valley    township    674 

Lund    township    634 

Millerville    township    552 

Millerville    village    150 

Miltoaa    towjiship    417 

Jloe    township    689 

Nelson    village    157 

Orange    township    418 

Osakis    township    623 

Osakis    village    924 

Soleni    township    590 

Spruce  Hill  township 602 

I'rness    township    513 

Total    17,669       17.964       14,606 


A  large  majority  of  the  settlers  of  this  county  who  came  here  from 
ahroad  have  become  naturalizecJ  citizens  of  this  county  by  due  process  of 
law.  The  first  step  in  naturalization  is  for  the  applicant  to  make  declaration 
of  his  intention  to  become  a  citizen  of  this  country,  and  is  known  as  taking 
out  the  first  papers.  The  first  person  to  apply  for  first  papers  in  Douglas 
county  was  John  Nelson,  from  Sweden,  who  appeared  before  county  clerk 
J.  H.  Van  D_\-ke  on  February  28,  1867.  The  second  was  Thurston  Severson. 
on  March  4,  1867.  Halvor  Halvorson,  from  Norway,  also  came  on  the 
same  day.  The  fourth  man  was  Thomas  Oatmason,  on  March  15,  1867, 
and  the  fifth  was  Erick  Peherson  Eng.,  on  March  20,  1867.  In  1867 
there  were  97  applicants  for  first  papers,  of  whom  59  were  from  Den- 
mark; 3  from  Austria,  and  i  from  France. 

The  first  applicant  for  second  papers,  or  final  proof  of  citizenship,  in 
Douglas  count}',  was  Henr\-  Blackwell,  a  native  of  England,  who  appeared 














before  county  clerk  F.  B.  \"an  Hoesen  on  October  5,  1870.  Air.  Blackwell 
had  taken  out  his  first  papers  in  Meeker  county.  The  second  applicant 
was  Peter  Stranstrup.  on  October  5,  1870,  who  presented  an  honorable  dis- 
charge showing  he  had  served  three  years  in  the  Union  army  during  the 
Civil  War.  The  third  name  on  the  records  is  that  of  Ole  Brandon,  who  also 
appeared  on  October  5,  1870,  and  also  presented  an  honorable  discharge 
showing  three  years'  service  in  the  Union  army.  The  fourth  man  was 
Thomas  F.  Cowing,  a  native  of  England,  who  had  made  his  declaration  of 
intentions  in  Dane  count)',  Wisconsin,  and  secured  his  final  proof  of  citi- 
zenship on  October  6,  1870.  On  that  same  day  Thurston  Halvorson,  a 
native  of  Norway,  applied  for  his  second  papers,  having  taken  out  his  first 
papers  in  Stevens  county. 

In  1870  and  1871  there  were  95  applicants  for  second  papers  in  Douglas 
county,  of  whom  61  were  from  Norway  and  Sweden;  29  were  from  England; 
3  from  Prussia;  i  from  Denmark,  and  i  from  Russia.  In  1896  it  became 
necessary  for  minor  aliens  to  make  application  for  citizenship  on  a  separate 
form.  This  applied  to  those  who  came  to  this  country  before  their  eighteenth 
birthday,  but  the  law  was  changed  in  1906.  The  following  table  sets  out  the 
naturalization  record  since  the  organization  of  the  county : 

First  Second         Minor. 

Papers.  Papers.       Aliens. 

1867    97         1802  _ 

1S68    128         1893  - 

1869    382         1894  _ 

1870    470  6  1895  _ 

1871    592  89  1896  _ 

1872    194  82  1897  - 

1873    98  157  1898  . 

1874    78  141  1899  _ 

1875    62  1.34  1900  _ 

1876  92  157  1901  . 

1877  28  64  1902  . 

187S  24  51  1903  _ 

1879  30       32   1904  _ 

1880  92        28   1905  _ 

1881  198       18   1906  _ 

1882  318       22   1907  - 

1883  74       22   1908  _ 

1884  224        21   1900  . 

1885  64       13   1910  _ 

1886  130       28   1911  . 

1887  41        31   1012  _ 

1888    180  29       1913    _ 




























































1889    34 

I.SOO    1.32 

ISO!    34 



The  following  financial  statement  is  taken  from  the  report  of  the  county 
auditor  for  the  year  ending  December  31,  191 5: 

-•1  ssets. 

Court   bouse  and   grouuds   .f  34,700.00 

Jail   aud   site   14,900.00 

Woodlots  aud   barn   1,500.00 

Office  aud  vault  furniture  aud  fixtures 3,500.00 

Ditcb  liens,  assessed  but  not  due 105,023.81 

Ditcb  liens,  accrued  but  uot  assessed 4,490.79 

Balance  cash   in  ditcb  fund 42,998.92 

Balance  casb   in   revenue   fund   3,537.27 

Balance  cash  in  incidental  fund 132.45 

Balance  cash  in  mortgage  registry  fund  1,960.99 

Balance  cash  in  county  sanatorium  fund 7,629.55 

Balance  cash  in  assurance  fund •  7.26 

Due  from  state  of  Minnesota,  road   refund 2,804.42 

Due  from  state  of  Minnesota,  wolf  bounty 229.50 

Taxes  for  the  year  1914  due  and  unpaid 7,261.10 

Uncollected  taxes   for  1913  and  prior  years,   estimated 4,936.43 

Fuel  in  yard  and   basement   165.00 


Claims  filed  aud  not  audited   $    1,144.37 

Ditch  bonds  issued  but  uot  due 101,800.00 

Warrants    outstanding    4,435.86 

Road  aud  bridge  fund  overdraft 1,213.73 

Assets   and   liabilities    127,183.53 




Officials  of  Douglas  County. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  in  the  chapter  on  county  organization 
of  the  officers  appointed  during  the  temporary  organization  effected  in  1859. 
During  the  Indian  outbreak  in  1862  the  county  was  almost  deserted,  the 
organization  was  abandoned  and  the  records  lost.  It  was  not  until  the  spring 
of  1866  that  permanent  government  was  established  in  the  area  now  known 
as  Douglas  county.  Governor  William  R.  Marshall  appointed  J.  H.  Van 
Dyke,  James  F.  Dicken  and  Donald  Stevison  as  a  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners to  organize  the  county.  This  board  met  at  Alexandria  on  June  15, 
1866,  and  appointed  the  first  officers  of  Douglas  county  under  the  permanent 
organization,  as  follows:  J.  Mont  Smyth,  auditor;  Charles  Cook,  judge 
of  probate;  J.  Mont  Snwth,  register  of  deeds;  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  sheriff; 
J.  Mont  Smyth,  clerk  of  the  court ;  William  Shaw,  attorney ;  T,  W.  Moore, 
surveyor;  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  treasurer;  Robert  Wyman,  coroner. 


The  board  of  county  commissioners  has  always  been  one  of  the  most 
important  official  bodies  of  the  county  government.  The  first  board  pro- 
ceeded to  divide  the  county  into  townships,  also  into  commissioner  districts, 
established  school  .districts  and  roads  and  ferries.  The  minutes  of  the  meet- 
ings of  the  board  as  kept  by  the  county  auditor,  who  is  clerk  of  the  board 
of  commissioners,  serves  as  a  record  of  the  organization  and  development 
of  the  county.  Following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  county  commissioners,  the 
first  name  being  that  of  the  chairman  of  the  board;  beginning  with  1886 
the  names  are  given  in  the  order  of  their  respective  commissioner  districts : 

1866 — J.  H.  \'an  Dyke.  James  F.  Dicken,  Donald  Stevison. 
1867 — Donald  Stevison,  James  F.  Dicken,  N.  B.  Johnson. 
1868— S.  T.  Russell,  O.  G.  Lincoln,  N.  B.  Johnson. 
1869 — E.  G.  Holmes,  Levi  E.  Thompson,  O.  G.  Lincoln. 
1870 — Levi  E.  Thompson,  Warren  .\dley,  T.   Evenson. 
1871 — Levi  E.  Thompson,  N.  S.  W'orden,  T.  Evenson. 


1872 — Levi  E.  Thompson,  N.  S.  Worden,  T.  Evenson. 

1873 — Levi  E.  Thompson,  N.  S.  Worden,  O.  Amundson,  C.  F.  Kings- 
land,  S.  Thompson. 

1874 — Robert  Angus,  K.  Rustad,  O.  Amundson,  A.  H.  Taylor,  AT. 

1875 — Robert  Angus,  K.  Rustard,  O.  Amundson,  A.  H.  Taylor,  M. 

1876 — A.  H.  Taylor,  K.  Rustad,  O.  Amundson,  Robert  Angus,  M.  Gor- 

1877 — A.  H.  Taylor,  K.  Rustad,  O.  Amundson,  Robert  Angus,  L.  H. 

1878 — A.  H.  Taylor,  R.  Bentson,  O.  Amundson,  Robert  Angus,  L.  H, 

1879 — A.  H.  Taylor,  R.  Bentson,  Thoren  Evenson,  James  Knapton,  L, 
H.  Webster. 

1880 — James  Knapton,  R.  Bentson,  Thoren  Evenson,  H.  H.  Wilson, 
James  Fitzgerald. 

1881 — H.  H.  Wilson,  R.  Bentson,  Thoren  Evenson,  James  Knapton,  N. 
B.  Smith. 

1882 — H.  H.  Wilson,  R.  Bentson,  Thoren  Evenson,  Robert  Angus,  N. 
B.  Smith. 

1883 — H.  H.  Wilson,  R.  Bentson,  Thoren  Evenson,  Robert  Angus, 
N.  L.  Renter. 

1884 — George  W.  Robards,  O.  Amundson,  Thoren  Evenson,  Robert 
Angus,  N.  L.  Renter. 

1885 — George  W.  Robards,  O.  Amundson,  \'.  D.  Nichols,  Robert 
Angus,  N.  L.  Renter. 

1886 — A.  G.  Johnson,  Ole  T.  Vinkjer,  Rol>ert  Angus,  Rudolph  Wegener, 
James  Shinners. 

1887 — A.  G.  Johnson,  Ole  T.  Vinkjer,  Robert  Angus,  Rulodph  Wegener, 
James  Shinners. 

1889 — A.  G.  Johnson,  Ole  T.  \"inkjer,  Robert  Angus,  Rudolph  Wegener, 
James  Shinners. 

1891 — A.  G.  Johnson,  Ole  T.  Vinkjer,  Peter  Sweet,  Rudolph  Wegener, 
W.  H.  Crowe. 

1893 — Ole  J.  Thurstad,  Charles  J.  Johnson,  Peter  Sweet,  James  H. 
White,  James  Quinn. 

1895— Ole  J.  Thurdstad,  Anton  H.  Strom,  Peter  Sweet,  S.  O.  Stedje, 
James  Quinn. 


1897 — Roald  Bentson,  Anton  H.  Strom,  John  F.  Landeen,  S.  O.  Stedje, 
Michael  Hickey. 

1899 — Roald  Bentson,  Anton  H.  Strom,  John  F.  Landeen,  James  H. 
White,  Michael  Hickey. 

1901 — Nels  Ekblad,  Anton  H.  Strom,  John  F.  Landeen,  James  H. 
White,  John  L.  Sather. 

1903 — ^'els  Ekblad,  John  C.  Egeberg,  John  F.  Landeen,  Edward  A. 
Olsen,  John  L.  Sather. 

1905— Nels  Ekblad,  John  C.  Egeberg,  C.  A.  Anderson,  Edward  A. 
Olsen,  John  L.  Sather. 

1907 — Nels  Ekblad,  L.  O.  Larson,  C.  A.  Anderson,  C.  J.  Lindstrom, 
John  L.  Sather. 

1909 — D.  J.  Davidson.  L.  O.  Larson,  Louis  Malmberg,  C.  J.  Lindstrom, 
John  L.  Sather. 

191 1 — D.  J.  Davidson,  Peter  Hoplin,  Louis  Malmberg,  John  H.  O'Brien, 
John  L.  Sather. 

1913 — Theodore  Walstead,  Peter  Hoplin,  Louis  Malmberg,  John  H. 
O'Brien,  John  Severson. 

191 5 — Theodore  Walstead,  Peter  Hoplin,  Louis  Malmberg,  John  H. 
O'Brien,  John  L.  Sather. 


The  board  of  county  commissioners  appointed  J.  Mont  Smyth  as  the 
first  auditor  of  Douglas  county.  The  record  makes  no  mention  of  what 
his  salary  was  to  be  to  start  with,  but  on  January  i,  1867,  the  commissioners 
voted  to  pay  the  county  auditor  five  hundred  dollars  per  annum.  Like  the 
other  county  officers  he  did  not  at  first  devote  all  his  time  to  the  duties 
of  his  office. 

Following  is  a  list  of  those  who  have  held  the  office  of  auditor,  together 
with  the  years  of  their  service:  J.  Mont  Smyth,  1866-67;  G.  C.  Whitcomb, 
1867-69;  William  M.  Pye,  1866-71;  George  A.  Freudenreich,  1871-72; 
James  Fitzgerald,  1872-73;  Fred  von  Baumbach,  1873-80;  Theodore  Bord- 
sen,  1880-89;  Fred  von  Baumbach,  1889-98;  E.  P.  Wright,  1898-1909;  E. 
J.  Brandt,  1909-15;  C.  H.  Jenson.  1915,  term  expires  in  1919. 


The  commissioners  also  appointed  the  first  county  treasurer,  Thomas 
F.   Cowing,  at  their  meeting  on  June    15,    1866.     Naturally,   there  was  no 


money  in  the  treasury  upon  the  organization  of  the  county  and  the  early 
expenses  were  met  by  issuing  orders  or  warrants  on  the  credit  of  the  county. 
These  orders  were  discounted  at  the  local  banks,  sometimes  as  low  as  sixty 
per  cent  on  their  face  value,  and  as  they  could  later  be  cashed  in  full  they 
returned  a  very  satisfactory  profit  to  the  purchaser. 

A  complete  list  of  the  treasurers  of  Douglas  county  is  here  given : 
Thomas  F.  Cowing,  1866-69;  J-  H.  Van  Dyke,  1869-71;  T.  W.  Sprague, 
1871-75;  H.  K.  White,  1875-79;  John  Kron,  1879-87;  John  C.  Thornstad, 
1887-89;  Erick  Erickson,  1889-91;  Theodore  Bordsen,  1891,  present  term 
expires  in  1919. 


During  the  first  organization  of  Douglas  count}-  the  record  books  were 
kept  at  St.  Cloud,  the  county  seat  of  Stearns  county;  but  in  1866,  upon 
effecting  the  permanent  organization,  they  were  sent  to  Alexandria.  The 
first  record  made  regarding  land  within  the  limits  of  Douglas  county  bears 
the  date  of  July  25,  1862.  It  is  a  deed  from  A.  D.  Campbell  and  wife, 
of  Dakota  county,  to  H.  T.  Welles,  of  Hennepin  county,  conveying  the  west 
half  of  the  northeast  quarter,  and  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter,  of 
section  19,  township  .128,  range  t,"/.  and  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
19,  township  126,  range  37,  in  all  three  hundred  and  one  acres.  The 
consideration  was  two  hundred  dollars.  The  first  mortgage  recorded  in 
Douglas  county  bears  the  date  of  June  17,  1867.  Robert  Thomas  was  the 
mortgagor  and  J.  C.  Bodwell  was  the  mortgagee.  The  land  mortgaged  was 
the  southeast  quarter  of  section  34,  township  128,  range  36. 

The  fcillowing  have  served  as  register  of  deeds  since  the  organization 
of  the  county:  J.  Mont  Smyth,  1866-67;  G.  C.  Whitcomb,  1867-69;  F.  B. 
\'"an  Hoesen,  1869-71;  A.  J.  Ames.  1871-77;  Theodore  Bordsen,  1877-79; 
W.  F.  Canfield,  1879-87;  Nels  E.  Nelson,  1887-1900;  Oscar  Erickson, 
1909-15;  John  Nelson,  1915,  term  expires  in  1919. 

The  duties  of  the  sheriff  of  Douglas  county  have  never  been  very 
difficult  in  the  way  of  dealing  with  criminals,  though  there  is  considerable 
work  in  the  line  of  civil  duties.  Some  of  the  early  sheriffs  were  thought 
to  favor  the  saloon  element  too  much,  and  on  one  or  two  occasions  a  sheriff 
was  removed  by  the  governor  on  account  of  being  a  too  liberal  patron  of 
the  saloon  himself. 


A  list  of  the  county  sheriffs  is  here  set  out :  Thomas  F.  Cowing, 
1866-67;  A.  Robinson.  1867-68;  Lorentz  Johnson,  1868-69;  G.  W.  Harper, 
1869-71;  Magnus  Lundgren,  1871-72;  Nels  A.  Nelson,  1872-73;  Ole 
Amundson,  1873-77;  Ole  Urness,  1877-86;  John  A.  Thordsted.  1886-87; 
Ole  Urness,  1887-88:  T.  J.  Barros.  i888;89;  A.  \V.  DeFrate,  1889-99; 
J.  E.  Lundgren,  1899-1911:  L.  S.  Kent,  191 1,  present  term  expires  in  1919. 


On  March  10,  1868,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  voted  "That 
the  salary  of  the  county  attorney  be  fixed  at  one  hundred  dollars  for  the 
year  1868,  and  in  addition  thereto  the  board  will,  in  case  of  an  accumulating 
amount  of  Ijusiness,  entertain  favorably  a  bill  for  extra  charges.'"  On 
March  9,  1869,  the  salary  of  the  county  attorney  was  fixed  at  three  hundred 
dollars  per  annum.  Increases  in  salary  corresponding  with  the  increases  in 
business  have  been  made  at  various  times  since  that  date. 

The  following  have  served  as  attorney  for  Douglas  county :  William 
Shaw,  1866-69;  F-  B.  Van  Hoesen,  1869-71;  John  Randolph,  1871-73; 
Knute  Nelson,  1873-75;  Nelson  Fulmer,  1875-79;  George  H.  Reynolds, 
1879-83;  H.  Jenkins,  1883-85;  C.  J.  Gunderson,  1889-1903;  Constant  Lar- 
son, 1903-13;  Hugh  E.  Leach,  1913,  term  expires  in  1919. 


It  was  not  until  the  county  offices  were  moved  to  the  present  county 
grounds  in  1876  that  the  judge  of  probate  had  any  regular  office,  and  not 
until  several  years  later  that  he  was  in  his  office  as  often  as  one  day  a 
week.  It  was  not  long,  however,  until  the  work  of  the  office  increased 
so  that  the  incumbent  devoted  all  his  time  to  his  official  duties  as  at  present. 

The  judges  of  probate  in  Douglas  county  have  been  as  follows :  Charles 
Cook,  1866-71;  H.  S.  Boyd,  1871-73;  William  S.  Best,  1873-77;  William 
McAboy,  1877-85;  James  S.  Fitzgerald.  1885-93;  A.  G.  Sexton,  1893-1912; 
George  L.  Treat,  1912-13;  George  P.  Craig.  1913.  term  expires  in  1917. 


The  land  in  Douglas  county  was  first  surveyed  and  the  corners  of  all 
sections  lotated  by  government  surveyors.  Occasional  mistakes  in  measure- 
ments, however,  have  caused  some  difficulty  in  running  some  of  the  lines, 


though  the  original  work  in  Douglas  county  was  done  better  than  in  some 
other  counties  of  the  state.  Besides  determining  section  lines  the  work  on 
the  roads  and  ditches  requires  the  attention  of  the  surveyor. 

Following  is  a  list  of  the  surveyors  of  Douglas  county:  T.  W.  Moore, 
1866-69;  Henry  Blackwell,  1869-71;  L.  W.  Rima,  1871-75;  Charles  L. 
Thompson,  1875-79;  John  Abercrombie,  1879-83;  Henry  Blackwell,  1883-89; 
John  Abercrombie,  1889-1907;  E.  R.  Lausted,  1907-1911 ;  John  Abercrom- 
bie, 191 1,  present  term  expires  in  1919. 

In  the  early  years  of  the  county  government  it  was  not  customary  as 
at  present  to  choose  a  physician  for  coroner.  The  duties  of  the  office  were 
extremely  light  and  it  was  not  then  considered  necessary  to  make  a  careful 
inquest  should  a  fatality  come  under  the  consideration  of  the  coroner. 

The  coroners  in  Douglas  county  have  been  as  follows :  Robert  Wyman, 
1866-71;  Daniel  Shotwell.  1871-73;  Godfrey  Vivian,  1873-81;  S.  W. 
McEwan,  1881-91  ;  H.  J.  Boyd,  1891-93;  S.  W.  McEwan,  1893-99;  E.  A. 
Hensel,  1899-1903;  H.  J.  Boyd,  1903-07:  E.  A.  Hensel,  1907-11;  A.  D. 
Haskell,  1911-15;  M.  B.  Ruud,   1915,  term  expires  in  1919. 


The  records  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  show  that  J.  Mont 
Smyth  was  appointed  as  the  first  clerk  of  the  district  court.  He  evidently 
did  not  qualify  nor  serve  for  the  earliest  papers  in  the  clerk's  office  bear 
the  signature  of  J.  H.  A^an  Dyke  as  clerk  whose  name  appears  on  case 
No.   I  and  also  on  the  naturalization  and  other  records. 

Following  is  a  list  of  those  who  have  served  as  clerk  of  the  court 
for  Douglas  county:  J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  1866-69;  F-  B.  Van  Hoesen,  1869-73; 
James  Purden.  1873-79;  W.  E.  Chidester,  1879-81;  H.  K.  White,  1881- 
1903;  W.  F.  Sundblad,  1903,  present  term  expires  in  1919. 


The  court  commissioner  has  jurisdiction  in  certain  matters  when  the 
court  is  not  in  session  in  this  county,  and  some  of  his  duties  are  similar 
to  those  of  the  judge  of  probate. 

Those  who  have  served  as  court  commissioner  in  Douglas  county  are 


as  follows:  N.  B.  Patterson,  1869-73;  Charles  Schultz,  1873-91;  W.  E. 
Chidester,  1891-99;  Joseph  Gilpin,  1899-1901 ;  J.  A.  McKay,  1901-07; 
George  P.  Craig,  1907-13;  C.  H.  Jensen,  1913,  term  would  have  expired 
in  191 7,  but  W.  F.  Sundblad  is  now  acting  as  court  commissioner. 


The  early  superintendents  of  the  county  schools  had  no  certain  office 
room  and  were  usually  paid  so  much  a  day  for  the  time  devoted  to  their 
official  duties.  Several  of  the  early  incumbents  in  this  office  were  appointed 
by  the  county  commissioners. 

Following  is  a  list  of  all  who  have  served  as  superintendent  of  schools 
in  Douglas  county:  John  A.  Mower,  1869-73;  Smith  Bloomfield,  1873-75; 
W.  H.  Sanders,  1875-87;  E.  T.  Carroll,  1887-91;  A.  D.  Gaines,  1891-95; 
A.  W.  Curtis,  1895-99;  C.  W.  V'dn  Dyke,  1899-1903;  Godfrey  T.' Englund, 
1903-07;  Theodore  A.  Erickson,  1907-15;  George  Susens,  1915,  term 
expires  in  1919. 


Douglas  county  was  first  represented  in  the  state  legislature  under  the 
apportionment  of  i860,  which  divided  the  state  in  twenty-one  districts,  of 
which  Douglas  county  was  a  part  of  the  third  district,  together  with  eighteen 
other  counties.  This  district  was  entitled  to  one  senator  and  three  representa- 

The  third  Legislature  assembled  on  January  8,  1861,  and  adjourned  on 
March  8.  Lieut.-Gov.  Ignatius  Donnelly  was  the  presiding  officer  in  the 
senate,  and  Jared  Benson,  of  Anoka  county,  was  the  speaker  of  the  hnver 
house.  The  third  district  was  represented  by  Seth  Gibbs  in  the  senate, 
and  by  Thomas  Cathcart,  Levi  Wheeler  and  P.  S.  Gregory  in  the  house. 

.  Fourth   Legislature — 1862.      S.    B.    Lowry   in   the    senate,    and    R.    M. 
Richardson,  Peter  Roy  and  John  Whipple  in  the  house. 

Fifth  Legislature — 1863.  William  S.  Moore  in  the  senate,  and  L.  R. 
Bently.  H.  C.  Wait  and  R.  M.  Richardson  in  the  house. 

Si.xth  Legislature — 1864.  J.  P.  W'ilson  in  the  senate,  and  R.  M. 
Richardson,  W.  T.  Rigby  and  C.  A.  Ruffee  in  tlie  house. 

Seventh  Legislature — 1865.  J-  P-  ^^  ilson  in  the  senate,  and  Oscar 
Taylor,  Louis  A.  Evans  and  W.  T.  Rigby  in  the  house. 

Eighth  Legislature — 1866.  R.  M.  Richardson  in  the  senate,  and  N.  F. 
Barnes.  Thomas  Cathcart  and  B.  Overpeck  in  the  house. 



Under  the  apportionment  of  1866  the  state  was  divided  into  twenty-two 
districts,  of  which  Douglas  county  was  still  a  part  of  the  third.  This 
district  was  now  entitled  to  one  senator  and  two  representatives. 

Ninth  Legislature — 1867.  Louis  A.  Evans  in  the  senate,  and  N.  H. 
Miner  and  N.  Richardson  in  the  house. 

Tenth  Legislature — 1868.  C.  A.  Oilman  in  the  senate,  and  D.  G. 
Pettijohn  and  N.  H.  Miller  in  the  house. 

Eleventh  Legislature — 1869.  C.  A.  Oilman  in  the  senate,  and  Ludwig 
Robbers  and  William  E.  Hicks  in  the  house. 

Twelfth  Legislature — 1870.  H.  C.  Wait  in  the  senate,  and  John  L. 
\\'ilson  and  Isaac  Thorson  in  the  house. 

Thirteenth  Legislature — 1871.  H.  C.  Wait  in  the  senate,  and  ^^^  S. 
Moore  and  Luke  Marvin  in  the  house. 


Under  the  apportionment  of  1871  the  state  was  divided  into  fortv-one 
districts,  of  which  Douglas  county  was  a  part  of  the  thirty-ninth,  together 
with  Pope,  Stevens,  Orant,  Big  Stone  and  Lake  counties.  The  district  was 
entitled  to  one  senator  and  two  representatives. 

Fourteenth  Legislature — 1872.  Ole  Peterson  in  the  senate,  and  F.  B. 
\'an  Hoesen  and  O.  W.  Rockwell  in  the  house. 

Fifteenth  Legislature — 1873.  J-  G.  Whittemore  in  the  senate,  and 
\\'arren  Adley  and  O.   W.  Rockwell  in  the  house. 

Sixteenth  Legislature — 1874.  J.  O.  Whittemore  in  the  senate,  and 
\\'arren  Adley  and  Henry  Foss  in  the  house. 

Seventeenth  Legislature — 1875.  Knute  Nelson  in  the  senate,  and  Mar- 
tin Stowe  and  J.  0.  Whittemore  in  the  house. 

Eighteenth  Legislature — 1876.  Knute  Nelson  in  the  senate,  and  Mar- 
tin Stowe  and  J.  D.  Oood  in  the  house. 

Nineteenth  Legislature — 1877.  Knute  Nelson  in  the  senate,  and  Michael 
-A.  \\'ollan  and  Ole  Amimdson  in  the  house. 

Twentieth  Legislature — 1878.  Knute  Nelson  in  the  senate,  and  John 
B.  Cowing  and  H.  W.  Stone  in  the  house. 

Twenty-first  Legislature — 1879.  A.  A.  Brown  in  the  senate,  and  Tohn 
B.  Cowing  and  Ole  N.  Barsness  in  the  house. 


Twenty-second  Legislature — 1881.  L.  K.  Asker  in  the  senate,  and  C. 
F.  Washhurn  and  F.  B.  \'an  Hoesen  in  the  house. 


Under  the  apportionment  of  1881  the  state  was  divided  into  forty- 
seven  districts,  of  which  Douglas  county  was  a  part  of  the  forty-first, 
together  with  Pope  county.  This  district  was  entitled  to  one  senator  and 
two   representatives. 

Twentj'-third  Legislature — 1883.  ^'-  B.  \'an  Hoesen  in  the  senate,  and 
J.  H.  Van  Dyke  and  Ole  Peterson  in  the  house. 

Twenty-fourth  Legislature — 1885.  F.  B.  \'an  Hoesen  in  the  senate, 
and  George  W.  Thacker  and  H.  L.  Lewis  in  the  house. 

Twenty-fifth  Legislature — 1887.  G.  \\'.  Thacker  in  the  senate,  and 
M.  A.  Wollan  and  H.  H.  Wilson  in  the  house. 

Twenty-sixth  Legislature — 1889.  G.  W.  Thacker  in  the  senate,  and  H. 
H.  \\'ilson  and  Edwin  Cox  in  the  house. 


Under  the  apportionment  of  1889  the  state  was  divided  into  fift}-four 
districts,  of  which  Douglas  and  Pope  counties  constituted  the  forty-seventh 
district,  entitled  to  one  senator  and  two  representatives. 

Twenty-seventh  Legislature — 1891.  Herman  A.  Grafe  in  the  senate. 
and  H.  G.  Lewis  and  L.  B.  Cantleberry  in  the  house. 

Twenty-eighth  Legislature — 1893.  Herman  A.  Grafe  in  the  senate, 
and  A.  G.  Johnson  and  John  E.  Johnson  in  the  house. 

Twenty-ninth  Legislature — 1895.  A.  G.  Johnson  in  the  senate,  and  C. 
P.  Reeves  and  G.  J.  Strang  in  the  house. 

Thirtieth  Legislature — 1897.  A.  G.  Johnson  in  the  senate,  and  R.  J. 
McXeil  and  C.  P.  Reeves  in  the  house. 


Under  the  apportionment  of  1897  the  state  was  divided  into  sixty-three 
districts,  of  which  Douglas  and  Pope  counties  were  made  the  fifty-eighth 
district,  entitled  to  one  senator  and  two  representatives. 

Thirty-first  Legislature — 1899.  C.  P.  Reeves  in  the  senate,  and  R.  J. 
McNeil  and  H.  C.  Estbv  in  the  house. 


Thirty-second  Legislature — 191 1..  C.  P.  Reeves  in  the  senate,  and  T. 
T.  Ofsthun  and  G.  B.  Ward  in  the  house. 

Thirty-third  Legislature — 1903.  G.  B.  Ward  in  the  senate,  T.  T. 
Ofsthun  and  H.  L.  Lewis  in  the  house. 

Thirty-fourth  Legislature — 1905.  G.  B.  Ward  in  the  senate,  and  T.  T. 
Ofsthun  and  John  F.  Landeen  in  the  house. 

Thirty-fifth  Legislature — 1907.  C.  J.  Gunderson  in  the  senate,  and  E. 
M.  Webster  and  E.  E.  Lobeck  in  the  house. 

Thirty-sixth  Legislature — 1909.  C.  J.  Gunderson  in  the  senate,  and 
Iver  J.  Lee  and  E.  E.  Lobeck  in  the  house. 

Thirty-seventh  Legislature — 191 1.  C.  J.  Gunderson  in  the  senate,  and 
Iver  J.  Lee  and  John  J.  Anderson  in  the  house. 

Thirty-eighth  Legislature — 1913.  C.  J.  Gunderson  in  the  senate,  and 
Nels  E.  Xelson  and  T.  T.  Ofsthun  in  the  house. 


Under  the  apportionment  of  1913  the  state  was  divided  into,  sixty- 
seven  districts,  of  which  Douglas  and  Pope  counties  were  made  the  forty- 
seventh  district,  entitled  to  one  joint  senator  and  one  representative  from 
each  county. 

Thirty-ninth  Legislature — 1915.  E.  E.  Lobeck  in  the  senate,  and  Carl 
A.  Wold  (Douglas  county)  and  Iver  J.  Lee  (Pope  county)  in  the  house. 


Township  Organization  and  Early  Settlers. 

Douglas  county  is  divided  into  twenty  civil  townships  which  coincide 
in  each  instance  with  the  respective  congressional  townships,  each  one  being 
six  miles  square.  The  first  three  townships  were  established  by  the  county 
l)oard,  but  the  later  townships  were  established  by  petition  of  a  majority  of  at 
least  twenty-five  legal  voters. 


At  the  meeting  of  the  county  board  held  on  June  15,  1866,  the  commis- 
sioners established  the  first  township,  to  be  known  as  No.  i  or  Osakis  town- 
ship. As  then  formed  it  comprised  all  of  congressional  townships  127  and 
128,  range  36.  Its  name  was  taken  from  the  lake  which  lies  on  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  township.  The  commissioners  appointed  the  first  officers 
for  Osakis  township,  as  follow:  T.  AI.  Works,  assessor;  William  Shaw  and 
Roland  Sanderson,  justices:  Thomas  Adams  and  Charles  Gilbert,  constables; 
\\'illiam  Shaw,  clerk;  J.  Maguire,  treasurer.  The  present  area  of  Osakis 
township  includes  only  township  128,  range  36. 

John  Potter  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  settler  in  Osakis  township, 
taking  up  a  claim  on  section  25  in  1859.  A  number  of  other  settlers  came  in 
soon  afterwards  but  nearly  all  left  this  vicinity  during  the  Indian  outbreak 
in  1862.  As  nearly  as  can  ]>e  ascertained  the  first  settler  on  each  section  in 
the  township  is  mentioned  in  the  following  list.  John  Derocher  took  land 
on  section  i  in  1862,  Thomas  C.  McClure  on  section  2  in  1862,  Elias  For- 
meshill  on  section  3  in  1864,  Elling  Semmen  on  section  4  in  1871,  Adam 
Anderson  on  section  5  in  1866,  Ole  Solum  on  section  6  in  1863,  Sven  .Ander- 
son on  section  7  in  1869,  Peter  F.  Peterson  on  section  8  in  1868,  Benjamin 
^\■.  \'iles  on  section  9  in  1862,  William  A.  Seamans  on  section  10  in  1861, 
Henry  H.  Anderson  on  section  11  in  1861,  John  S.  Countryman  on  section 
12  in  1867.  Albert  S.  Alderman  on  section  13  in  1861,  Elijah  G.  Gibbs  on 
section  14  in  1863,  Thomas  A.  Adams  on  section  15  in  1861,  Ingrin  Nelson 
on  section  17  in  1867,  Hans  Hanson  on  section  18  in  1868,  John  E.  Rineheart 
on  section  19  in  1861,  Charles  Peterson  on  section  20  in  1869.  Charles  Giles 


on  section  21,  1861,  John  B.  Scherman  on  section  22  in  1867,  Armstead  M. 
Gideon  on  section  23  in  1868,  Stephen  D.  Seamans  on  section  2^  in  1862, 
Hiram  M.  Works  on  section  26  in  1864,  Lemuel  H.  Webster  on  section 
27  in  1869,  James  Chambers  on  section  28  in  1864,  Edwin  Fairfield  on  sec- 
tion 29  in  1863,  Thor  Peterson  on  section  30  in  1868,  Matthew  Bartlett  on 
section  31  in  1862,  William  B.  Glover  on  section  31  in  1864,  Clay  Moore 
on  section  33  in  1866,  Olinda  Graves  on  section  34  in  1861,  and  Thomas 
L.  Adams  on  section  35  in  1866. 

The  present  officers  of  Osakis  township  are  as  follows :  A.  A.  Rooney. 
clerk ;  Edward  Hanson,  treasurer ;  George  W.  LaMonte,  assessor ;  Joel  Han- 
son, A.  G.  Sorenson  and  Thomas  IMasteller,  supervisors; 


^^'hen  the  board  of  county  commissioners  held  its  first  meeting  on  June 
15,  1866,  it  was  decided  that  all  of  Douglas  county  not  included  in  Osakis 
township  should  be  known  as  Alexandria  or  No.  2  township.  The  commis- 
sioners appointed  the  first  officers,  as  follow :  T.  W.  Sprague,  assessor ; 
George  Cowing  and  N.  B.  Johnson,  justices;  John  Johnson  and  Henry  Black- 
well,  constables;  J.  Mont  Smyth,  clerk;  H.  S.  Rutherford,  treasurer. 

William  and  Alexander  Kinkaid  located  in  Alexandria  township  in  1859 
and  other  settlers  came  in  soon  afterward.  The  few  who  remained  in  the 
township  during  the  Indian  troubles  sought  safety  in  a  stockade  on  the 
Alexandria  townsite.  The  present  area  of  Alexandria  township  includes 
only  congressional  township  128,  range  37.  Some  of  the  first  settlers  on 
each  section  are  as  follows :  John  B.  Gilfillan  took  land  on  section  i  in 
1863,  Thomas  Watts  on  section  2  in  1863,  William  B.  Mitchell  on  section 
3  in  1863,  Thomas  Aadson  on  section  5  in  1868,  Wooster  P.  Wyman  on 
section  6  in  1869,  James  Bedman  on  section  i  in  1861,  Laura  A,  Kinkaid 
on  section  8  in  1863,  Aaron  Doty  on  section  9  in  1862,  Andrew  Holes  on 
section  10  in  1864,  Edward  O'Brien  on  section  11  in  1868,  Peter  T.  Peterson 
on  section  12  in  1864,  Nels  Anderson  on  section  13  in  1865,  George  Caison 
on  section  14  in  1865,  Annie  P.  Smith  on  section  15  in  1863,  Chester  Wait 
on  section  17  in  1864,  Peter  L.  Gregory  on  section  18  in  i860,  A.  D.  Camp- 
bell on  section  19  in  i860,  James  S.  Mitchell  on  section  20  in  1862,  Charles 
Walker  on  section  21  in  1863,  Martin  Debord  on  section  22  in  1863,  Thomas 
White  on  section  23  in  1862,  Hans  Anderson  on  section  24  in  1870,  Marv 
Larson  on  section  25  in  1869,  Michael  Kennedy  on  section  26  in  1863,  Rich- 
ard Dent  on  section  2^  in  1863,  Rufus  Colby  on  section  28  in  1870,  L.  \\'. 


Kilbonrn  on  section  29  in  1865,  Roderick  D.  Hathaway  on  section  30  in  1862, 
Jesse  Hosford  on  section  31  in  1863,  Mary  E.  Latimer  on  section  32  in 
1863,  Wilhelm  Dummert  on  section  34  in  1869,  and  Robert  Walker  on 
section  35  in  1867. 

The  present  officers  of  Alexandria  township  are  as  follow :  A.  E. 
Anderson,  clerk;  J.  H.  Schlein,  treasurer;  Einil  E.  Gahlon,  assessor;  Louis 
Thorson,  Louis  Anderson  and  Soren  Jensen,  supervisors. 


Holmes  City  township  was  established  by  the  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners on  October  4,  1866,  and  at  that  time  included  all  of  congressional 
townships  127  and  128,  ranges  39  and  40.  The  commissioners  appointed  the 
following  election  officers  for  the  township :  Henry  Blackwell,  N.  B.  John- 
son and  Nels  Nickelson,  judges ;  T.  W.  Sprague  and  Noah  Grant,  clerks. 
At  present  Holmes  City  township  is  comprised  of  congressional  township 
127,  range  39. 

A  'Sir.  Holmes,  Noah  Grant  and  W.  S.  Sandford  located  in  Holmes 
City  township  in  1858.  Noah  Grant  proved  up  on  a  claim  on  section  2,  but 
the  others  did  not  secure  title  to  any  land.  Among  the  other  early  settlers 
were:  Lloyd  L.  Ely,  who  took  land  on  section  i  in  1868,  George  Blackwell 
on  section  3,  in  1868,  Simon  Christenson  on  section  4  in  1870,  Jonas  Sjull- 
son  on  section  5  in  1868,  Erick  Johanson  on  section  6  in  1869,  Olaf  Paulson 
on  section  7  in  1869,  Nils  B.  Johnson  on  section  8  in  1865,  Peter  O.  Kron 
on  section  9  in  1865,  Henry  J.  W.  Brown  on  section  10  in  1868,  Martin  H. 
Strandvold  on  section  11  in  1870,  Andrew  Knudson  on  section  12  in  1869, 
John  VV.  Gilbreath  on  section  13  in  1868,  Francis  Guiles  on  section  14  in 
1869,  Kittel  Sampson  on  section  15  in  1865,  John  A.  Anderson  on  section 
16  in  1867,  Carl  A.  J.  Wahlstrom  on  section  17  in  1868,  Olof  Falin  on  sec- 
tion 18  in  1869,  Thurston  Severson  on  section  19  in  1865,  Ingerinus  E. 
Lobeck  on  section  21  in  1867,  Lars  Isakson  on  section  22  in  1869,  Charles 
F.  Canfield  on  section  2;^,  in  1868.  Miner  Van  Loon  on  section  24  in  1865, 
Thomas  W.  Price  on  section  25  in  1867,  William  H.  Guiles  on  section 
26  in  1870,  H.  B.  Westmoreland  on  section  2y  in  1863,  Halvor  D.  Strand- 
void  on  section  28  in  1866,  Nels  A.  Nelson  on  section  29  in  1868,  John 
Freeborn  on  section  30  in  1868,  Lars  J.  Dalen  on  section  31  in  1868,  John 
Mattson  on  section  t,2  in  1868.  Swan  N.  Swanson  on  section  t,7i  in  1868, 
Ole  Evenson  on  section  34  in  1863,  and  Halvor  Toraasen  on  section  35 
in  1870. 



In  response  to  a  request  from  the  Park  Region  Echo,  Hon.  E.  E.  Lobeck, 
state  senator  from  this  district,  recently  prepared  the  following  brief  review 
of  pioneer  conditions  in  the  neighborhood  of  his  bo3'hood  home  in  Holmes 
City  township.  "To  enumerate  the  struggles  and  hardships  the  first  settlers 
had  to  go  through,"  wrote  Senator  Lobeck.  "would  take  up  too  much  space, 
but  suffice  me  to  say  that  this  lot  fell  upon  a  rugged  class  of  people,  strong 
in  body  and  mind,  who  converted  the  wilderness  into  a  garden  spot. 

"My  father  came  to  Holmes  City  in  the  fall  of  1867  and  settled  down 
in  section  21.  At  that  time  it  took  longer  to  go  across  the  country  than 
now.  Here  is  a  little  bit  from  father's  note  book  :  "Came  to  New  York 
May  5,  then  on  board  a  train  via  Easton,  Reading  and  Harrisburg  to 
Cleveland.  There  we  were  stuffed  into  one  of  those  renounced,  dingy,  dirty 
steamboats  and  taken  across  Lake  Erie  to  Detroit — on  toard  a  train  again 
to  Grand  Haven  and  then  on  steamboat  across  Lake  Michigan  to  Mil- 
waukee, where  a  train  stood  puffing-  ready  to  take  us  westward,  and  after  a 
few  days  of  jolting  and  jerking  we  were  dumped  off  at  Prairie  du  Chiene  on 
the  Mississippi  river  and  tugged  up  to  St.  Paul  on  a  river  boat.'  There  we 
rested  for  a  few  days  and  stretched  our  arms  and  legs  to  find  out  if  every- 
thing was  in  order  and  when  we  found  that  we  had  every  limb  with  us, 
we  boarded  a  train  and  came  to  St.  Cloud,  which  was  then  the  terminal 
of  the  domain  of  the  steam-horse. 

"In  St.  Cloud  father  bought  an  ox-team  for  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  dollars,  a  second-hand  wagon  for  one  hundred  and  five  dollars,  stretched 
a  cover  over  it  and  took  part  of  the  luggage,  together  with  mamma  and 
us  children  and  stuck  us  in  the  vehicle.  'Get  up.  Dick  and  Charley!'  and 
off  we  were  and  landed  in  Holmes  City  the  29th  day  of  May.  It  took  us 
twenty-four  days  from  New  York  to  Holmes  City,  a  trip  which  is  now- 
made  in   four  days. 

"In  the  township  of  Holmes  City  we  found  a  few  Norwegians.  Swedes 
and  Americans — "^'ankees,  we  called  the  Americans  at  that  time,  .\mong 
the  Norwegians  we  had  Kjettel  Koltvedt,  who  lived  where  Nils  Thompson 
used  to  live  later  on;  Nils  Mikkelsen  (Haatvedt's  place),  where  we  staved  a 
few  days,  and  Gunder  Knutson.  where  we  stayed  during  the  summer.  A 
few  other  Norwegians  were  scattered  here  and  there,  .\mong  the  Swedes, 
I  may  name  H.  L.  Lewis,  who  is  still  tilling  the  soil  in  Holmes  City,  and 
Messrs.  Svenson,  Ole  Fahlin,  Ole  Erickson,  Christopher  Person  and  others, 


and  among  the  Americans  I  will  mention  Messrs.  Blackwell,  Canfield,  West- 
moreland and  the  Guiels  brothers.  These  were  among  the  first  to  tackle  the 
big  oaks  and  turn  the  sod  in  Holmes  City.  The  Holmes  City  village  was 
founded  in  the  fall  of  1858  and  it  is  today  one  of  the  most  beautifully 
located  and  cozy  inland  towns  you  can  find.  No  one  had  any  crop  when 
.we  came,  l)ut  three  or  four  seeded  a  few  acres  that  spring,  but  did  not  get 
much,  as  the  blackbirds  did  most  of  the  harvesting. 

"Father  thought  conditions  would  be  better  farther  to  the  northwest, 
so  he  yoked  up  his  team  and  took  the  government  trail  in  the  direction  of 
Ottertail  county,  but  when  we  reached  the  old  fort  at  Pomme  de  Terre 
and  from  a  hilltop  looked  west  across  the  country — no  settlers  between  there 
and  the  Rockies,  he  got  lonesome.  'Ho,  back,  haw,  Dick  and  Charley!" 
and  at  once  he  was  on  his  way  back  to  Holmes  City.  In  crossing  Chippewa 
river  he  discovered  that  the  water  was  packed  with  fat  and  beautiful  hogs. 
He  grabbed  a  handspike  and  went  down  to  see  what  was  up  and  found  that 
tlie  river  was  teeming  with  fish — buffalo  fish,  mind  you — and  as  no  game 
warden  was  around,  father  manipulated  the  spike  in  such  a  way  that  after 
awhile  he  had  the  wagon-box  full  of  fish  and  came  in  triumph  back  to  Gunder 
Knutson's.     'America  is  all  right!' 

"In  the  spring  of  1867  father  bought  three  cows  and  paid  fifty  dollars 
to  fifty-five  dollars  for  each.  He  also  paid  nineteen  dollars  for  a  barrel  of 
flour  and  nine  dollars  for  a  barrel  of  salt.  He  broke  up  two  and  one-half 
acres  that  year,  which  was  seeded  the  following  spring  and  we  children  had 
to  run  from  one  end  of  the  field  to  the  other  all  day  chasing  blackbirds.  In 
the  fall  after  the  cradle  had  been  swung  and  threshing  was  done,  father 
stored  away  fort}--nine  l)ushels  of  wheat  and  fifty  bushels  of  potatoes. 

"In  the  fall  of  1867  we  moved  into  our  own  home.  Not  very  much 
furniture — a  few  chairs,  minus  backs;  a  rude  table,  and  beds  one  above  the 
other — and  we  children  scrambled  for  the  upper  one,  as  it  was  a  glorious 
thing  to  look  down  from  the  'heights'  and  note  what  was  going  on  in  the 
room.  Lamps?  Oh,  no!  A  home-made  candle  had  to  do  at  that  time. 
The  winter  of  1867-68  was  bitterly  cold  and  severe.  Geese,  ducks  and  deer 
were  plentiful  in  the  fall  and  we  lived  high.  During  the  summer  we  had 
fish  daily,  as  the  lakes  were  teeming  with  members  of  the  finny  tribe  and  we 
youngsters  had  no  trouble  catching  whole  strings  of  them. 

"During  the  succeeding  springs  of  1868,  1869  and  1870  a  stream  of  immi- 
grants came  and  soon  every  available  quarter  section  was  taken.  School 
districts  were  organized,  congregations  formed,  ministers  called,  and  the  peo- 
ple went  afoot  four  to  five  miles  to  get  to  prayer  meetings  and  other  gath- 


erings  of  that  kind  in  the  evenings — singing  both  going  and  coming.  As 
the  population  increased,  strife  and  cjuarrels  came.  It  was  a  mighty  hard 
thing  to  get  the  school  houses  and  churches  in  the  right  places.  Well  do  I 
remember  a  day  when  hard  words  were  flying,  fists  were  used  and  axes 
flourished  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  between  where  Ole  Mauseth  and  Ole  John- 
son now  reside.  A  school  house  had  been  erected  at  that  place  and  the  peo- 
ple farther  to  the  south  came  and  demanded  that  the  institution  of  edu- 
cation and  learning  1)e  moved.  At  the  foot  of  the  hill  the  battle  was  fought. 
A  gentleman  of  some  reputation  led  the  forces  for  the  faction  that  wanted 
the  school  house  moved — and  a  genuine  Viking,  chunky,  strong  and  fear- 
less, by  the  name  of  Lars  Isakson,  was  the  leader  for  the  other  side.  This 
Lars  Isakson  was  looked  upon  by  us  youngsters  as  a  mighty  man.  He 
once  caught  a  deer.  The  brush  was  thick  and  Lars  dropped  himself  down 
beside  the  deer  track  and  all  of  a  sudden  a  buck  came.  Lars  stuck  out  his 
hand  and  grabbed  the  hind  foot  of  the  deer  and  you  may  imagine  what 
happened.  The  brush  was  uprooted — at  times  they  were  rolling  on  the 
ground,  at  times  they  \\'ere  up  in  the  air — but  Lars  brought  some  venison 
home  to  his  family,  all  right.  In  that  school  house  fight  he  stood  like  a 
wall,  even  if  an  ax  was  flourished  over  his  head.  I  have  a  vivid  picture 
of  that  typical  Viking  in  my  mind  yet.  Some  small  scrappings  occurred 
about  fishing  places  in  the  spring.  An  heroic  battle  was  fought  on  a  hill 
between  two  study  pioneers,  because  both  claimed  the  right  to  a  creek  where 
the  fish  went  to  spawn.  A  handspike  was  used  by  one  of  the  men,  breaking 
the  arms  and  legs  of  the  other  fellow  and  for  many  years  that  hill  went 
under  the  name  of  'Slagter  bakken,'  the  butcher  hill. 

"The  potato  bugs  came  to  visit  Holmes  City  for  the  first  time  in  June, 
1870,  and  they  came  to  stay.  These  abominable,  persistent  creatures  kept 
us  children  busy  and  we  did  not  love  them  at  all.  Two  years  afterward 
the  black  potato  bugs  came  for  the  first  time  and  threatened  to  devour  every 
potato  plant  in  the  township,  and  then  both  young  and  old  had  to  be  out  and 
do  some  killing.  In  the  fall  the  prairie  fire  kept  the  people  on  the  lookout  and 
many  a  night  the  men  folks  had  to  leave  home  to  meet  this  foe,  while  the 
women  and  children  sat  at  the  windows  starring  at  the  glare  in  the  sky, 
fearing  that  both  house  and  barn  would  go  up  in  smoke.  Great  damage 
was  done  every  fall.  Nils  Abrahamson  lost  all  his  grain  in  the  fall  of  1872, 
during  a  terrific  fire.  The  cold  winters  and  the  long  drives  to  market  made 
it  a  severe  task  for  the  people  to  dispose  of  their  grain  and  many  a  man 
was   found  dead  along  the  roadside  on  what  we  called  the  Morris  prairie. 



We  had  two  extremely  severe  storms  in  February,  1872,  and  when  those 
storms  were  over  the  prairie  were  strewn  with  dead  bodies.  Some  were 
caught  going  to  Morris  and  some  were  caught  coming  from  that  place.  A 
few  saved  their  lives  by  tipping  over  the  wagon-box  and  creeping  under  it, 
wrapping  themselves  in  blankets  and  empty  sacks;  but  we  may  imagine 
how  it  felt  to  be  confined  in  such  a  place  for  three  days  and  three  nights. 

"The  years  went  on  and  the  people  went  through  hardships  of  all 
kinds.  The  last  of  the  set-backs  came  in  1876-77,  when  the  grasshoppers 
came  and  devoured  everything.  After  that  time  conditions  changed;  market 
places  sprang  up  closer  at  hand  and  today  the  farmers  in  Holmes  City  seem 
to  be  happy  and  contented.  The  first  market  place  was  St.  Cloud,  seventy- 
five  miles  away;  Melrose  next,  fifty  miles  awa}^;  then  Benson,  forty-five 
miles ;  then  Morris,  twenty-five  to  thirty  miles  away,  and  then,  all  of  a  sudden, 
the  Manitoba  road  liit  Alexandria  and  then  the  people  were  singing;  and 
then,  more  than  twenty  years  ago,  the  Soo  came,  still  closer  at  hand." 


One  of  the  very  earliest  settlers  in  the  Holmes  City  neighborhood  was 
the  trader  and  trapper,  Lewis,  who  located  a  station  there  for  trading  with 
the  Indians,  and  he  is  recalled  by  settlers  who  came  in  as  late  as  1867. 
At  a  very  early  date  a  postoffice  was  established  at  Holmes  City  and  some 
time  later  a  postoffice  was  established  at  Moe,  with  Gunder  Johnson  as  post- 
master. When  the  railroad  reached  Douglas  county  the  postoffice  at  the 
home  of  Robert  Angus,  was  moved  to  Garfield  and  Brandon  postofiice 
was  moved  over  to  the  present  location  of  that  town  on  the  railroad.  It 
is  related  that  Holmes  and  Grant,  who  had  come  up  into  this  country  before 
the  days  of  the  Indian  uprising,  bought  out  the  Lewis  trading  post  and 
that  the  trading  point  thus  created  later  came  to  be  known  as  Holmes  City, 
which  it  still  bears,  and  which  name  was  given  the  township  when  it  later 
came  to  be  organized,  the  lake  on  which  the  village  is  situated  being  named 
Grant,  in  honor  of  the  other  partner  in  the  concern. 

The  present  officers  of  Holmes  City  township  are  as  follow :  S.  O. 
Wagenius,  clerk;  John  Backelin,  treasurer;  Olof  Wallner,  assessor;  X.  G. 
Nelson,  Theodore  Swenson  and  Emil  Guldbranson,  supervisors. 


On  September  3,  1867,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  established 
Chippewa   township,    comprised    of   congressional   townships    129   and    130, 


ranges  39  and  40.  The  first  meeting  was  to  be  held  at  the  house  of  George 
A.  Freundereich,  September  28,  1867.  The  name  was  later  changed  to 
Brandon,  which  township  now  comprises  congressional  township  129, 
range  39. 

Henry  Gager  is  thought  to  have  been  the  first  settler  in  Brandon  town- 
ship. He  located  on  section  5  about  i860  and  others  came  in  soon  after- 
ward. Haagan  Holing,  who  died  in  February,  1907,  at  his  home  in  Brandon 
township,  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  in  this  township,  having  come  out 
here  from  Minneapolis,  where  he  was  working  in  the  mills,  in  1865,  and 
filing  on  the  homestead  on  which  he  spent  the  rest  of  his  life.  When  he 
built  his  cabin  after  his  arrival  here,  his  nearest  neighbor  was  four  miles 
distant.  Mr.  Holing  served  as  treasurer  of  Brandon  township  for  more 
than  thirty  years. 

In  the  list  following  is  given  the  names  of  one  of  the  first  settlers  on  each 
section  of  the  township,  with  the  approximate  date  of  their  location.  Charles 
A.  Dollner  took  land  on  section  2  in  1863,  John  J.  Nichols  on  section  3  in 
1862,  Solon  Moore  on  section  4  in  1862,  Joseph  Hunt  on  section  6  in  1867, 
George  Ward  on  section  7  in  1865,  George  A.  Freundenreich  on  section 
9  in  1861,  A.  A.  Noble  on  section  10  in  1862,  Andrew  Holes  on  section 
II  in  1862,  John  Sundblad  on  section  12  in  1865,  Lars  Nilson  on  section 
13  in  1863,  Elijah  Sandford  on  section  15  in  i860,  Job  Smith  on  section 
17  in  1866,  Martin  Stowe  on  section  18  in  1862,  Hans  J.  Solem  on  section 
19  in  1870,  Matilda  Mcintosh  on  section  20  in  1862,  L.  Fletcher  on  section 
21  in  1862,  Fletcher  Thom  on  section  22  in  1862,  John  D.  Aldrich  on  sec- 
tion 23  in  1868,  Ingebret  Peterson  on  section  24  in  1863,  John  Salmon  on 
section  25  in  1862'  John  Nelson  on  section  26  in  1865,  Ole  Peterson  on  sec- 
tion 27  in  1864.  Ole  Thompson  on  section  28  in  1861,  Jonetta  Halvorson 
on  section  29  in  1868,  Nels  Nelson  on  section  28  in  1863,  Thomas  FT. 
Klevan  on  section  31  in  1S63,  Halvor  Rassmussen  on  section  32  in  1863, 
Hans  A.  Strom  on  section  33  in  1863,  and  Halvor  G.  Kyllo  on  section  34 
in  1869. 

The  present  officers  of  Brandon  township  are  as  follow :  Emil  E.  Bergh, 
clerk:  Henry  O.  Olson,  treasurer;  Anton  Holing,  assessor;  C.  O.  Augdahl, 
Knute  Olaerg  and  H.  H.  Evju,  supervisors. 


On  September  3,  1867,  a  petition  signed  by  fourteen  legal  voters  was  pre- 
sented to  the  board  of  county  commissioners,  requesting  that  congressional 
township   128,  range  39,  be  established  as  a  separate  civil  township.     This 


petition  was  granted  with  instructions  that  the  first  meeting  be  held  at  the 
house  of  Thomas  Adkins,  September  21,  1867.-  The  township  was  first  called 
Adkinsville,  in  honor  of  one  of  the  first  settlers,  but  later  the  name  was 
changed  to  Aloe,  in  memory  of  a  district  in  Xorway,  from  which  a  numljer 
of  the  pioneers  came. 

Torer  Evenson  and  family,  who  had  come  from  Norway  to  America 
in  1857,  settling  in  Wisconsin,  were  among  the  early  settlers  in  ^^loe  town- 
ship, settling  on  the  old  Evenson  homestead  there  in  1865,  coming  through 
by  ox-team  and  prairie  schooner  from  Wisconsin  and  living  in  their  covered 
wagon  until  a  cabin  could  be  built.  Moe  township  then  was  practically  a 
wilderness,  there  being  but  few  settlers  there  and  those  far  between,  among 
these  having  been  Lars  Amundson  and  Johanes  Hanson,  Indians  being  more 
commonly  seen  there  than  white  people.  Amundson  had  brought  out  with 
him  a  grind-stone  and  that  useful  article  proved  so  popular  with  his  pioneer 
neighbors  and  was  borrowed  so  widely  that  finally,  so  the  story  goes,  nothing 
was  left  of  it  but  the  hole,  and  that  the  neighbor  who  used  it  last  neglected 
to  return. 

Some  of  the  first  settlers  on  each  section  in  JNIoe  township,  together  with 
the  approximate  date  of  their  location,  are  mentioned  in  the  following  list. 
Arthur  A.  Flom  took  land  on  section  i  in  1864,  Ole  Thompson  on  section  2 
in  1865.  Ole  Bergerson  on  section  3  in  1868,  Thomas  Olson  on  section  4  in 
1868,  Patrick  Brown  on  section  5  in  1864,  Monroe  Nichols  on  section  6  in 
1864,  Gulick  Johnson  on  section  7  in  1868,  Mary  E.  Chute  on  section  8  in 
1864,  Thomas  Larson  on  section  10  in  1870,  Ole  K.  Lappinger  on  section  13 
in  1866,  John  Arntson  on  section  14  in  1863,  Charles  Brown  on  section  17  in 
1868,  Amos  Johnson  on  section  18  in  1863,  Peter  Johnson  on  section  iq  in 
1868,  Thomas  E.  Lajord  on  section  20  in  1863,  Knudt  C.  Brackle  on  section 
21  in  1863,  Lewis  Lewiston  on  section  22  in  1864,  Lathan  J.  Ellsworth  on 
section  23  in  1863,  George  B.  Wright  on  section  24  in  1865,  Peter  Peterson  on 
section  26  in  1863,  James  S.  Mitchell  on  section  2-]  in  1865,  Henry  C.  Wait 
on  section  28  in  1865,  Hendric  Johnson  on  section  29  in  1864,  Ole  Amund- 
son on  section  30  in  1865,  John  Nord  on  section  31  in  1869,  Ol^  Brandon  on 
section  2,2  in  1863,  John  Blackwell  on  section  33  in  1863,  Sylvester  Yates 
on  section  34  in  1866,  and  Maths  Anderson  on  section  35  in  1868. 

The  present  officers  of  Moe  township  are  as  follow:  Alfred  B.  Ander- 
son, clerk;  Peter  Syverson,  treasurer;  Peter  Hanson,  assessor:  O.  E.  Sletto, 
Lauritz  Severson  and  Carl  J.  Pipo,  supervisors. 



Lake  Mary  township  was  established  on  September  3,  1867,  as  requested 
in  a  petition  presented  to  the  board  of  county  commissioners  signed  by  fifteen 
legal  voters  in  congressional  township  127,  range  38.  The  first  meeting  was 
to  be  held  at  the  home  of  A.  L.  Robinson,  September  21,  1867.  The  town- 
ship was  named  for  the  large  lake  of  that  name  in  the  northwestern  part  of 
the  township. 

The  records  do  not  give  the  exact  date  of  entry  of  the  homesteads  in 
many  instances,  but  the  following  list  has  the  approximate  date  of  settlement 
of  most  of  the  sections  in  Lake  Mary  township.  Matthew  Britendahl  took 
land  on  section  i  in  1864,  Charles  E.  Jenkins  on  section  2  in  1863,  William 
E.  Hicks  on  section  3  in  1863,  Hendrick  Erickson  on  section  4  in  1868, 
George  W.  McComber  on  section  5  in  1864,  Elon  Holmes  on  section  6  in 
1865,  Ferdinand  Keflo  on  section  7  in  1867,  James  C.  Ii/Iiller  on  section  9  in 
1864,  Porter  Davis  on  section  12  in  1865,  Charles  T.  McKillips  on  section  13 
in  1870,  Horace  A.  McComter  on  section  14  in  1863,  William  Hounsell  on 
section  15  in  1868,  Thomas  Crooks  on  section  17  in  1868,  Samuel  M.  Jones 
on  section  18  in  1868,  Gottlieb  Greibe  on  section  19  in  1868,  Stephen  W. 
Miller  on  section  20  in  1868,  Margaret  J.  Fox  on  section  21  in  1869,  Har- 
rison Crandall  on  section  22  in  1870,  Fred  J.  Colby  on  section  23  in  1870, 
John  Tompkins  on  section  24  in  1868,  Benton  A.  Livingston  on  section  25  in 
1863,  William  Matthews  on  section  26  in  1865,  David  Townsend  on  section 
27  in  1868,  George  Lansing  on  section  28  in  1869,  Andrew  Lansing  on  sec- 
tion 29  in  1869,  Thomas  C.  McClure  on  .section  30  in  1864,  Isaiah  Fairies  on 
section  31  in  1864,  James  A.  Beaver  on  section  32  in  1864,  Fred  C.  Holmes 
on  section  33  in  1864,  George  B.  Wright  on  section  34  in  1864,  and  William 
H.  Harris  on  section  35  in  1864. 

The  present  officers  of  Lake  Mary  township  are  as  follow :  Charles 
Danneck,  clerk:  Wenzel  Bruzek,  treasurer;  Thomas  J.  Barros,  assessor;  A. 
Koudela,  Andrew  Roth  and  Frank  Radii,  supervisors. 


Leaf  A'alley  township  was  established  by  the  board  of  countv  commis- 
sioners on  November  2t,.  1867.  The  first  meeting  was  to  be  held  at  the 
house  of  Willard  B.  Ellis,  December  14,  1867.  This  township  comprises 
congressional  township  130,  range  38. 


In  the  following  list  are  given  the  names  of  some  of  the  first  settlers 
on  each  section  in  Leaf  Valley  township,  together  with  the  approximate  date 
of  their  location.  Enoch  H.  Alden  took  land  on  section  i  in  1868,  George 
Mumm  on  section  2  in  1870,  William  Marquadt  on  section  3  in  1866,  Hen- 
rick  Thies  on  section  4  in  1866,  Wilhelm  Fentzke  on -section  5  in  1689,  John 
Johnson  on  section  6  in  1869,  Adam  Peffer  on  section  7  in  1869,  Emil  Nuscke 
on  section  8  in  1869,  John  S.  Evans  on  section  9  in  1868,  Herman  Peterman 
on  section  10  in  1870,  Willard  A.  Alden  on  section  11  in  1869,  Wesley  Smith 
on  section  12  in  1873,  Wallace  Kibbe  on  section  13  in  1870,  Samuel  Pollard 
on  section  14  in  1871,  John  S.  Evans  on  section  15  in  1870,  Peter  Smith  on 
section  17  in  1872,  Andreas  Reger  on  section  18  in  1870,  Peter  Ley  on  sec- 
tion 19  in  187 1.  Wilson  Davidson  on  section  20  in  1870,  Mary  A.  Lane  on 
section  21  in  1870,  Lorenzo  D.  Peck  on  section  22  in  1868,  Isaac  Johnson  on 
section  2:^^  in  1871,  John  H.  Hartew  on  section  24  in  1872,  Simon  L.  West 
on  section  26  in  1873,  J.  F.  W.  Grosenick  on  section  2y  in  1875,  August 
Lawrenz  on  section  28  in  1871,  John  Comoford  on  section  29  in  1871,  El- 
bridge  G.  Paddock  on  section  30  in  1871,  Patrick  Kelly  on  section  31  in  1873, 
John  Mullins  on  section  ^2  in  1872,  Andrew  Anderson  on  section  34  in  1871, 
and  Jonas  Hult  on  section  35  in  1871. 

The  present  officers  of  Leaf  Valley  township  are  as  follow :  Michael 
Kelly,  Jr.,  clerk;  W.  H.  Venzke,  treasurer;  H.  Julig.  assessor;  Charles  L. 
Julig,  J.  G.  Loeffler  and  William  Schmidt,  supervisors. 


Millerville  township  was  established  on  November  2t^,  1867,  by  the 
board  of  county  commissioners,  in  answer  to  a  petition  signed  by  si.xteen  legal 
voters  from  congressional  township  130,  range  39.  The  first  meeting  was  to 
be  held  at  the  house  of  John  Miller,  one  of  the  early  and  prominent  settlers, 
for  whom  the  township  was  named. 

Some  of  the  first  settlers  on  each  section  in  Millerville  township,  with 
the  year  about  when  they  located,  are  mentioned  in  the  following  list.  Nicholas 
Langshausen  took  land  on  section  i  in  1869,  August  Keplien  on  section  2 
in  1870,  Rolden  M.  Finch  on  section  4  in  1871,  Ignatz  KroU  on  section  6  in 
1876,  John  Schwartz  on  section  7  in  1871,  Andrew  Bader  on  section  8  in 
1872,  Aaron  Dewey  on  section  9  in  1871,  John  Engler  on  section  10  in  1873. 
Bernhard  Nuss  on  section  11  in  1873,  John  Woyda  on  section  12  in  1873, 
Anton  R.  Cicky  on  section  13  in  1872,  Mathias  Portz  on  section  14  in  1872, 


Mathias  Wunch  on  section  15  in  1871,  John  F.  Busse  on  section  17  in  1875, 
Hans  G.  von  Stackhausen  on  section  18  in  1870,  Olof  Landin  on  section  20 
in  1873,  John  Schafer  on  section  22  in  1868,  John  Flesch  on  section  2'i^  in 
1873,  John  N.  Peck  on  section  24  in  1871,  Joseph  Goetz  on  section  25  in 
1872,  George  Wagner  on  section  26  in  1873,  Wilham  W.  Arness  on  section 
27  in  1873,  Andrew  J.  Arness  on  section  28  in  1871,  Magnus  Johnson  on 
section  29  in  187:,  Edward  Uhde  on  section  30  in  1872,  Thomas  Lauder  on 
section  },2  in  1876,  Andrew  J.  Goodwin  on  section  33  in  1872,  and  Henry 
McKibben  on  section  34  in  1873. 

Charles  Debetzan,  who  died  at  St.  Cloud  in  1906,  was  one  of  the  early 
settlers  in  IMillerville  township.  He  and  his  family  moved  to  this  state  from 
Pennsylvania  in  1688,  settling  in  Douglas  county.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
Mr.  Debetzan  had  twenty-nine  grandchildren  and  fifty-two  great-grand-i 

The  present  officers  of  Millerville  township  are  as  follow:  John  M. 
Prazak,  clerk;  Henry  Meissner,  treasurer;  Albin  Beckman,  assessor;  John 
Bitzan,  Peter  Renkes  and  Frank  Lederman,  supervisors. 


Evansville  township  was  established  on  January  7,  1868,  and  originally 
included  all  of  congressional  townships  129  and  130,  range  40.  At  present 
it  comprises  only  congressional  township  129,  range  40.  The  first  meeting 
was  to  be  held  at  the  house  of  Jacob  Shawr,  February  24,  1868.  The  town- 
ship was  named  for  a  Mr.  Evans,  who  carried  the  mail  through  here  in  1859 
on  the  old  St.  Cloud  and  Ft.  Abercrombie  stage  road.  Later  he  put  up  a  little 
store  on  the  present  site  of  the  town  of  Evansville  and  the  village  was  also 
named  for  him.  Evans  was  killed  by  the  Indians  during  the  outbreak.  A 
number  of  claims  were  taken  about  i860  but  the  country  was  deserted  dur- 
ing the  Indian  troubles. 

In  the  fall  of  1865,  L.  E.  Thompson  took  a  homestead  on  the  banks  of 
Lake  Fanny,  and  was  the  first  settler  to  locate  after  the  outbreak.  A  number 
of  the  sections  in  Evansville  township  were  first  settled  by  the  men  named  in 
the  following  list,  at  about  the  years  given,  as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained. 
Luther  Dearborn  took  land  on  section  i  in  1865,  Gustav  Willius  on  section 
2  in  1866,  Ole  H.  Lockren  on  section  3  in  1865,  John  Johnson  on  section  5 
in  1866,  Monroe  Nichols  on  section  6  in  1866,  John  Partridge  on  section  7 
in  1867,  Hans  Hanson  on  section  8  in  1866,  Olof  Dahlheim  on  section  9  in 


1870,  Jacob  Shanar  on  section  10  in  1865,  James  G.  Butterfield  on  section  11 
in  1866,  Robert  White  on  section  13  in  1865,  Pascal  Smith  on  section  14  in 
1869,  Knut  Larson  on  section  15  in  1865,  Thomas  Aadson  on  section  17  in 
1866,  Martin  Erickson  on  section  18  in  1870,  Ole  A.  Knutson  on  section  19 
in  1867,  Andrew  Nass  on  section  21  in  1869,  Joseph  A.  Jenkin  on  section 
22  in  1867,  Isaac  Skiles,  Jr..  on  section  24  in  1865,  Jonathan  Morrell  on 
section  25  in  1868,  ^^^iiliam  H.  Sanders  on  section  26  in  1871,  Mordecai  C. 
Pkimmer  on  section  27  in  1871,  Edward  Peterson  on  section  29  in  1866,  Ole 
Alberts  on  section  30  in  1865,  Varano  G.  Bryant  on  section  32  in  1866, 
James  A.  Beaver  on  section  34  in  1866,  and  George  Ward  on  section  35  in 

The  present  officers  of  Evansville  township  are  as  follow :  A.  B.  Ander- 
son, clerk;  John  Saterlie,  treasurer;  J.  H.  Kronberg,  assessor;  T.  C.  Thron- 
son,  Fritz  Lindstrom  and  Ole  O.  Larson,  supervisors. 


Orange  township  was  established  on  January  7,  1868,  by  the  board  of 
'county  commissioners,  in  answer  to  a  petition  from  a  majority  of  the  legal 
voters  in  congressional  township  127.  range  36.  The  first  meeting  was  to  be 
held  at  the  house  of  I.  S.  English,  February  24,  1868. 

Among  the-  early  settlers  who  located  in  Orange  township  were  Donald 
Stevenson,  who  took  land  on  section  i  about  1864,  James  B.  Wickham  on 
section  2  in  1864,  Elijah  G.  Gibbs  on  section  3  in  1864,  Gilbert  Sargent  on 
section  4  in  1865,  Thomas  Smith  on  section  5  in  1866,  Julia  M.  Allen  on 
section  7  in  1866,  George  Plank  on  section  8  in  1864,  James  Holes  on  sec- 
tion 9  in  1864,  Daniel  W.  McCart  on  section  10  in  1864,  George  E.  Hanford 
on  section  11  in  1866,  Albert  A.  Gilbert  on  section  13  in  1865,  Oliver  Han- 
ford on  section  14  in  1866,  John  M.  Scott  on  section  15  in  1866,  Charles 
Walker  on  section  17  in  1866,  John  W.  Fulkerson  on  section  18  in  1866, 
Nelson  H.  Miner  on  section  20  in  1866,  Isaac  T.  Andrews  on  section  23  in 
1865,  Morris  Ladd  on  section  25  in  1865,  Luther  LaPlant  on  section  26  in 
1864,  Gustavus  Klatt  on  section  28  in  1863,  John  F.  Walker  on  section  29  in 
1864,  Patrick  Maloney  on  section  30  in  1865,  Robert  Thomas  on  section  31 
in  1863,  Jeremiah  Plank  on  section  32  in  1864,  George  W.  Radabaugh  on 
section  33  in  1864,  and  William  T.  English  on  section  34  in  1863. 

The  present  officers  of  Orange  township  are  as  follow :  \\\  W.  Rarick, 
clerk;  Mike  Dunn,  treasurer;  August  J.  Mechels,  assessor:  M.  G.  Dockhani. 
Lewis  Baker  and  John  Cassell,  supervisors. 



Ida  township  was  established  on  March  2,  1868.  It  comprises  con- 
gressional township  129,  range  38.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  the  house 
of  Robert  Angus,  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  April,  1868. 

James  F.  Dicken,  who  located  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Ida,  was  one  of 
the  first  settlers  of  Ida  township.  James  Barr  and  Myron  Coloney  were  also 
early  settlers.  Some  of  the  first  to  locate  on  a  number  of  the  sections  of 
Ida  township,  with  the  approximate  date  of  their  settlement,  are  mentioned 
in  the  following  list  of  homesteaders  who  secured  a  patent  to  their  land  from 
the  government.  Thomas  Brown  took  land  on  section  2  in  1864,  John  Torry 
on  section  3  in  1863,  August  F.  Braski  on  section  4  in  1868,  Claus  V.  John- 
son on  section  5  in  1871,  Leonard  West  on  section  6  in  1871,  Pehr  Anderson 
on  section  7  in  1873,  Sylvester  Dicken  on  section  8  in  1865,  John  Reid  on 
section  9  in  1864.  Gilbert  Brakken  on  section  12  in  1873,  Lars  Pederson  on 
section  14  in  1871,  Erick  Ersson  on  section  15  in  1873,  Daniel  Russell  on 
section  16  in  1863,  Solomon  R.  Kaiser  on  section  17  in  1864,  Benjamin 
Stewart  on  section  20  in  1868,  Jesse  Hosford  on  section  21  in  1864,  Erick 
Larson  on  section  22  in  1871,  Henry  Richards  on  section  24  in  1870,  Charles 
E.  Thomas  on  section  25  in  1868,  William  Rutherford  on  section  2y  in  1864, 
J.  M.  Smith  on  section  28  in  1865,  John  J.  Muir  on  section  29  in  1868, 
James  Holes  on  section  30  in  1864,  Alexander  Richardson  on  section  31  in 
1864,  Julius  Frost  on  section  2^2  in  1863,  Owen  Osborn  on  section  34  in 
1863,  and  S.  M.  Thompson  on  section  35  in  1864. 

The  present  ofiicers  of  Ida  township  are  as  follow :  C.  J.  Christopher- 
son,  clerk;  Charles  Kloehn,  treasurer:  John  A.  Norgren,  assessor;  P.  M. 
\'ideen,  Charles  G.  Olson  and  Emil  Bruske,  super^•isors. 


Carlos  township  was  established  on  May  i,  1868,  at  which  time  the 
board  of  county  commissioners  gave  notice  that  the  first  meeting  should  be 
held  at  the  house  of  A.  H.  Hall,  on  May  19,  1868.  As  originally  established 
Carlos  township  included  all  of  congressional  townships  129  and  130,  range 
37:  township  130,  range  36,  and  the  west  half  of  township  129,  range  36. 
At  present  it  comprises  only  congressional  township   129,  range  T,y. 

Carlos  township  settled  up  rapidly  after  the  Indian  outbreak,  the  greater 
part  of  the  land  being  taken  up  under  homestead  entry.  Some  of  the  first 
settlers  on  a  number  of  the  sections  of  this  township,  with  the  vear  of  their 


arrival,  as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained,  are  mentioned  in  the  following  list 
of  those  who  secured  title  from  the  government.  Joseph  B.  Plymouth  took 
land  on  section  i  about  1864,  William  A.  Wheeler  on  section  2  in  1870, 
Charles  Engstrom  on  section  6  in  1865,  Sarah  J.  Brown  on  section  7  in 
1868,  Antoine  Klein  on  section  8  in  1871,  John  Torrey  on  section  10  in 
164,  William  H.  Sparrell  on  section  11  in  1864,  Timothy  Enright  on  section 
12  in  1864.  Samuel  Beidleman  on  section  13  in  1863,  Ova  A.  Hall  on  section 
15  in  1864,  William  A.  Cosgrove  on  section  17  in  1864,  Gustav  O.  Hegg  on 
section  18  in  1864,  James  F.  Dilley  on  section  19  in  1863,  Joshua  N.  Daudna 
on  section  21  in  1868,  William  W.  Kaine  on  section  22  in  1863,  Alfred  W. 
Prettyman  on  section  24  in  1863,  Hugh  Hamill  on  section  2j  in  1864,  John 
Van  Hoesen  on  section  28  in  1864,  John  B.  Ellison  on  .section  30  in  1864. 
Daniel  McCarthy  on  section  31  in  1864,  and  Napoleon  Beedan  on  section 
7,2  in  1866. 

The  present  officers  of  Carlos  township  are  as  follow :  A.  F.  ]\Iiller. 
clerk :  J.  O.  Stedje,  treasurer ;  W.  B.  Nelson,  assessor ;  Emil  Lundeen,  Albert 
Ritten  and  Tollef  Dahl,  supervisors. 


On  March  22.  1869,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  set  apart  con- 
gressional township  128.  range  40,  as  a  separate  civil  township,  to  be  known 
as  Red  Rock.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Ole  Moe.  on  April 
13,  1869.  On  February  7,  1871,  the  commissioners  received  a  petition  re- 
questing that  the  name  of  the  township  be  changed  to  Urness,  in  memor)-  of 
a  certain  district  in  Norwa}'. 

In  the  following  list  are  given  the  names  of  some  of  the  first  settlers  in 
a  number  of  the  sections  of  Urness  township,  together  with  the  approximate 
date  of  their  arrival.  Ole  Strand  took  land  on  section  i  in  1871,  John  John- 
son on  section  2  in  1864,  Christopher  Isakson  on  section  3  in  1864.  Martin 
Anderson  on  section  4  in  1864,  Johannes  Hanson  on  section  5  in  1864,  Karie 
Petersdatter  on  section  6  in  1871,  Christopher  Christopherson  on  section  7  in 
1864,  Hans  Johnson  on  section  8  in  1864,  Erick  Paulson  on  section  9  in 
1863,  Andrew  J.  Burke  on  section  10  in  1863,  Thomas  S.  Holleque  on  sec- 
tion II  in  1863,  Ole  J.  Urness  on  section  12  in  1865,  Bernt  J.  Burke  on 
section  15  in  1870,  Erick  Nelson  on  section  17  in  1871,  J.  Henry  Holmes 
on  section  18  in  1867,  John  L.  Merriam  on  section  20  in  1864,  Ole  E.  Fjeld 
on  section  21  in  1866,  Jens  Olsen  on  section  23  in  1869,  Andrew  J.  Urness  on 
section  24  in  1865,  John  Johnson  on  section  25  in  1864.  Nels  Iverson  on  sec- 


tion  2"/  in  1863.  Edwin  O.  Hillstad  on  section  29  in  1863,  William  H.  Brad- 
ford on  section  30  in  1868,  Ole  Olson  on  section  ^2  in  1866,  Charles  R. 
Stewart  on  section  2^t,  in  1863,  Isaac  Oberg  on  section  34  in  1863,  and  Xels 
O.  Shattleboe  on  section  35  in  1862. 

The  present  officers  of  Urness  township  are  as  follow :  O.  A.  Burkee, 
clerk;  Oscar  Earsness,  treasurer;  John  Endreson,  assessor;  Xils  Bye,  Olaf 
Hakenson  and  A.  K.  Burkey,  supervisors. 


On  March  30,  1869,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  granted  a  peti- 
tion to  establish  congressional  township  127,  range  ^,'],  as  a  separate  civil 
township.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  John  Brown,  on  April 
16,  1869.     Later  the  name  of  this  township  was  changed  to  Hudson. 

Below  are  given  the  names  of  some  of  the  early  settlers  on  each  section 
in  Hudson  township,  with  the  approximate  date  of  their  arrival,  ^^'illiam 
Smith  took  land  on  section  i  in  1871,  Joseph  Strong  on  section  2  in  1870. 
John  M.  Sissler  on  section  3  in  1868,  William  H.  Rowe  on  section  4  in 
1869,  William  P.  Burgan  on  section  5  in  1869,  James  H.  White  on  section 
6  in  1870,  Edward  Phernetten  on  section  7  in  1867,  Orson  Shippey  on  sec- 
tion 8  in  1866,  Henry  H.  Russell  on  section  9  in  1868,  Jacob  Gasper  on 
section  10  in  1867,  Thomas  Strieker  on  section  11  in  1869,  Pleates  Fry 
on  section  12  in  1868,  James  Purdon  on  section  13  in  1867,  Edwin  R. 
Childs  on  section  14  in  1867,  Nelson  B.  Fullmer  on  section  15  in  1869, 
Creighton  J.  Bondurant  on  section  16  in  1869,  Hiram  Shippey  on  section  17 
in  1868,  George  G.  Mitchell  on  section  18  in  1867,  Rial  Moulton  on  section 
19  in  1869,  Thomas  Parks  on  section  20  in  1869,  Harden  Brown  on  sec- 
tion 21  in  1869,  James  W.  Meyers  on  section  22  in  1869,  William  W.  Sheldon 
on  section  23  in  1867,  William  H.  Briggs  on  section  24  in  1868,  John  AIc- 
Cellan  on  section  25  in  1869,  John  Meyers  on  section  26  in  1868,  Benjamin 
Sheldon  on  section  2-j  in  1868,  Hollis  S.  Boyd  on  section  28  in  1868,  Eleazer 
C.  Phelps  on  section  29  in  1868,  Leander  Kellogg  on  section  30  in  1864, 
Nancy  Campbell  on  section  31  in  1865,  William  Hogan  on  section  32  in 
1866,  William  H.  McGee  on  section  33  in  1866,  Porter  Davis  on  section  34 
in  1869,  Joseph  DeCramer  on  section  35  in  1868,  and  George  Cassell  on 
section  36  in  1869. 

The  present  officers  of  Hudson  township  are  as  follow :  Fred  C. 
Meade,  clerk;  John  Lorenz.  treasurer;  Peter  Cassell,  assessor;  George  Mc- 
Mahan,  James  Butler  and  John  Lorenz,  supervisors. 



On  ^larch  8,  1870,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  received  a  i3eti- 
tion  to  establish  congressional  township  129,  range  36,  as  a  separate  civil 
township.  This  petition  was  granted  and  the  township  named  Riverdale, 
with  instructions  that  the  first  meeting  should  be  held  at  the  house  of 
Mathias  Klein,  March  22,  1870.  On  January  4,  1871,  a  communication  was 
sent  to  the  county  board  saying  that  the  township  meeting  had  adopted  the 
name  of  Belle  River,  instead  of  Riverdale.  This  action  was  approved  by  the 

Some  of  the  first  to  locate  on  a  number  of  the  sections  in  Belle  River 
township  are  mentioned  in  the  list  which  follows,  together  with  the  date  of 
their  arrival,  as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained.  John  Moriarty  took  land  on 
section  i  in  1865,  Martin  Lee  on  section  2  in  1873,  Martin  Crowson  on  sec- 
tion 4  in  1873,  Michael  Fitzgerald  on  section  6  in  1865,  Peter  Henry  Jr.,  on 
section  7  in  1865,  John  Clouser  on  section  8  in  1868,  Frank  Ouinn  on  sec- 
tion 9  in  1870.  Henry  Cook  on  section  10  in  1867,  Johnston  W.  Lowrv  on 
section  11  in  1865,  John  Dunn  on  section  12  in  1865,  John  Collins  on  sec- 
tion 13  in  1 87 1,  John  Petruick  on  section  15  in  1873,  Charles  Baumers  on 
section  17  in  1868,  Stephen  Miller  on  section  18  in  1865,  Anders  G.  Sjogren 
on  section  19  in  1875,  Nicholas  Botzel  on  section  20  in  1873,  Gustav  Ander- 
son on  section  22  in  1875,  George  B.  Craig  on  section  2t^  in  1871,  Andrew 
Ellsworth  on  section  24  in  1870,  Luther  Dearborn  on  section  25  in  1865, 
Anders  L.  Helrud  on  section  26  in  1875,  Lars  Bergsten  on  section  2y  in 
1875,  Haymond  W.  Clark  on  section  28  in  1865,  John  B.  Gilfillian  on  sec- 
tion 31  in  1865,  August  Forsgren  on  section  2,2  in  1873,  John  A.  Nelson  on 
section  ^i,  in  1869,  Joseph  Van  Epps  on  section  34  in  1866,  and  Obadiah 
Brown  on  section  35  in  1865. 

George  B.  Craig,  who  arrived  in  1865,  is  referred  to  as  probablv  the 
first  settler  in  Belle  River.  Se\'eral  others  soon  settled  in  that  same  neigh- 
borhood, among  these  being  John  Anderson  and  his  brother-in-law,  M.  A. 
Anderson.  The  country  in  general  thereabout  was  very  marshy  at  that  time. 
Mr.  Craig  had  a  yoke  of  steers  and  a  wagon.  One  of  these  steers  had  the 
bad  habit  of  balking  in  the  most  undesirable  places  in  the  road,  and  would 
lie  diiwn  when  the  roailwax-  didn't  suit  him.  One  day  Mr.  Craig  prepared 
to  go  to  market  with  a  load  of  potatoes.  He  had  no  sacks  and  no  monev 
with  which  to  buy  them  and  the  potatoes  were  loaded  into  the  wagon-box 
loose.  The  roads  were  bad  and,  sure  enough,  in  crossing  one  of  the  difficult 
spots  in  the  road  the  balky  steer  laid  down  on  the  job.     ]\lr.  Craig  was  thus 


put  to  the  tedious  task  of  carrying  tlie  potatoes  across  to  a  dry  spot.  When 
the  wagon-box  was  emptied  the  steer  conchided  to  get  up  and  gi). 

There  was  no  mill  nearer  than  Melrose  at  that  time  and  thither  the  set- 
tlers went  to  grind.  The  first  year  Mr.  Anderson  was  on  his  place  he  raised 
but  twelve  bushels  of  rye.  which  was  to  be  the  year's  supply  for  his  family. 
He  started  to  Melrose,  a  trip  requiring  about  five  days  at  that  time.  When 
he  arrived  at  the  mill  there  the  miller  declined  to  grind  rye  and  Mr.  .Vnder- 
son  had  to  return  with  the  grain,  which  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Anderson  ground 
during  the  winter  in  their  cofl:ee-mill.  Mr.  Craig  did  the  same.  He  bought 
a  coffee-mill  of  Johnson,  the  Osakis  merchant,  the  latter  guaranteeing  the 
machine.  After  a  few  weeks  of  use  the  cofifee-mill  was  worn  out  by  the 
extraordinary  demand  upon  it  and  Mr.  Craig  took  it  back  to  the  store  and 
claimed  a  new  one,  under  the  terms  of  the  guarantee.  This  second  machine 
also  wore  out  in  due  course  and  another  machine  was  secured  on  the  guar^ 
antee,  this  process  being  repeated  a  third  or  fourth  time  during  the  winter  and 
it  was  not  until  long  afterward  that  Mr.  Craig  told  Mr.  Johnson  how  those 
coffee-mills  failed  to  stand  up  to  the  guarantee. 

For  about  two  years  during  the  most  trying  period  a  band  of  about  two 
hundred  Indians  camped  on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  on  the  land  now 
known  as  the  Renter  farm.  These  Indians  were  friendly  and  often  visited 
with  the  new  settlers.  The  Indians  had  plenty  of  meat  and  fish  and  would 
give  liberally  of  these  stores  in  exchange  for  potatoes,  salt,  rye  and  the  other 
products  of  the  white  man's  husbandry.  That  they  were  perfectly  honest  is 
shown  by  the  following  incident.  John  Anderson  had  a  sieve,  which  he  had 
brought  from  the  old  country,  and  which  he  used  in  sifting  the  grain  at 
threshing  time.  An  old  Indian  had  borrowed  this  sieve  and  one  night  about 
two  o'clock  he  brought  it  back,  explaining  to  Mr.  Anderson  that  the  Sioux 
were  coming  and  that  the  Chippewas  were  going.  The  entire  camp  was  gone 
in  the  morning.  The  traditional  enmity  existing  between  the  Sioux  and  the 
Chippewas  from  time  immemorial  made  it  impossible  for  bands  of  the  two 
rival  tribes  to  live  in  peace  in  the  same  neighborhood.  A  gruesome  reminder 
of  this  ancient  feud  was  unearthed  in  the  neighborhood  of  Chippewa  Lake 
some  years  ago,  when  the  curiosity  aroused  over  the  probable  cause  of  a 
slight  mound  led  to  an  excavation  which  revealed  a  few  feet  under  ground 
the  bones  of  a  considerable  number  of  human  beings,  clearly  those  of  Indians. 
From  the  promiscuity  with  whfch  the  bones  were  mingled  it  is  evident  that 
the  lx)dies  had  been  thrown  into  a  shallow  trench  without  regard  to  any 
orderly  arrangement  and  had  then  been  covered  over.  These  evidently  were 
the  bodies  of  the  victims  of  one  of  the  numerous  battles  which  were  fought 


between  warring  tribes  in  this  section  long  before  the  coming  of  the  white 

The  present  officers  of  Belle  River  township  are  as  follow :  L.  E. 
Olson,  clerk;  Nicholas  Hintzen,  treasurer;  John  L.  Renter,  assessor;  Mattis 
Clark,  John  'J.  Dunn  and  Paul  Blank,  supervisors. 


Solem  township  was  established  on  March  lo,  1870,  in  answer  to  a 
petition  signed  by  Osmund  Thompson  and  others.  It  comprises  congres- 
sional township  127,  range  40.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of 
Ole  O.  Sauslin.  The  township  takes  its  name  from  a  district  in  Norway, 
from  which  place  many  of  the  pioneers  came. 

In  the  list  which  follows  are  mentioned  some  of  the  pioneers  who  settled 
on  a  number  of  the  sections  of  Soleni  township,  with  the  approximate  date 
of  their  arrival.  Erick  Johanson  took  land  on  section  i  in  1870,  Jens  Lekan- 
der  on  section  2  in  1871,  Ole  O.  Sarsland  on  section  3  in  1869,  Ole  E.  Field 
on  section  4  in  1866,  John  Johnson  on  section  5  in  1866,  Daniel  Linquist  on 
section  6  in  1871,  Ole  Olson  on  section  9  in  1871,  Paul  Nielson  on  section 
10  in  1869,  John  Hedstrom  on  section  11  in  1870,  Olof  Paulson  on  section 
12  in  1 87 1,  Abraham  Nilson  on  section  13  in  1871,  Halvor  Halvorson  on 
section  14  in  1866,  John  Peterson  on  section  15  in  1872,  Jens  Fahlin  on  sec- 
tion 17  in  1872,  Peter  Knutson  on  section  18  in  1872.  Andrew  Kullander 
on  section  21  in  1871,  Christen  Olson  on  section  2;3,  in  1874,  Isaac  Peterson 
on  section  24  in  1870,  Andrew  G.  Sohlberg  on  section  25  in  1867,  Erick  Hagg 
on  section  26  in  1872,  Erick  Snar  on  section  2^  in  1871,  Peter  Swenson  on 
section  28  in  1872,  Erick  Pehrson  Eng  on  section  30  in  1873,  and  Joseph  E. 
Wetterling  on  section  34  in  1872. 

The  present  officers  of  Solem  township  are  as  follow :  Jorgen  Spilseth, 
clerk :  Frank  Kullander,  treasurer ;  John  S.  Benson,  assessor ;  L.  A.  Larson, 
X.   M.   .\nderfon  and  William  Peterson,  supervisors. 


Miltona  township  was  established  on  December  19,  187 1.  It  comprises 
congressional  township  130,  range  37.  The  odd  sections  in  this  township 
were  secured  by  the  old  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  Railway  Company.  The  even 
sections  were  mostly  taken  by  homestead  entry  and  some  of  the  early  settlers 
on  the  \arious  sections  are  mentioned  in  the  list  which  follows,  together  with 


the  dates  of  their  arrival,  as  nearly  as  they  can  be  ascertained.  Durfee  Mar- 
quette took  land  on  section  2  in  1878,  James  H.  Abbott  on  section  4  in  1880, 
Frederick  W.  Balfour  on  section  6  in  1871,  Sven  Olson  on  section  8  in  1878, 
Jason  Bumpus  on  section  10  in  1875,  Mary  Hill  on  section  12  in  1885,  George 
L.  Taplin  on  section  14  in  1874,  Joseph  C.  Carter  on  section  18  in  1877,  Delia 
Lucas  on  section  20  in  1876,  Harrison  Foster  on  section  22  in  1880,  Timothy 
Martin  on  section  24  in  1875,  Charles  Jungrath  on  section  26  in  1871,  Frank 
Schram  on  section  32  in  1877,  and  Garrett  Cronk  on  section  34  in  1879. 

The  present  officers  of  Miltona  township  are  as  follow :  John  O.  Hiller, 
clerk :  Edward  Miller,  treasurer ;  G.  J.  Thompson,  assessor ;  William  Better- 
man,  Lewis  Olbeckson  and  John  Eggleston,  supervisors. 


Lund  township  was  established  on  March  i,  1872.  It  comprises  con- 
gressional township  130,  range  40.  The  first  meeting  was  held  at  the  house 
of  John  \\'ahlin.  The  original  petition  asked  that  the  township  be  named 
Christina,  but  the  name  Lund  was  adopted.  About  two  weeks  after  the  new- 
township  was  established  the  commissioners  received  a  petition  asking  that 
it  be  set  back  in  the  township  of  Evansville,  to  which  it  had  formerly  been 
attached,  but  as  all  the  signatures  to  the  petition  were  in  the  same  hand- 
writing it  was  not  given  any  serious  consideration. 

Some  of  the  homesteaders  on  the  various  sections  of  Lund  town.ship 
located  about  the  years  given  in  the  following  list :  They  were  among  the 
first  to  settle  in  the  township.  Hans  F.  Peterson  took  land  on  section  2  in 
1877,  Nils  J.  Walstad  on  section  4  in  1876,  Ole  Peterson  on  section  6  in 
1868.  Sven  S.  Ebbjorn  on  section  8  in  1869,  Thomas  Olson  on  section  10  in 
1871,  Lars  Ellingston  on  section  11  in  1877,  Anders  N.  Fjillstrom  on  section 
12  in  1877,  .\ndrew  Janson  on  section  13  in  1876,  Ole  S.  Hernm  on  sec- 
tion 14  in  1876,  Olof  Larson  on  section  15  in  1875,  August  Peterson  on 
section  18  in  1874,  Kam  Swenson  on  section  19  in  1869,  Anders  Janson  on 
section  21  in  1876,  Gabriel  Peterson  on  section  22  in  1876,  .Andrew  Skon  on 
section  28  in  1869,  Grager  Kittelson  on  section  30  in  1876,  Charles  Johnson 
on  section  31  in  1873,' Andrew  Johnson  on  section  },2  in  1875,  John  John- 
son on  section  -^t^  in  1866,  and  Milton  M.  Morrell  on  section  34  in  1868. 

The  present  officers  of  Lund  township  are  as  follow :  Victor  E.  John- 
son, clerk ;  .\ndrew  .\.  Lang,  treasurer ;  A.  G.  Johnson,  assessor ;  Anton 
Olson,  .-\.  G.  Olson  and  .\ndrew  P.  Nelson,  supervisors. 



On  September  4,  1873,  the  board  of  county  commissioners  established 
congressional  township  128,  range  38,  as  a  separate  civil  township,  to  be 
known  as  West  Alexandria.  The  first  election  was  held  at  the  school  house 
in  district  Xo.  47,  on  September  23,  1873.  On  December  11,  1873,  the  com- 
missioners were  notified  that  the  legal  voters  of  the  township  had  chosen 
the  name  of  La  Grand,  instead  of  West  Alexandria,  and  the  county  board 
had  the  change  properly  recorded  in  the  archives  of  the  state. 

Andrew  Darling  was  the  first  settler  to  locate  in  what  is  now  La  Grand 
township.  He  took  up  a  claim  in  i860.  Others  came  in  about  the  same  time 
but  there  was  very  little  permanent  settlement  until  after  the  Indian  troubles 
were  quieted.  Robert  Smith  took  land  on  section  i  about  1864,  Jacob  Ly 
Brand  on  section  2  in  1862.  James  F.  Dicken  on  section  3  in  1863,  Engebret 
Xielson  on  section  4  in  1870,  Carl  G.  Johnson  on  section  5  in  1868,  Charles 
Peterson  on  section  6  in  1871,  Francis  B.  \'an  Hoesen  on  section  7  in  1865, 
Xiels  P.  Christenson  on  section  8  in  1869,  George  F.  Cowing  on  section  9  in 
1861,  L.  J.  Brown  on  section  10  in  1868,  Samuel  B.  Cowdry  on  section  11  in 
i860,  James  Bedman  on  section  12  in  1861,  Hugh  O'Donnell  on  section  13  in 
1861,  George  Diment  on  section  14  in  1861,  Samuel  B.  Pinney  on  section 
15  in  1864,  Daniel  Egan  on  section  17  in  1864,  Caroline  S.  Edwards  on  sec- 
tion 18  in  1863,  John  O'Brien  on  section  19  in  1862,  George  B.  Wright  on 
section  20  in  1862,  James  Knapton  on  section  21  in  1871,  Oscar  W»  Day 
on  section  22  in  1865,  Mary  A.  Kinkaid  on  section  24  in  1861,  Louis  Morain 
on  section  25  in  i860,  James  B.  Lattimer  on  section  26  in  1861,  Sophus  N. 
Miller  on  section  2/  in  1868,  Amund  Mattison  on  section  28  in  1871,  Anders 
O.  Solberg  on  section  31  in  1865,  George  W.  McComber  on  section  32  in 
1863,  and  Hendrick  Erickson  on  section  34  in  1872. 

The  present  officers  of  La  Grand  township  are  as  follow:  P.  M.  Eng- 
lund,  clerk:  O.  M.  Englund,  treasurer:  S.  M.  Carlson,  assessor:  Ole  Satter- 
lund.  S.  J.  Wedin  and  A.  A.  IMagnuson.  supervisors. 


Spruce  Hill  township  was  established  on  January  5,  1875.  It  com- 
prises congressional  township  130,  range  36.  The  first  election  was  held  at 
the  school  house  in  district  No.  51,  on  March  9,  1875. 

The  odd  sections  in  this  township  were  part  of  the  land  grant  of  the 
St.  Paul  &  Pacific  Railway  Company,  and  therefore  were  not  available  for 




homesteads.  Some  of  the  early  settlers  who  located  claims  on  the  even 
numbered  sections  arrived  here  about  the  years  given  in  the  following  list. 
Samuel  Hasbrouck  took  land  on  section  2  in  1878,  Stekan  Slekicher  on  sec- 
tion 4  in  1876,  Joseph  Friet  on  section  6  in  1875,,  Michael  Barta  on  section 
8  in  1875,  Ole  Janson  on  section  10  in  1878,  Tracy  Bardwell  on  section  12  in 
1878,  Thomas  Primrose  on  section  14  in  1875,  Gilbert  F.  Sciven  on  section 
18  in  1877,  Louis  Nilson  on  section  20  in  1875,  Alvin  Milligan  on  section 
22  in  1879,  Chester  H.  Bardwell  on  section  26  in  1878,  Martin  B.  Hagblad 
on  section  28  in  1875,  Hans  Matson  on  section  ^2  in  1875,  and  Andrew 
Lustig  on  section  34  in  1875. 

The  present  officers  of  Spruce  Hill  township  are  as  follow:  Nels 
Nelson,  clerk;  Frans  Anderson,  treasurer;  E.  V.  Larson,  assessor;  Axel 
Peterson,  John  Lindberg  and  Charles  Hallock,  supervisors. 



Development  of  Agriculture. 

In  the  days  of  the  beginning  of  the  settlement  of  this  part  of  the  state, 
the  development  of  agriculture  was  probably  as  rapid  as  in  any  section  of 
Minnesota.  It  already  has  been  noted  that  the  earliest  settlers  attracted  to 
this  region  were  of  an  energetic  and  thrifty  type  and  little  time  was  lost  in 
bringing  the  wilderness  under  cultivation.  In  nearly  all  sections  of  the  county 
there  was  a  sufficient  area  of  natural  meadow  to  enable  the  settler  to  begin 
his  farming  operations  at  once,  without  the  tedious  and  arduous  labor  of 
clearing  a  patch  of  land  before  he  could  get  in  his  first  crop  and  thus  nearly 
all  were  enabled  to  make  an  inmiediate  and  effective  start  toward  the  tilling 
of  the  soil  after  the  little  log  cabin  had  been  erected  as  a  temporary  shelter 
for  the  family.  Plenty  of  excellent  timber  was  easily  accessible  for  this 
latter  purpose  and  with  the  expenditure  of  ordinary  energy  there  was  little 
to  prevent  the  average  family  from  becoming  fairly  comfortably  settled  within 
a  year  after  taking  up  a  location  in  the  new  country.  Added  to  this  abund- 
ance of  good  timber,  the  numerous  running  streams  and  the  many  lakes  of 
good,  pure  water,  together  with  the  unbounded  fertility  of  the  virgin  soil 
made  this  section  an  ideal  one  for  settlement  and  it  was  not  long  after  the 
tide  of  immigration  had  definitely  settled  in  toward  this  part  of  the  state 
that  the  most  desirable  lands  were  taken  up  by  industrious  and  earnest  home- 
steaders, who  ciuickly  brought  their  places  under  cultivation;  by  the  time  of 
the  middle  seventies  it  having  been  most  effectually  demonstrated  that  Douglas 
county  was  one  of  the  garden  spots  of  the  state,  a  fact  which  the  experience 
of  the  later  years  has  served  to  accentuate. 


Douglas  county  is  situated  a  little  southwest  of  the  central  part  of  the 
state  of  Minnesota,  in  the  division  of  the  state  known  as  the  West  Central 
Section,  alx)ut  one  hundred  and  thirty  miles  northwest  of  the  city  c)f  St. 
Paul,  the  state  capital,  and  is  nearly  on  the  dividing  ridge  of  that  part  of  the 
state.  Within  a  few  miles  of  its  north  and  west  lines  the  waters  flow  north 
into  the  Red  river,  south  into  the  Minnesota  river  and  east  into  the  Mississippi 


river.  It  lies  in  that  part  of  the  state  which,  from  its  beautiful  lakes,  streams 
and  prairies,  dotted  with  groves  of  magnificent  native  trees,  is  appropriately 
named  the  "Park  Region"  of  Minnesota.  At  Alexandria,  nearly  in  the  center 
of  the  county,  the  altitude  is  one  thousand  three  hundred  and  ninety-one  feet, 
and  on  the  north  line  of  the  county  it  is  somewhat  over  one  thousand  four 
hundred  feet,  being  as  high  as  any  part  of  the  state  except  the  extreme 
northeast  and  southwest.  The  surface  of  the  county  is  undulating,  fine,  level 
and  rolling  prairies,  interspersed  with  living  streams,  beautiful  lakes  and 
magnificent  woodland.  An  almost  perfect  drainage  of  the  county  is  secured 
by  several  chains  of  lakes,  flowing  out  through  the  Chippewa  river  in  the 
western  part  of  the  county,  into  the  Minnesota  river,  and  through  the  Long 
Prairie  river  to  the  east  into  the  Mississippi.  There  are  about  two  hundred 
lakes  in  the  county,  many  of  them  very  deep,  and  most  of  which  have  high 
banks  surrounded  with  beautiful  timber  extending  close  to  the  shores,  with 
many  fine  sandy  beaches.  One  of  these.  Lake  Carlos,  a  few  miles  north  of 
Alexandria,  is  said  to  be  the  deepest  lake  in  the  state,  and  has  been  sounded 
to  a  depth  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet.  There  is  comparatively  little  marsh 
or  wet  land,  and  much  of  that  has  been,  or  can  be,  drained.  An  abundance 
of  good,  pure  well  water  can  always  be  found  at  an  average  depth  of  thirty 


Douglas  county  contains  722.6  square  miles,  divided  into  twenty  town- 
ships, extending  thirty  miles  from  east  to  west  and  twenty-four  miles  from 
north  to  south.  According  to  the  United  States  government  surveys  it  has 
an  area  of  462,500.62  acres,  of  which  401,014.74  acres  are  land  and  61,485.88 
acres  water.  The  1910  census  report,  however,  increases  the  land  area  to 
414,720  acres,  a  part  of  the  increase  being  due  to  the  drainage  of  shallow 
lakes  and  ponds  within  recent  years. 

Throughout  the  county  of  Douglas  there  is  an  abundant  supply  of 
choice  timber.  The  northeastern  side  of  the  county  has  a  heavy  growth  of 
native  forest,  while  the  central  and  western  parts  are  dotted  over  with 
groves  which  furnish  abundant  fuel  and  shelter  for  stock.  Much  of  the 
timber  suitable  for  lumber  has  been  cut,  but  there  is  still  some  remaining 
which  can  be  used  in  building  barns  and  other  farm  buildings.  Much  timber 
land  has  been  cleared  and  converted  into  fine  fields.  Among  the  hardwoods 
native  to  the  country  are  the  maple,  white,  red  and  burr  oak,  ironwood,  birch, 
ash  and  elm,  while  of  the  soft  varieties  the  principal  are  the  dififerent  varieties 
of  poplar,  basswood,  soft  maple,  cottonwood,  tamarack  and  spruce. 


The  soil,  almost  without  exception,  is  of  excellent  quality.  A  heavy 
black  loam,  or  a  black  sandy  loam,  from  eight  inches  to  six  feet  deep,  with 
clay  or  hardpan  subsoil,  varying  in  depth  from  eighteen  inches  to  several 
feet,  prevails,  forming  a  quality  of  land  of  a  character  best  suited  to  bear 
the  extremes  either  of  wet  or  drought.  There  are  several  distinct  classes  of 
soil  found  in  the  count}-  which  may  be  termed — the  black  sandy  loam  prairie 
soil,  the  black  loam  prairie  soil,  the  black  sandy  loam  timber  soil  and  the 
black  loam  timber  soil,  all  of  excellent  quality  and  each  having  its  special 
adaptability  to  particular  crops.  There  is  also  the  deep,  rich  black  soil  of 
the  natural  lowland  meadows  and  of  the  lake  bottoms  which  have  been 
reclaimed  by  drainage,  conditions  thus  described  rendering  the  county  ex- 
tremely well  adapted  to  the  demands  of  diversified  farming. 

The  winters  are  generally  cold  and  the  summers  generally  warm,  but 
this  locality  is  not  subject  to  those  sudden  and  unexpected  changes  which  are 
so  fatal  in  their  effects  and  which  afflict  seaboard  and  more  southern  regions. 
The  atmosphere  is  clear,  dry  and  pure  and  has  a  tonic  property  which  braces 
and  develops  the  energies  and  fits  a  man  for  great  mental  and  physical  exer- 
tion. It  is  declared  by  experienced  travelers  that  a  person  will  suffer  far 
less  bodily  discomfort  with  the  thermometer  at  twenty  degrees  below  zero 
in  this  locality  than  he  will  in  the  states  of  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio 
or  Illinois  with  the  thermometer  indicating  zero.  Usually  there  is  fine 
sleighing  and  no  slush  during  the  winter.  In  summer  the  nights  are  cool. 
Malarial  diseases  are  unknown  in  this  locality  and  the  rating  given  to  the 
state  of  Minnesota  abreast  of  any  other  state  in  the  Union  for  general  health- 
fulness.  Hail  storms  are  not  so  frequent  as  in  states  further  south  and 
cyclones  have  seldom  visited  these  parts.  Hot  winds,  such  as  prevail  in 
some  sections,  are  practically  unknown  here. 


The  records  of  the  United  States  weather  department,  kept  at  Alex- 
andria, show  the  mean  annual  temperature  for  the  past  twenty-one  years  to 
be  41.4  degrees.  In  19 14  the  highest  temperature  was  95  degrees  on  August 
8,  and  the  lowest  was  32  degrees  below  zero  on  February  8.  According  to 
an  admirable  review  of  crop  conditions  recently  prepared  under  the  direction 
of  the  Douglas  County  Agricultural  Association,  the  average  dates  of  the 
earliest  and  latest  killing  frosts  for  sixteen  years  up  to  1908  are  September 
23  and  May  18.  The  earliest  frost  in  autumn  during  the  sixteen  years 
occurred  on  September  9  and  the  latest  in  the  spring  was  on  June  8.    In  19 14 


tlie  earliest  frost  was  on  September  22  and  the  latest  in  the  spring  was  on 
May  10. 

The  mean  annual  rainfall  for  twenty  years,  1888  to  1908,  as  kept  by 
the  weather  station  at  Alexandria,  was  24.23  inches,  and  for  the  six  years, 
1909  to  1914,  it  was  24.18  inches.  In  1914  the  total  rainfall  was  29.43 
inches.  The  following  figures  show  the  mean  rainfall  at  Alexandria,  by 
months,  for  twenty  years  to  1908,  and  also  for  the  five  years,  1909  to  1913, 
during  the  months  of  April,  May,  June,  July  and  August,  which  comprise 
practically  the  entire  crop  season,  and  show  that  the  great  bulk  of  the  rainfall 
occurs  during  those  months: 

20  yrs.      5  yrs. 

April 2.23  1.96 

May    3.31  3.98 

June   3.97  2.22 

July    3.44  409 

August 3.71  3.98 

The  foregoing  figures  show  that  the  average  growing  season  is  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-eight  days,  which  compares  favorably  with  southern  Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa  and  northern  Illinois,  and  is  sufficiently  long  for  the  maturing  of 
excellent  crops  of  corn. 

The  population  of  the  county  in  1910  was  17,669,  of  which  number  4,619 
were  foreign  tern,  divided  among  the  principal  foreign  countries  as  follow: 
Sweden,  1,998;  Norway,  960;  Germany,  753;  Austria,  224;  Denmark,  230; 
Canada,  116;  Finland,  86;  all  other  countries,  2^2.  The  different  nationalities 
of  the  foreign-born  population  and  their  descendants  are  largely  separated  into 
distinct  communities  and  settlements;  that  is,  there  are  Swedish,  Norwegian, 
German,  Bohemian,  Danish  and  Finnish  settlements. 


According  to  the  census  of  1910  the  number  of  farms  in  Douglas  county 
in  1909  was  2,265,  comprising  354,379  acres,  the  average  size  of  the  farm  be- 
ing 156.5  as  against  177  acres  for  the  whole  state.  The  percentage  of  all 
lands  in  farms  was  85.4  and  the  percentage  of  improved  land  was  62,  the 
average  number  of  acres  improved  on  each  farm  being  97.  The  value  of 
farm  lands  was  $10,694,213,  and  the  value  of  all  farm  property  was  $16,- 
312,224,  the  average  value  of  farm  land  per  acre  being  placed  at  $30.18. 
According  to  the  1914  report  of  the  state  tax  commission  the  value  of  farm 
lands  in  that  year  had  increased  to  $16,976,453.  and  the  average  value  of  land 
per  acre  to  $42.84. 


Douglas  county  was  long  famous  for  raising  the  largest  crops  of  wheat 
of  any  county  in  the  state,  holding  the  record  for  the  highest  average  yield 
per  acre  for  man}-  \ears.  In  the  earlier  years  of  its  history  wheat  and  other 
cerals  constituted  its  principal  crops  and  little  attention  was  given  to  the 
raising  of  corn,  live  stock  or  dairying.  But  the  farmers  have  long  since 
awakened  to  the  fact  that  it  does  not  pay  to  put  all  their  eggs  into  one 
basket,  and  the  methods  of  farming  have  for  the  past  fifteen  years  l>een 
gradually  changing.  The  acreage  of  wheat  has  been  gradually  decreased 
and  that  of  corn  increased,  while  more  and  more  attention  is  being  given  to 
dairying  and  stock  raising.  The  result  has  been  better  farming  methods 
practiced  in  the  raising  of  all  crops,  and  increased  prosperity. 

The  following  gives  the  acreage  and  amoimts  of  the  principal  crops 
raised  in  1909.  the  latest  date  for  which  accurate  statistics  are  available: 

Acres.  Bushels. 

Corn    8,927  308.805 

Oats 23.385  820.913 

Wheat 63.653  1,208,710 

Barley   15.609  413,066 

Rye    3.148  70.998 

Flax  seed   4.859  54.013 

Timothy  seed 401  2,135 

Potatoes    1,532  178,466 

Hay  and  forage 56,170  85.972 

In  19 1 5  corn  increased  to  about  twelve  thousand  acres,  wheat  decreased 
in  acreage,  while  rye  and  potatoes  largely  increased.  The  following  figures 
show  the  average  yield  per  acre  of  Douglas  county  crops  in  1909. compared 
with  the  average  yield  of  the  same  crops  in  the  state  : 

Average  of  Average  of 

State.     Douglas  Couiity. 

Corn ^ 33-99  '^i'-  34-6     bu. 

Oats    .. 31.5     bu.  35.       bu. 

Wheat,  spring 17.4     bu.  19.       bu. 

Barley    22.2     bu.  26.5     bu. 

Rye 16.6     bu.  22.5     bu. 

Flax  seed 9.1     bu.  ii.i     bu. 

Hay  and  forage ' 1.53  tons  1.53  tons 

Potatoes 1 19.8     bu.  116.5     bu. 


Corn  has  been  successfully  grown  in  Douglas  county  for  many  years.  In 
1899  there  were  6,593  acres:  in  1909  the  acreage  had  increased  to  8,927;  in 
1915  there  were  at  least  12,000  acres,  which  acreage  was  considerably  in- 
creased in  191 6.  In  the  past  few  years,  with  the  coming  of  farmers  from 
southern  Minnesota,  Iowa  and  Illint)is,  who  are  skilled  in  its  cultivation,  the 
yield  of  corn  has  rapidly  increased  until  it  begins  to  rival  the  best  yields  of 
those  states.  Farmers  also  are  raising  more  corn  for  fodder  and,  while  in 
1910  there  was  hardh"  a  silo  to  be  found  in  the  county,  there  are  now  in  the 
neighborhood  of  one  hundretl  and  fifty,  there  being  at  least  twenty-five  in 
one  township  alone.  By  the  experiments  of  the  State  Agricultural  College, 
a  number  of  varieties  of  white  and  yellow  dent  corn  have  been  produced 
that  are  well  adapted  to  the  county,  mature  early,  }ield  well  and  are  very 
successfully  grown.  Among  these  are  Minnesota  No.  23,  Minnesota  No.  13, 
Rustler  White,  Silver  King,  Reeves'  Yellow  Dent  and  others. 

Douglas  county  fanners  have  taken  a  number  of  prizes  at  recent  corn 
shows  which  are  worthy  of  record  here.  At  the  corn  contest  of  the  Minne- 
sota Corn  Growers  Association  held  at  Albert  Lea,  January  2  to  7,  191 1, 
George  McMahan  was  awarded  the  first  prize  for  the  northern  section  of  the 
state  for  best  ten  ears  of  Minnesota  No.  13.  At  the  same  contest  Samuel 
Preston,  of  Carlos  township,  received  the  second  prize  for  the  best  twenty- 
five  ears  of  any  variety,  his  corn  being  White  Dent;  and  Eugene  Korkowski, 
of  Brandon  township,  received  first  prize  for  the  entire  state  for  the  best  ten 
ears  of  flint  corn.  And  this  flint  corn  was  the  best  in  the  United  States,  for 
the  second  prize  winner  afterward  entered  his  corn  at  the  national  corn  show 
at  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  received  first  prize.  In  1912  Mr.  McMahan  won 
first  prize  for  the  entire  state  for  the  best  ten  ears  of  white  dent  at  the 
northwestern  live-stock  show  at  South  St.  Paul. 


For  vegetables,  it  is  declared  that  no  soil  in  the  state  is  better  suited 
than  that  of  Douglas  county.  Potatoes,  beets,  turnips,  onions  and  all  kinds 
of  garden  and  field  vegetables  grow  to  fine  size  and  give  large  yields.  The 
growing  of  potatoes  for  outside  markets  has  in  the  past  few  years  become 
an  assured  success  and  many  carloads  are  now  shipped  each  year  outside 
the  state  at  a  good  profit.  No  finer  potatoes  are  grown  in  the  state,  a  fact 
attested  at  the  scoring  at  the  county  exhibits  at  the  Minnesota  state  fair 
during  recent  vears,  where  Douglas  county  potatoes  came  into  competition 
with  a  lar^e  number  of  the  best  counties  of  the  state;  in  one  year,  out  of  a 


possible  score  of  150  points,  Douglas  county  scoring  149,  the  highest  of 
the  twenty-three  counties  exhibiting.  The  next  year  the  score  was  147 
points,  the  highest  of  the  thirty-four  counties  contesting. 

The  first  potato  warehouse  in  the  county  was  built  at  Garfield  in  191 1 
by  a  farmers  co-operative  company,  and  was  so  much  of  a  success  that  in 
1912  a  second  warehouse  was  built  at  that  point,  since  which  time  warehouses 
have  been  built  at  Alexandria,  Osakis,  Brandon,  Carlos,  Nelson,  Forada  and 
Melby.  As  a  consequence  of  this  success  the  acreage  of  potatoes  has  in- 
creased to  above  four  thousand  acres  and  the  potato  crop  is  now  becoming 
one  of  the  leading  crops  of  the  county. 

On  many  of  the  older  farms  of  the  county  apples  of  good  size  and  fine 
quality  and  other  cultivated  fruits  are  successfully  grown,  and  within  the 
past  few  years  many  thousands  of  hardy  apple,  crab,  plum  and  cherry  trees 
have  been  set  out  and  are  doing  well.  Forty-five  varieties  of  apples  were 
shown  at  the  Douglas  county  exhibit  at  the  state  fair  recently  and  the  fruit 
exhibits  as  a  whole  have  scored  as  high  as  many  counties  one  hundred  miles 
farther  south.  Large  numbers  of  grape  vines  and  strawberries  also  have 
Iieen  planted  and  the  strawberry  crop  is  especially  fine.  As  much  as  four 
hundred  dollars  has  been  realized  from  one  acre  of  strawberries.  Wild 
fruits  are  abundant  in  all  parts  of  the  county,  grapes,  plums,  raspberries, 
gooseberries  and  juneberries  are  excellent  in  quality  and  large  in  quantity. 

The  soil,  climate,  pure  water  and  timber  all  combine  to  make  this  sec- 
tion especially  adapted  to  stock  raising  and  dairy  farming.  The  soil  and 
climate  being  well  adapted  to  growing  corn,  clover,  timothy,  alfalfa  and 
nutritious  grasses,  all  kinds  of  stock  do  well  and  cattle  and  hogs  especially 
are  increasing  rapidly.  There  have  been  in  the  past  no  serious  diseases 
among  cattle,  ver}-  little  hog  cholera  and  very  few  diseases  among  horses, 
while  sheep  do  extra  w^ell  here,  besides  being  a  great  aid  in  clearing  up 
timber  and  brush  lands.  According  to  the  bulletin  of  the  Douglas  County 
Agricultural  Association  above  referred  to,  the  creameries  are  getting  the 
verv  highest  prices  for  butter  in  the  Eastern  markets  and  taking  premiums 
wherever  they  enter  butter  in  competition.  There  are  now  fourteen  cream- 
eries in  the  county,  eleven  co-operative,  two  independent,  and  one  large  cen- 
tral creamery,  with  the  largest  capacity,  when  built,  of  an}-  creamery  in  the 
state,  owned  by  the  North  American  Storage  Company  at  Alexandria.  A 
breeders  association  was  formed  in  1909,  the  first  one  to  be  organized  in  the 
state,  and  it  has  been  quite  successful,  having  about  sixty  members,  covering 
about  half  the  county.  A  number  of  full-blood  Holstein  and  Guernsey  sires 
have  been  purchased  and  hundreds  of  grade  calves  have  been  raised  by  its 

i;\iiiKX('i:s  (IF  iMtdsrEniTT. 



members.  The  association  has  also  stimulated  outside  farmers  to  purchase 
full-blood  sires  and  twenty-five  or  thirty  such  sires  are  now  owned  by  indi- 
viduals. Recent  statistics  show  that  the  fourteen  creameries'  had  1,917 
patrons  owning  15.107  cows,  made  2.215,819  pounds  of  butter  and  paid  out 
during  the  year  $573,686.02  to  patrons  for  butter  fat.  To  this  must  be  added 
the  large  amounts  received  by  farmers  for  cream  shipped  to  central  cream- 
eries in  adjoining  counties  and  the  amounts  received  by  farmers  for  butter 
made  upon  the  farms,  which  probably  amounts  to  nearly  as  much  as  the 
sum  received  from  the  creameries  in  the  county.  A  recent  report  of  the 
Minnesota  tax  commission  gave  the  numbers  and  value  of  the  live  stock  in 
Douglas  county  as  follow : 

Number.  Value. 

Cattle 30,281        $    870,516 

Horses 10,352  1,045,737 

Swine    10,203  95.064 

Sheep    3,512  14,802 


Douglas  county  has  a  complete  county  system  of  rural  free  delivery 
routes  by  which  every  farmer  in  the  county  is  reached.  There  is  also  a 
complete  system  of  rural  telephones  maintained  by  eight  companies,  connect- 
ing with  each  other  and  with  exchanges  in  Alexandria.  Osakis  and  other 
villages,  and  with  long-distance  lines,  covering  nearly  every  part  of  the  county 
and  giving  good  service.  The  county  is  noted  for  its  good  roads,  having 
many  miles  of  first  class  graveled  roads,  which  are  being  added  to  each  year. 
The  National  Parks  Highway,  known  as  "The  Red  Trail,"  extending  from 
Xew  York  to  Seattle,  passes  through  the  county  nearly  parallel  to  the  Great 
Xorthern  railway,  following  practically  the  route  of  the  old  Red  River  trail, 
which  was  the  highway  for  the  famous  old  Red  River  carts  in  the  days  of 
the  fur  traders.  This  road  is  practically  all  now  graded  and  graveled,  as  a 
state  road,  throughout  its  forty-mile  course  in  the  county. 

Farmers  clubs  for  the  discussion  of  farm  problems  and  for  social  inter- 
course flourish  in  Douglas  county,  nine  or  ten  such  clubs  doing  splendid 
work  along  those  lines.  There  are  also  a  number  of  farmers  co-operative 
associations  for  conducting  elevators,  potato  warehouses,  the  shipping  of  live 
stock  and  other  produce,  the  buying  of  farm  machinery  and  other  bulky 
merchandise  at  wholesale,  besides  the  co-operative  creameries  above  men- 
tioned,  and   largely  attended    farmers   institutes   for  the   study  of   scientific 


agriculture  and  farm  problems,  conducted  b}'  state  experts,  are  held  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  the  county  every  winter.  The  prices  at  which  improved  farms 
can  be  bought  in  Douglas  county  vary  considerable,  according  to  circum- 
stances, ranging  from  forty  dollars  to  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars 
an  acre.  A  successful  county  fair  is  held  each  year  at  Alexandria  by  the 
Douglas  County  Agricultural  .Association,  which  also  makes  an  annual  countv 
exhibit  at  the  state   fair. 


The  efforts  to  hold  county  fairs  and  agricultural  exhibits  in  Douglas 
county  have  passed  through  three  successive  stages  of  development.  From 
the  very  beginning  of  agricultural  development  in  this  section  of  the  state, 
the  farmers  and  business  men  of  Douglas  county  have  exerted  their  energies 
in  the  direction  of  making  a  creditable  showing  of  the  resources  of  the 
county  and  the  annual  exhibits,  together  with  a  constant  succession  of  the 
exhibits  of  the  county's  agricultural  resources  at  the  Minnesota  state  fair, 
have  done  much  to  establish  the  reputation  of  this  section  as  a  region  of 
much  productivity.  Early  in  the  seventies  voluntary  exhibits  began  to  be 
made  in  the  village  of  Alexandria  after  the  passing  of  the  harvest  season 
and  on  January  i8,  1874,  the  Douglas  County  Fair  Ground  Association  was 
organized  and  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  holding  annual  fairs  in  the 
village  of  Alexandria,  the  county  seat,  the  articles  of  incorporation  of  this 
association  having  been  signed  by  Christ  H.  Raiter,  L.  G.  Sims,  Hiram  Ship- 
pev,  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  Fred  von  Baumbacb,  Charles  Shultz,  Charles  F. 
Sims,  J.  B.  Cowing,  Knute  Nelson,  C.  Offel,  Charles  Sonday,  John  A.  Flesch, 
George  H.  Roe,  Thomas  W.  Sprague,  James  H.  \'an  Dyke,  Joseph  Gilpin, 
J.  M.  Doudua,  Godfrey  Vivian  and  Frank  E.  Lewis. 

The  above  association  established  fair  grounds  and  conducted  annual 
exhibits  with  a  varying  measure  of  success  for  some  years  and  was  presently 
reorganized  and  succeeded  by  the  Douglas  County  Agricultural  Society, 
which  filed  articles  of  incorporation  on  April  2,  1888.  This  society  was 
organized  with  a  capital  stock  of  ten  thousand  dollars,  with  the  following 
stockholders;  Fred  C.  Meade,  of  Hudson;  John  Landeen,  of  Ida;  B.  W. 
Blakesley,  of  Lake  Mary;  N.  N.  Hardy,  of  Alexandria;  Mathias  Kline,  of 
Belle  River;  Jacob  Kohlhaas,  of  Carlos;  J.  F.  Dicken,  of  La  Grand;  D.  E. 
Robinson,  of  Lake  Mary ;  Frank  Reynolds,  Fred  von  Baumbach,  J.  H.  Let- 
son  and  G.  W.  Robards,  of  Alexandria,  and  the  following  directors ;  F.  C. 
Meade,  John  Landeen,  B.  W.  Blakesley,  Mathias  Kline,  Jacob  Kohlhaas,  J.  F. 


Dicken  and  X.  N.  Hardy.  The  Douglas  County  Agricultural  Society  con- 
tinued holding  county  fairs  and  some  very  creditable  exhibits  were  made 
from  year  to  year,  Ijut  finally  the  direction  of  the  society  gradually  passed 
into  other  hands,  too  much  attention  was  paid  to  the  sporting  side  of  horse 
racing  and  the  sporting  element  which  attached  itself  to  the  enterprise  eventu- 
ally brought  the  county  fairs  into  such  local  disrepute  that  the  people  of  the 
county  generally  paid  little  attention  to  the  same,  attendance  and  interest 
both  dwindling  to  such  proportions  that  the  societ}-  finally  was  disbanded 
and  the  fair  ground  was  bought  by  the  city  of  Alexandria  for  e\xntual  park 
purposes  or  such  purposes  as  may  eventually  be  found  most  advantageous  to 
the  city,  and  the  annual ,  county  fair  exhibits  ceased  for  a  time.  During  the 
years  1907-10,  annual  fairs  were  held  at  Alexandria  under  the  auspices  of 
the  Alexandria  Commercial  Club. 

On  August  25,  19 II,  the  present  Douglas  County  Agricultural  Asso- 
ciation was  organized  and  on  September  5  of  that  year  filed  articles  of  incor- 
poration, under  the  above  title,  the  names  and  addresses  of  the  incorporators 
being  as  follow:  Nels  Bye,  of  Urness;  Ole  J.  Berg,  of  Moe:  B.  E.  Howe,  of 
Osagis;  C.  H.  Cooper,  of  Carlos;  John  H.  O'Brien,  of  Alexandria;  Fred  C. 
Meade,  of  Hudson;  John  A.  Johnson,  of  Ida;  Theo.  A.  Erickson,  J.  A. 
W'edum,  G.  A.  Kortsch  and  A.  H.  Gregerson,  of  Alexandria,  with  the  fol- 
lowing officers ;  President,  Theo.  A.  Erickson ;  vice-president,  Fred  C. 
Meade ;  secretary,  George  L.  Treat,  and  treasurer,  G.  A.  Kortsch.  This 
association  has  not  yet  purchased  fair  grounds,  but  has  done  a  fine  work  in 
making  a  concerted  efifort  to  promote  the  agricultural  interests  of  Douglas 
county  and  to  introduce  the  advantages  of  this  section  as  an  agricultural 
region  by  means  of  well-designed  publications  and'  other  forms  of  publicity 
to  persons  seeking  homes  in  the  beautiful  park  region  of  which  the  associa- 
tion's base  of  operations  is  the  virtual  center.  Attractive  exhibits  have  been 
made  in  the  city  of  Alexandria  with  a  view  to  showing  the  advance  that  has 
been  made  in  recent  3'ears  in  the  methods  and  results  of  modern  farming  and 
as  a  further  means  of  interesting  all  in  the  wonderful  agricultural  possibili- 
ties of  the  county.  The  association  also  makes  an  annual  county  exhibit  at 
the  state  fair  and  through  this  latter  means  has  done  much  to  attract  the 
attention  of  people  from  all  parts  of  the  state  to  Douglas  county. 


Douglas  county  is  a  famous  summer  resort.  Its  two  hundred  lakes  of 
pure,  deep  water,  with  their  beautiful,  timbered  shores  and  sandy  beaches, 


furnish  a  resting  place  and  recreation  for  many  hundreds  of  people  from  all 
parts  of  the  United  States  during  the  summer  months.  The  finishing  is  of  the 
best,  among  the  varieties  of  fish  to  be  found  in  the  lakes  being  pickerel,  wall- 
eyed pike,  Great  Northern  pike,  crappies,  and  at  least  six  varieties  of  bass, 
including  the  gamey,  small-mouthed  gray  bass  and  the  black  bass,  all  of 
which  attain  a  size  wholly  unknown  outside  of  the  Minnesota  park  region. 
While  the  tourist  resorts  center  at  Alexandria  and  Osakis,  good  accommoda- 
tions also  are  provided  at  many  small  resorts  and  farm  houses  throughout 
the  county. 


The  Minnesota  state  Legislature  passed  an  act  in  1909  under  the  pro- 
visions of  which  any  farm  owner  in  the  state  may  secure  exclusive  right  to  a 
name  for  his  farm  by  having  the  same  recorded  with  the  register  of  deeds 
in  the  county  where  he  lives.  A  fee  of  onl}-  fifty  cents  is  charged  to  cover 
the  cost  of  the  clerical  work.  Up  to  August,  19 16,  one  hundred  and  nine- 
teen farm  names  were  registered  in  Douglas  county,  and  the  owners  and 
location  of  the  same  are  set  out  in  the  following  paragraphs: 

"Birch  Hill" — Owned  by  C.  H.  Jenson;  registered  on  July  2,  1909; 
located  on  section  24,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Riveiview" — Owned  by  Oscar  Erickson;  registered  on  July  2,  1909; 
located  on  section  t,2,  t^t,,  township  129,  range  40. 

"Lakeside"" — Owned  by  XewtonJ.  Trenham;  registered  on  July  9,  1909; 
located  in  section  18,  township  128,  range  ^,7. 

"Pleasant  \'ie\v'" — Owned  by  C.  H.  Cooper;  registered  on  July  10, 
1909;  located  on  section  13.  township  129,  range  37. 

"Lund"" — Owned  by  Ole  Haglund;  registered  on  July  13,  1909;  located 
on  section  17,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Eagle  Point" — Owned  by  E.  E.  Hedeen;  registered  on  July  20,  1909; 
located  on  section   12,  township   129,  range  39. 

"Lake  Shore"" — Owned  by  Jacob  E.  Jacobson;  registered  on  July  20, 
1909:  located  on  section  13.  township  129,  range  39. 

"Cloverdale" — Owned  b\-  Leander  Kellogg:  registered  on  July  2^,  1909; 
located  on  sections  28,  29,  t,j.  ^t,,  township  127,  rdnge  2i7- 

"Runboholm"' — Owned  by  Oscar  Wolf;  registered  on  July  26,  1909; 
located  on  section  2,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Coney  Island"" — Owned  by  Paul  W.  Hanson;  registered  on  July  26, 
1909:  located  on  section  2,  township  127.  range  39. 


"Elmwood" — Owned  by  C.  E.  Warberg;  registered  on  July  2-],  1909; 
located  on  section  25,  township  129,  range  36. 

"Urness  Lakeside" — Owned  by  E.  J.  Olson;  registered  on  July  28,  1909; 
located  on  sections  14,  2:i,,  township  128,  range  40. 

"Greenwing  Pass" — Owned  b\-  John  E.  Anderson;  registered  on  Jul\- 
28,  1909;  located  on  section  12,  township  127,  range  40,  and  section  7, 
township  127,  range  39. 

"Elm  Grove" — Owned  Ijy  C.  J.  Peterson;  registered  on  July  28,  1909; 
located  on  section  11,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Maple  Hill" — Owned  by  Annie  Johnson;  registered  on  July  28,  1909; 
located  on  section  11,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Lakeview" — Owned  by  Louis  Morris;  registered  on  July  30,  1909; 
located  on  section  20,  township  127,  range  37. 

"Oak  Grove" — Owned  by  Peter  N.  Johnson;  registered  on  July  31, 
1909;  located  on  section  26,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Maple  Lane" — Owned  by  George  A.  Swaren ;  registered  on  August  2, 
1909;  located  on  section  27,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Sunnyside" — Owned  by  Ambrose  Peet;  registered  on  August  14,  1909; 
located  on  section  I},,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Fairview" — Owned  by  C.  O.  Weatherwax;  registered  on  August  16, 
1909;  located  on  sections  21,  22,  township  129,  range  t^J. 

"Riverside" — Owned  by  F.  W.  Craig;  registered  on  August  21,  1909; 
located  on  sections  13,   14,  24,  township  129,  range  36. 

"Korum  Farm" — Owned  by  Aune  O.  Korum;  registered  on  August  28, 
1909;  located  on  sections  5,  6,  township  128.  range  39. 

"Fairfield" — Owned  by  Anton  Lund;  registered  on  September  11, 
1909;  located  on  section   15,  townshii>   128,  range  38. 

"Butternut  Lawn" — Owned  by  Carolina  Miessner;  registered  on  Sep- 
tember 18,  1909;  located  on  sections  27,  34,  township  120,  range  39. 

"Evansville  Fairview" — Owned  by  Ellen  J.  Okerlund ;  registered  on 
September  2-3^,  1909;  located  on  sections  29,  31,  ^2.  township  129, 
range  40. 

"Cosy  Nook" — Owned  by  Ellen  J.  Okerlund;  registered  on  September 
23,  1909;  located  on  section  },2,  township  129,  range  40. 

"Sandvik" — Owned  by  C.  H.  Larson;  registered  on  September  24, 
1909;  located  on  section  14,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Oakland" — Owned  by  Charles  O.  Anderson;  registered  on  October  4, 
1909;  located  on  sections  31,  }^2,  township   129,  range  2,1- 


"Grand  View" — Owned  by  Mina  O.  Newhouse;  registered  on  October 
9,   1909;  located  on  sections  29,  32,  township  129,  range  39. 

"Woodland" — Owned  by  John  Anderson;  registered  on  OctoJjer  9, 
1909:  located  on  sections  26,  27,  35,  township  128,  range  39. 

"Maplewood" — Owned  by  B.  W.  Blakesley;  registered  on  October  23, 
1909;  located  on  sections  11,  13,  14,  township  127,  range  38. 

"Clover  Crest" — Owned  by  William  Hermanson;  registered  on  October 
26,  1909;  located  on  section  7,  township  129,  range  38. 

"The  Oaks" — Owned  by  R.  J.  Ballentine;  registered  on  November  10. 
1909:  located  on  section  7,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Glen  Oak" — Owned  by  C.  X"auman ;  registered  on  November 
17,  1909;  located  on  sections  2"],  28,  township  129,  range  t,"]. 

"Birch  Lawn" — Owned  by  E.  H.  Boerner;  registered  on  November  17, 
1909;  located  on  sections  28,  29,  township  129,  range  37. 

"Oakdale" — Owned  by  Erick  E.  Ekdahl;  registered  on  November  24, 
1909;  located  on  section  35,  township  129,  range  38,  and  section  2,  town- 
ship 128,  range  38. 

"Lake  Center" — Owned  by  J.  N.  Tilleskjor;  registered  on  November  26, 
1909;  located  on  section  11,  township  128,  range  40. 

"Clover  Leaf" — Owned  by  John  S.  Wagner;  registered  on  November 
30,  1909;  located  on  section  33,  township  130,  range  39. 

"Oak  Lawn" — Owned  by  John  Kelly ;  registered  on  December  8,  1909 ; 
located  on  section  28,  township  130,  range  38. 

"Willow  Grove" — Owned  \>\  Christian  Pitir^on ;  registered  on  Decem- 
lier  II,   1909;  located  on  section  22,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Lugn  Vik" — Owned  by  Per  Hanson;  registered  .on  December  16, 
1909;  located  on  section  2,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Cranberry  Farm" — Owned  by  James  Lauda;  registered  on  December 
28,    1909;  located  on  sections  2,  3,   11,  township   129,  range  39. 

"Broadview" — Owned  by  J.  O.  Brandon;  registered  on  December  31. 
1909:  located  on  sections  })-•  H'  township  128,  range  39. 

"Park  Hill" — Owned  by  A.  J.  Peterson;  registered  on  January  13. 
1910;  located  on  section  9,  township   129,   range  39. 

"Pine  Hill" — Owne<l  by  A.  H.  Englund;  registered  on  Januarv  24, 
1910;  located  on  section  15.  township  127,  range  39. 

"Lilac  Grove" — Owned  by  Gustaf  Olson;  registered  on  January  26, 
1910;  located  on  section  15,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Lake  Park" — Owned  b\'  P.  A.  Lofdahl ;  registered  on  February  7, 
1910;  located  on  sections  20,  21,  township  130,  range  39. 


"Prairie  \'iolet" — Owned  by  Amund  Holverson;  registered  on  Febru- 
ary 7.  1910;  located  on  section  2,  township  128,  range  40. 

"Woodside" — Owned  by  Paul  E.  Foslin;  registered  on  February  7, 
1910;  located  on  sections  15,  16,  township  128,  range  39. 

Geneva  Hill" — Owned  by  F.  O.  Erickson;  registered  on  February  14, 
1910;  located  on  section  15,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Green  Briar" — ^Owned  by  Erick  T.  Sletto;  registered  on  February  19, 
1910;  located  on  sections  17,  18,  19,  20,  township  128,  range  39. 

"Prairie  Home" — Owned  by  J.  H.  Cooley ;  registered  on  February 
26,  1910;  located  on  sections  7,  8,  township  127,  range  37. 

"Spring  Hill" — Owned  by  E.  J.  and  Jennie  Robards;  registered  on 
February  28,  1910:  located  on  sections  4,  5,  township  127,  range  },■/. 

"Hazel  Grove" — Owned  by  J.  ^^'.  Lund;  registered  on  ]\Iarch  17. 
1910:  located  on  section  26,  township   128,  range  2)7- 

"Carlos  Lakeview" — Owned  by  John  P.  Peterson;  registered  on  March 
21,   1910;  located  on  sections  16.  17,  township  129,  range  ^J. 

"Andrewborg" — Owned  by  Andrew  A.  Anderson;  registered  on  May 
9,   1 9 10;  located  on  section  21,  township  128,  range  39. 

"The  Blom  Farm" — Owned  by  John  J.  Blom;  registered  on  May  14, 
19 10;  located  on  section  15  township  128,  range  38. 

"Oakwood" — Owned  by  Charles  Guenther;  registered  on  May  2;i,.  1910; 
located  on  section  20,  township  130,  range  38. 

"Hampton" — Owned  by  Gustav  Tonn ;  registered  on  I\Iay  27,  1910; 
located  on  sections  11,   12,  township  129,  range  T,y. 

"Golden  Willow" — Owned  by  Louis  Thoreson;  registered  on  Ma\-  31, 
1910:  located  on  section  2.  township  128,  range  37. 

"Fosmoe  Farm" — Owned  by  John  Fosmoe;  registered  on  June  7.  1910; 
located  on  section  28,  township  128,  range  39. 

"Summit" — Owned  by  L.  G.  Hermanson;  registered  on  June  22,  1910; 
located  on  section  12,  township  129,  range  39. 

"Meadow  Lawn" — Owned  In-  Fritz  Lindstrom;  registered  on  August 
8,   19^0;  located  on  section  ^t,,  township  129,  range  40. 

"Brookside" — Owned  by  Fred  Peterson;  registered  on  August  26, 
1 9 10;  located  on  section  13,  township  129,  range  39. 

"Brook  Hill" — Owned  by  Emil  Peterson;  registered  on  August  26, 
1 9 10,  located  on  section  18,  township  129,  range  38. 

"La  Glade" — Owned  by  ^\'illiam  H.  Lee;  registered  on  October  4, 
19 10;  located  on  section  23,  township  128.  range  38. 

"Green  Park" — Owned  by  Ole  L.  Berglund ;  registered  on  October  29. 


1910;  locdted  on  section  4.  township   129,  range  36,  and  section  33,  town- 
ship 130,  range  36. 

"Green  Hill" — Owned  by  Charles  A.  Anderson;  registered  on  October 
31,   1910;  located  on  section  5,  township  128,  range  36. 

"Wood  Lawn" — Owned  by  Samuel  Preston;  registered  on  December 
7.  1910;  located  on  section  30,  township  129,  range  T,y,  and  section  25.  town- 
ship  129,  range  38. 

"The  Willows" — Owned  by  Frank  Danielson;  registered  on  Januar}-  12 
1911  ;  located  on  section  31,  township  127,  range  40. 

"Botner  Farm" — Owned  by  Ole  P.  Botner;  registered  on  January  17, 
1911;  located  on  sections  12,  13,  township  128,  range  39. 

"Shore  Acres" — Owned  by  Jerry  L.  Blodgett;  registered  on  January 
30.  191 1 ;  located  on  section  31,  township  129,  range  37. 

"The  Highlands" — Owned  by  H.  L.  Lewis:  registered  on  February  15 
191 1 ;  located  on  section  15,  township  IJ7,  range  39. 

"Homewood" — Owned  by  John  Bolin;  registered  on  February  28 
191 1 ;  located  on  section  2,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Victoria  Lodge" — Owned  by  Josephine  Helen  \'an  Cleve;  registered 
on  March  18,   191 1;  located  on  section  21,  township  128,  range  2,y. 

"Interlachen  Lodge" — Owned  by  Mary  E.  Finch;  registered  on  June 
9.  191 1 ;  located  on  section  6,  township  128,  range  T,y. 

"Glendale" — Owned  by  Albert  W.  Allen;  registered  on  June  24,  1911 ; 
located  on  section  21,  township  128,  range  ^,7. 

"Fair  Acres" — Owned  by  John  C.  Ames;  registered  on  September 
II.   191 1  ;  located  on  section  2,  township  129,  range  38. 

"La  Grand  Lake  Park" — Owned  by  Peter  Sweet;  registered  on  Sep- 
tember 24.  191 1  ;  located  on  sections  2,  3,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Highland" — Owned  by  J.  P.  Gran;  registered  on  November  10.  1911  ; 
located  on  sections  i,   12,  township   127,  range  40. 

"Circle  Beach" — Owned  by  Constant  A.  Wesen;  registered  on  Decem- 
ber 18.  191 1  ;  located  on  section  24.  township  127,  range  39. 

"Heather  Brae" — Owned  by  J.  A.  McKay;  registered  on  December 
26,    191 1  ;  located  on  section   17,  township   128,  range  37. 

"Oak  Hill" — Owned  by  E.  J.  Brandt;  registered  on  December  2~,  191 1 ; 
located  on  section  30,  township  130,  range  36. 

"Belle  Plaine" — Owned  by  Gust  Mattson;  registered  on  December  28. 
191 1 ;  located  on  section  29,  township  129,  range  36. 

"Sunny  Slope" — Owned  by  John  Nelson;  registered  on  December  30. 
191 1  ;   located  on   section    19.  township    128,   range  36. 


"Cloverland" — Owned   by   August   Anderson;  registered   on   December 

30,  191 1  :  located  un  section  12,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Urness  Homestead" — Owned  by  John  A.  Urness;  registered  on  Decem- 
ber 30,  191 1 ;  located  on  sections  13,  14,  24,  township  128,  range  40. 

"Pleasant  Grove  Stock  Farm" — Owned  by  John  A.  Olson;  registered 
on  January  2,  1912;  located  on  sections  17,  18,  township  128,  range  36. 

"Honeydale" — Owned  by  Albin  Anderson;  registered  on  March  18, 
1912;  located  on  section  i,  township  129,  range  36. 

"Lakewood" — Owned  by  Samuel  Preston;  registered  on  March  22, 
1912;  located  on  section   11,  township   128,  range  38. 

"Pleasant  Home" — Owned  by  Edward  A.  Olson;  registered  on  April 
6,  1912;  located  on  sections  24,  25,  township  128,  range  37. 

"Crescent  Grove" — Owned  by  O.  H.  Kahlon;  registered  on  June  12, 
1912;    located  on   section    i,   township    128,   range   37. 

"The  Meadows" — Owned  by  E.  O.  Fritz;  registered  on  August  30, 
1912;  located  on  sections  28,  33,  township  129,  range  36. 

"North  Star" — Owned  bv  Theodore  Walstad ;  registered  on  September 
12,  1912;  located  on  section  4,  township  130,  range  40. 

"Terre  Bonne" — Owned  by  Stephen  A.  Blackwell;  registered  on  October 

31,  1912;  located  on  section  13,  township  127,  range  39. 

"Peaceful  Grove" — Owned  by  Theodore  Johnson;  registered  on  March 
8,   1913;  located  on  sections  29,  32,  township  127,  range  40. 

"Oakdene  Park" — Owned  by  W.  J.  B.  Moses;  registered  on  June  23, 
1913;  located  on  section  23,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Plain  View" — Owned  by  Augusta  Peterson;  registered  on  July  9, 
1913;  located  on  section  21,  township  127,  range  40. 

"Ferndale  Stock  Farm" — Owned  by  Peter  Rutten;  registered  on  Novem- 
ber 15,  1913:  located  on  sections  i,  2,  township  128,  range  36. 

"Park  Region" — Owned  by  Mrs.  H.  B.  Hobart;  registered  on  Decem- 
ber 2-/,  1913;  located  on  sections  34.  35,  township  129,  range  37. 

"Meadow  Lane  Jersey  Farm" — Owned  by  J.  O.  Rosencjuist;  registered 
on  February  6.  1914;  located  on  section  10,  township  130,  range  36. 

"Evergreen  Valley  Orchard  Green  Lawn  Roadside  Farm — Owned  by 
Robert  Berglund;  registered  on  February  9,  1914;  located  on  section  3, 
township  127,  range  40. 

"Orchard  Grove" — Owned  by  A.  G.  Carlson;  registered  on  February 
12,  1914;  located  on  section  4,'  township  127,  range  n. 

"Geneva  Crest" — Owned  by  A.  G.  Carlson;  registered  on  March   18, 
1914;  located  on  section  22,  township  128,  range  37. 


"Brook  Dale" — Owned  by  J.  J.  Volker;  registered  on  May  i6,  1914; 
located  on  section  30,  township  127,  range  36. 

"Golden  Summit  Dairy  Farm" — Owned  by  George  Workman ;  regis- 
tered on  June  15,   1914;  located  on  section  31,  township   127,   range  36. 

"Hillcrest" — Owned  by  Elhe  L.  Hitchcox;  registered  on  July  3,  1914; 
located  on  section  i,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Brown's  Dale  Stock  Farm"- — Owned  by  John  N.  Brown;  registered 
on  May   11,    1915;  located  on  sections   7.    18,  township    129.  range  36. 

"Cowdry  Park" — Owned  by  John  M.  Green;  registered  on  May  19, 
1915;  located  on  section  14,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Sunny  Brook" — Owned  by  Peter  Streed;  registered  on  October  2t,. 
191 5;  located  on  section  14,  township  129,  range  T,y. 

"Garden  Grove" — Owned  by  Frank  O.  Kullander ;  registered  on  March 

1,  1916;  located  on  section  21,  township  127,  range  40. 

"Pleasant  Hill" — Owned  by  Matt  Johnson;  registered  on  March  10, 
1916;  located  on  section  28,  township  128,  range  39. 

"Hill  View" — Owned  by  Gust  Mattson;  registered  on  April  i,  1916; 
located  on  section  35,  township  129,  range  37. 

"Maple  Grove" — Owned  by  E.   Herman  Peterson ;  registered  on   May 

2,  1916;  located  on  section  16,  township  130,  range  36. 

"Alexandria  Fruit  and  Nursery  Farm" — Owned  by  W.  H.  Horton ; 
registered  on  June  17.  191 6;  located  on  section  24,  township  128,  range  38. 

"Oak  Valley" — Owned  by  C.  Hermanson;  registered  on  July  3,  1916; 
located  on  section  27,  township  129,  range  39. 


Travel  and  Transportation. 

From  the  days  of  the  Umibering  Red  Ri^•er  carts  and  the  "prairie 
schooners,"  with  their  plodding  oxen  as  motive  power,  to  the  wonderful 
trans-continental  steel  vestibuled  trains  that  roar  amid  the  lake-begemmed 
park  region  comprised  within  the  confines  of  Douglas  county,  on  their  swift 
flight  to  and  from  the  coast,  and  from  the  creaking  wagons  of  the  pioneers 
to  the  cushioned  ease  of  the  automobile  "super-sixes"  of  the  present  day 
is  a  far  crv,  indeed;  and  yet  this  amazing  transformation  in  the  transporta- 
tion system  of  the  people  has  been  accomplished  within  the  eas}-  recollection 
of  many  persons  now  living  in  Douglas  county. 

White  men  began  to  travel  through  the  then  wilds  of  this  section  of 
Minnesota  as  early  as  the  second  decade  of  the  past  century,  the  French 
voyageurs  and,  later,  the  hardy  courciirs  dcs  bois,  or  rangers  of  the  woods, 
blazing  the  ways  that  later  became  well-developed  and  much  traveled  trails 
from  the  rich  fur-trading  stations  of  the  Red  River  country  to  the  outposts 
of  ci\-ilization  on  the  Mississippi.  For  many  years  the  voyageurs  and  semi- 
wild  wood  rangers,  employees  of  the  various  fur  companies,  ranged  through 
the  wilds  of  Minnesota  and  traded  with  the  Indian  tribes  on  the  Minnesota, 
the  Mississippi,  the  Red  River  of  the  North  and  other  streams.  These 
hardy  men  penetrated  to  all  parts  of  the  land  and  explored  it  mile  by  mile. 
Trading  posts  were  established  at  all  convenient  points  from  the  headwaters 
of  the  Mississippi  westward  to  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  from  Lake 
Superior,  Rainy  Lake  and  Lake  of  the  Woods  on  the  north  to  the  valley 
of  the  Minnesota;  many  of  these  posts  being  carried  on  by  private  intli- 
viduals  in  competition  with  the  rich  fur-trading  companies  of  the  East,  and 
the  trails  through  the  forests  and  over  the  prairies  created  by  these  wander- 
ing and  roving  traders  later  Ijecame  the;  first  highways  of  the  pioneers,  the 
first  permanent  settlers  of  the  land.  Towards  the  middle  of  the  century 
communication  between  the  Red  River  valley  and  the  outside  world  became 
all  the  more  frequent.  Cart  routes  leading  to  the  head  of  navigation  on 
the  Mississippi  began  to  be  established  by  traders  who.  independent  of 
the  fur  companies,  began  to  locate  at  Pembina  and  other  points,  Mendota, 


near  Ft.  Snelling  becoming  one  of  the  chief  objective  points  of  the  Red 
River  cart  trails  through  Minnesota -for  many  years  lief  ore  St.  Paul  was 
founded  and  became  a  determined  rival  of  the  equally  busy  port  at  Prairie 
du  Chein.  The  aristocracy  of  the  plains  in  those  times  consisted  of  the 
officers,  traders  and  clerks  at  the  posts  and  the  buffalo  hunters.  While 
the  Selkirk  colonists  generally  dressed  in  homespun  clothing  and  lived  plainly, 
the  men  at  the  posts  had  every  lu.xury  they  could  procure,  including  a 
stock  of  the  finest  lic|uors.  In  fact,  liquor  was  one  of  the  essentials  of  a 
well-stocked  post  in  that  time  and  there  was  rarel}-  a  lack  of  the  ardent 
spirits  among  the  roving,  reckless  people  of  that  day,  it  not  being  an  infre- 
quent thing  to  cache  barrels  of  whiskey  at  convenient  points  along  the  trail, 
presumably  for  the  better  progress  of  the  carters  and  rovers  of  the  fur 
country.  It  is  related  that  Whisky  Lake,  just  to  the  north  of  the  present 
village  of  Brandon,  in  Douglas  county,  has  its  name  from  the  circumstance 
thad  it  was  noted  in  those  days  as  the  place  of  one  of  the  best-known  liquor 
caches  of  that  period. 

Afterward,  the  military  trails  began  to  open  up  new  lines  .of  travel, 
one  of  the  most  notable  of  these  being  the  old  military  trail  that  was  cut 
through  Douglas  county  and  on  to  the  Red  River  by  Colonel  Abercrombie, 
who  established  the  fort  which  long  bore  his  name,  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  present  city  of  Breckenridge,  and  then  came  the  stage  lines,  enterprising 
individuals  finding  that  there  was  enough  transient  travel  developing  to 
warrant  the  establishment  of  regular  stage  routes  and  stage  stations.  It 
was  in  the  spring  of  1859  that  J.  C.  Burbank  &  Company,  of  St.  Cloud  and 
St.  Paul,  commenced  running  a  line  of  stages  through  Douglas  county,  sta- 
tions along  that  route  being  established  in  this  county  at  Osakis,  Alexan- 
dria, Chippewa,  about  two  miles  from  what  is  now  the  village  of  Brandon, 
and  Evansville,  the  western  terminus  of  the  line  at  first  being  Ft.  Aber- 
crombie and  later  St.  Mncent.  The  road  followed  was  the  one  surveyed  by 
the  government  the  year  before  and  opened  by  the  troops,  the  same  now 
being  the  old  state  road,  with  certain  modifications  of  route  to  suit  later  con- 
ditions. For  years  that  road  was  the  main  thoroughfare  of  travel  between 
St.  Paul,  St.  Cloud  and  the  Red  River  region.  The  stage  line  was  con- 
tinued by  Burbank  &  Company  until  about  1874,  when  the  railroad,  follow- 
ing the  same  general  line  of  direction,  reached  Melrose,  after  which,  as  the 
distance  then  was  only  about  forty  miles,  local  stage  companies  and  local 
freighters  began  gradually  to  take  over  the  business  and  regular  stages  and 
freight  hauls  were  established  out  of  Alexandria  to  the  railway  station.  In 
1874   a    stage   line    also    was    established   between    Benson   and    Alexandria 


and  the  competing  lines  had  the  effect  to  reduce  the  price  of  freightage  con- 

The  railway  was  graded  as  far  west  as  Alexandria  in  the  years  1873 
and  1874,  but  owing  to  the  failure  of  the  company,  the  road  was  not  com- 
pleted until  in  1878,  and  on  the  5th  day  of  November  in  that  year,  the  first 
train  of  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  Railroad  Company  reached 
Alexandria,  an  occasion  of  general  rejoicing  throughout  the  entire  county. 
The  railway,  entering  the  county  at  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Osakis,  accom- 
modating the  village  already  established  at  that  point,  proceeded  on  in  a 
northwesterly  direction,  continuing  to  follow  virtually  the  line  of  the  old 
stage  route,  through  Osakis,  Alexandria,  La  Grand,  Ida  Brandon,  Evansville 
and  Lund  township  and  passed  out  at  a  point  a  little  more  than  two  miles 
south  of  the  north  edge  of  the  latter  township,  the  northern  boundary  of 
the  county,  along  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Christina,  striking  the  old  stage 
station  at  Evansville  on  its  way.  The  station  at  Chippewa  was  passed  by 
on  the  other  side  by  the  railway  surveyors  and  what  small  commercial 
activities  had  been  started  there  were  moved  over  to  the  railroad  and  thus 
began  the  village  of  Brandon.  Between  Osakis  and  Alexandria  another 
station  was  established  and  was  given  the  name  of  Nelson,  in  honor  of 
United  States  Senator  Knute  Nelson,  and  later  about  midway  between  Alex- 
andria and  Brandon  another  station  was  established,  which  developed  into 
the  present  village  of  Garfield.  Still  later  the  station  at  Melby  was  estab- 
lished in  the  upper  part  of  Lund  township,  just  south  of  the  Lake  Christina, 
and  all  have  developed  into  prosperous  trading  points,  the  centers  of  the 
extensive  shipping  interests  of  their  respective  territories. 


The  railroad  above  mentioned,  now  the  main  line  of  the  Great  Northern 
railroad,  running  from  Chicago  to  the  coast,  is  a  part  of  the  great  system 
of  railroads  evolved  under  the  directive  genius  of  the  late  James  J.  Hill. 
At  the  time  of  the  failure  of  the  banking  house  of  Jay  Cook  &  Company  in 
1873,  and  the  consequent  bankruptcy  of  the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad,  a  part 
of  that  system  formerly  known  as  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  was  involved  in 
difficulties  with  its  bondholders  and  encumbered  by  a  heavy  mortgage.  It 
was  at  that  time  in  the  hands  of  a  receiver  appointed  by  the  court  and  a 
syndicate  was  formed,  under  the  direction  of  James  J.  Hill,  which  purchased 
the  whole  property  and  reorganized  it  under  the  name  of  the  St.  Paul,  Minne- 
apolis &  Manitoba  Railroad  Company,  George  Stevens,  of  Montreal,  being 


chosen  president  of  the  company  and  Mr.  Hill,  general  manager.  On  August 
22,  1882,  Mr.  Hill  was  elected  president  of  the  company  and  the  history 
of  the  magnificent  railway  system  which  he  gradually  built  up,  under  the 
name  of  the  Great  Northern,  is  a  matter  of  common  knowledge.  It  was 
in  1880  that  the  trans-continental  line  crossed  the  Red  River  and  its 
progress  then  on  over  the  mountains  and  the  plains  to  the  coast  was  but  a 
matter  of  sure  and  steady  pushing  along  until  more  than  half  a  continent 
had  been  crossed  with  its  iron  bands,  from  the  shores  of  Lake  Superior  and 
the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  to  the  Pacific. 

Douglas  county  again  was  penetrated  by  a  railroad  in  1902,  the  Minne- 
apolis, St.  Paul  &  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  or  "Soo"  line  entering  the  county  on 
section  ^2,  of  Hudson  township,  proceeding  northerly  through  that  town- 
ship to  Alexandria  and  thence,  through  Alexandria  township,  northeasterly 
through  Carlos  township  and  out  of  the  county,  north,  on  section  2,  of  Mil- 
tona  township.  Forida,  in  Hudson  township;  Carlos,  in  the  township  of  that 
name,  and  Miltona,  in  the  township  of  that  name,  being  the  stations  estab- 
lished along  the  route,  besides  that  at  Alexandria,  the  new  line  opened  up 
valuable  markets  to  Duluth  and  the  lake.  The  western  line  of  the  "Soo" 
but  in  1887  crossed  the  extreme  southwest  corner  of  Douglas  county,  enter- 
ing the  same  in  section  36  of  Solem  township  and  crossing  the  lower  part  of 
that  township  in  a  northwesterly  direction,  passing  out  in  section  19  of 
the  same,  the  village  of  Kensington  being  the  only  station  on  that  line  in 
the  county. 

With  the  rapid  development  of  the  automobile  as  a  means  of  rapid 
and  convenient  transportation,  local  travel  throughout  this  part  of  Minne- 
sota, as  well  as  all  over  the  country,  has  been  practically  revolutionized. 
Since  the  farmers  have  found  that  an  autoniol)ile  is  one  of  the  best  invest- 
ments that  can  be  made  on  a  farm,  there  are  few  well-equipped  farm  plants 
in  the  county  that  have  not  an  automobile  now,  the  farm  thus  being  brought 
within  easy  distance  of  the  market,  and  in  consequence  the  growing  cry  for 
better  roads  have  resulted  in  much  more  systematic  attention  to  the  con- 
struction and  maintenance  of  highways.  The  many  attractive  lakes  through- 
out the  county  bring  thousands  of  tourists  into  Douglas  county  during  the 
summer  season  and  most  of  these  come  in  by  automobile,  the  license  plates 
of  widely  remote  states  being  noted  among  these  touring  cars,  covering  a 
range  from  Oregon  to  Florida  and  from  New  York  to  Texas. 

County  road  No.  i,  the  St.  Cloud  and  Breckenridge,  or  Ft.  Abercrombie 
road,  already  referred  to.  was  surveyed  in  1858  and  1859  by  Theodore  H. 
Barrett  and  opened  up  in  part  during  the  year   1859.     In   1869  this  road 


was  resurveyed  as  far  as  the  village  of  Alexandria  by  the  then  county  sur- 
veyor, Henry  Blackwell. 

County  Road  Xo.  2,  the  Osakis  Townsite  and  Ottertail  Lake  road,  was 
surveyed  by  W.  Adley  in   1866. 

County  road  No.  3,  the  Lake  George  and  Ottertail  lake  road,  was  sur- 
veyed in  1869  by  Charles  Tengwall. 

County  road  No.  4,  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad  and  Ft.  Ripley , 
road,  was  surveyed  by  Henry  Blackwell  in  1869. 



The  development  of  the  schools  of  Douglas  county  from  the  days  of 
the  little  log  school  house  in  the  wilderness  to  the  present  highly  organized 
and  effective  high-school  system  with  a  course  as  good  as  that  offered  by 
the  colleges  in  that  earlier  day  is  one  of  the  wonders  of  modern  social 
progress.  So  gradual  has  this  development  been,  however,  that  those  of  the 
present  generation  of  pupils  are  hardly  sensible  of  the  wonderful  advance- 
ment that  has  been  made  along  that  line,  accepting,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
advantages  in  the  way  of  schooling  that  hardly  could  have  been  dreamed  of 
by  the  pioneers  who  cleared  the  way  in  this  region  a  couple  of  generations 

There  was  little  time  lost,  after  the  settlers  began  to  make  over  the 
wilds  hereabout,  in  getting  schools  established  and  very  soon  after  a  set- 
tlement was  found  to  possess  a  sufficient  number  of  children  to  warrant 
the  effort,  the  district  school  came  into  being;  districts  being  organized  in 
accordance  with  the  effective  Minnesota  system  until  there  finally  came  to 
be  one  hundred  and  two  school  districts  in  the  county,  all  of  which  now  are 
doing  effective  work.  In  many  instances  at  first  these  little  district  schools, 
by  reason  of  the  natural  and  inevitable  limitations  of  the  circumstances  and 
surroundings,  were  but  crude  affairs,  indeed;  but  they  served  their  purpose 
in  their  own  day  and  generation  and  the  torch  of  learning  was  bravely  held 
aloft  in  the  wilderness.  By  the  time  of  the  early  seventies,  when  the  settle- 
ment of  the  county  was  rapidly  progressing,  there  had  come  to  be  excel- 
lent schools  in  all  the  considerable  settlements  and  villages,  while  even  in  the 
remoter  districts  there  had  come  to  be  a  well-organized  system  with  respect 
to  the  schools,  no  neighborhood  being  without  a  fitting  place  of  schooling 
for  the  youth  of  the  same.  The  wonderful  impetus  given  to  the  cause  of 
education  throughout  this  state  generally  by  Minnesota's  wonderful  educa- 
tional system  was  felt  from  the  very  beginning  throughout  Douglas  county 
and  the  gradual  development  of  the  schools  of  the  count}-,  as  a  result  thereof, 
has  been  a  matter  of  course,  the  high-minded  men  and  women  who  took 
the  lead  in  school  matters,  as  well  as  in  the  general  social  matters  of  this 
communit}-  in  an  early  day,  having  built  very  wisely  and  very  well  a  founda- 

^/r5f  -«^<^>i<?^^  'Ve^^e. 

HI-:  . 

.    A. 

JAMES    (Ar.lX,    ON 

THE    WEST    SlIOKE    (IK    LAKE    AIJX 





ALIOXAXDiaA     IS     SA1I>    TO    IIAX'E 



TATiiHT    I 

tv  .MISS  .lAXviEi;  IX  iscn. 


tion  upon  which  today  rests  the  county's  excellent  school  system,  one  of  the 
most  effectively  organized  in  this  part  of  the  state. 

THE    county's    school    SYSTEM    EPITOMIZED. 

Included  in  the  one  hundred  and  two  districts  which  comprise  the  sys- 
tem of  public  schools  in  Douglas  county  are  two  high  schools,  one  at  Alex- 
andria and  one  at  Osakis ;  two  graded  schools,  each  doing  two  years  of 
high-school  work  and  a  course  in  manual  training,  at  Evansville  and  Bran- 
don; nine  semi-graded  schools  and  eighty-nine  rural  schools,  with  free  uni- 
form text  books  throughout  the  county,  except  in  one  district.  Every  school 
has  a  library.  All  rural  schools  except  three  receive  state  aid,  and  nearly 
all  teachers  have  had  special  normal  training.  Five  districts  are  known 
as  consolidated  districts  and '  transport  pupils  living  more  than  two  miles 
from  school,  these  districts  being  those  at  Alexandria,  Osakis,  Melby,  Mil- 
tona  and  Nelson.  Graduation  exercises  for  the  rural  schools  are  held 
annually  at  the  county  seat,  the  class  of  1916  numbering  fifty- four,  and 
graduates  from  the  graded  and  rural  schools  are  admitted  to  the  high  schools. 
Industrial  education  along  the  lines  of  agriculture,  sewing  and  cooking,  is 
successfully  taught  in  the  graded  and  rural  schools  and  an  annual  county 
industrial  contest  is  held  in  connection  with  the  county  fair,  where  the  work 
and  products  of  these  schools  are  exhibited,  there  being  large  enrollments 
in  the  corn,  potato,  pig  and  bread  contests. 

The  high  school  at  Alexandria  was  one  of  the  first  ten  high  schools 
in  the  state  to  introduce  the  teaching  of  agriculture,  and  the  district  now 
maintains  a  ten-acre  farm  for  the  use  of  the  pupils  in  both  the  grade  school 
and  in  the  high  school.  The  Alexandria  high  school  also  maintains  special 
departments,  for  w^hich  state  aid  is  provided,  such  as  agriculture,  manual 
training,  domestic  science  and  art,  commercial  and  normal  training,  and 
music  also  is  taught.  The  high  school  at  Osakis,  though  not  numbering 
so  many  pupils,  has  the  same  departments  and  is  doing  excellent  work,  as 
are  the  graded  and  semi-graded  schools  in  the  county.  The  system  of  super- 
vision of  the  schools  compels  a  high  standard  of  competency  oin  the  part 
of  the  teaching  corps  and  Douglas  county  boasts  of  a  highly  trained  and 
very  competent  force  of  teachers,  practically  all  of  whom  hold  first-grade 
certificates.  With  the  improvement  in  the  curriculum  and  in  the  methods 
of  teaching  in  recent  years  there  also  has  come  a  wonderful  improvement 
in  the  manner  of  construction  of  school  houses,  all  the  newer  school  build- 
ings in  the  county  being  built  along  modern  lines  with  respect  to  sanitation 


and  for  the  better  comfort  of  the  pupils,  every  effort  being  made  to  render 
the  school  as  attractive  a  spot  as  possible,  bringing  it  more  and  more  in 
hannon\-  with  the  home  and  at  the  same  time  dexeloping  it  as  a  social 
center  of  large  influence  throughout  the  entire  district. 


In  connection  with  the  ceremonies  incident  to  the  dedication  of  the 
present  magnificent  high-school  building  at  Alexandria  in  the  spring  of 
1916,  a  brief  sketch  of  the  history  of  the  Alexandria  schools  was  read  by 
R.  C.  Bondurant,  of  the  Alexandria  Post-News,  who,  as  pupil,  teacher,  patron 
or  school  officer  of  the  Alexandria  schools,  had  enjoyed  exceptional  oppor- 
tunities for  observation  of  the  gradual  development  of  the  same.  In  opening 
his  review,  Mr.  Bondurant  pointed  out  that  it  had  been  a  diflrcult  task  to 
trace  the  earliest  history  of  the  school  district.  Old  records,  if  any,  had 
been  .destroyed,  but,  fortunately,  his  access  to  the  early  files  of  the  old 
Alexandria  Post  and  correspondence  with  friends  of  the  early  days  had 
enabled  him  to  prepare  what  is  regarded  locally  as  the  most  accurate  history 
of  the  schools  of  the  county  seat  of  Douglas  county  that  has  ever  been 

The  first  school  in  the  district  was  taught,  probably,  by  Miss  Janvier 
in.  1861,  in  a  little  log  cabin,  the  home  of  J.  A.  James,  near  where  IMajor 
von  Baumbach's  residence  now  stands  on  the  west  side  of  Lake  Agnes.  It 
is  claimed  that  Miss  Olive  Darling  also  taught  in  that  building  in  1865. 
The  next  school  was  taught  in  the  old  stockade,  a  small  log  building  being 
used  to  accommodate  the  few  pupils  who  attended.  It  seems  that  three 
women  taught  in  the  stockade,  Mrs.  Haynes  probably  having  been  the  first. 
Miss  Kate  Piatt,  who  later  became  Mrs.  W.  H.  Cowing,  was  the  second, 
and  Miss  Wright,  of  St.  Cloud,  also  taught  there.  The  first  school  up  town 
was  taught  in  the  winter  of  1867-68  by  Miss  Anna  Worthington,  the 
school  room  having  Ijeen  on  the  second  floor  of  the  old  court-house  building, 
which  in  later  years  was  occupied  by  N.  P.  Ward  as  a  grocery  store.  Miss 
Worthington  also  taught  during  the  following  winter  and  in  the  winter  of 
1860-70  there  seem  to  have  been  two  or  three  teachers,  who  met  with  indiffer- 
ent success,  the  first  having  been  a  man  of  the  name  of  \Mlliams,  whose 
reign  was  short.  Just  who  fnllowed  Williams  is  nut  recalled.  It  is  prob- 
able, however,  that  the  third  teacher  of  that  winter  was  Miss  Hannah  Ben- 
nett, daughter  of  a  Methodist  preacher.  During  the  summer  of  1870  a 
short  term  was  taught  by  Miss  Mary  Amelia  Pye,  in  an  old  frame  build- 


ing  which  stood  where  the  middle  portion  of  the  building  of  the  Alexandria 
Hardware  and  Lumber  Company  now  stands. 

About  that  time  a  change  for  the  better  came  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Alexandria  school.  In  July  or  August  of  1869  the  first  site  for  a  school 
house  was  purchased.  A  half  block  of  land,  a  part  of  the  present  school 
site,  was  acquired  and  has  since  remained  the  property  of  district  No.  2. 
The  old  Alexandria  Post  records  the  fact  that  on  Saturday,  March  26,  1870, 
a  school  meeting  was  held  for  the  purpose  of  electing  school  officers. 
Eighty  votes  were  cast  at  that  election  and  John  McLeod  was  elected  direc- 
tor :  Smith  Bltiomfield,  clerk,  and  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen,  treasurer.  'Sir.  Bloom- 
field  was  later  county  superintendent  and  Mr.  Van  Hoesen  was  for  many 
years  a  member  of  the  school  board. 

In  the  spring  of  1870  work  on  the  first  school  building  in  Alexandria 
was  commenced.  The  Alexandria  Post  of  November  12,  1870,  says  of  that 
building:  "It  is  44  by  24  feet  on  the  ground,  and  about  24  feet  from  the 
ground  to  the  eaves.  The  pitch  of  the  roof  is  one-third.  The  frame  is  of 
oak.  The  studding,  2  by  5  ;  the  joists,  2  by  8.  It  is  filled  with  grout  to 
the  top  of  plate  of  first  story.  The  sheeting,  flooring  and  lining  are  of 
basswood — the  siding  also,  and  carefully  dressed.  There  is  a  porch  in  front, 
nine  feet  wide — six  feet  projection  and  eight  feet  posts,  the  roof,  pitch  and 
cornice  correspond  with  the  main  building.  There  is  a  hall-way.  or  vesti- 
bule, in  the  lower  stor}-.  formed  by  running  a  partition  across  the  building 
eight  feet  from  the  entrance.  This  leaves  a  lower  room  35  by  22  feet  ten 
inches,  and  10  feet  6  in  the  clear.  This  room  is  ceiled  with  matched  pine 
flooring  three  feet  from  the  ground.  It  is  lighted  by  six  twelve-lighted 
windows,  size  of  glass,  10  by  8.  The  vestibule  is  lighted  by  two  windows  of 
same  description.  The  upper  room  is  43  feet  by  22  feet  10  inches,  of  same 
height  as  the  lower  room,  and  is  lighted  by  eleven  windows.  Of  these,  there 
is  a  central  front,  sixteen-lighted,  with  a  circle  head ;  two  front  side  windows, 
twelve-lighted,  size  of  glass,  10  by  16,  and  four  on  either  side  of  .same  descrip- 

The  Post  of  the  same  date  says  of  the  teacher  who  taught  the  first  term 
of  school  in  the  new  building:  "Miss  M.  Frank  Reynolds,  a  graduate  of  the 
Winona  Normal  School  and  a  teacher  of  experience  and  ability,  has  been  ap- 
pointed to  the  charge  of  the  school  during  the  winter  term.  School  will  com- 
mence on  Monday  morning  next,  15th  instant,  at  8>4  o'clock."  The  follow- 
ing from  the  same  issue  of  the  Post  should  be  of  interest.  "With  such  a 
buiUling  to  instruct  in,  and  with  a  teacher  who  is  entitled  to  our  confidence, 
let  us  help  the  excellent  cause  by  showing  our  interest  in  the  work  of  educa- 


tion  and  by  that  co-operation  and  assistance  in  the  households,  without  which 
the  efforts  of  the  best  of  teachers  will  meet  with  very  partial  success."  This 
lady  was  the  daughter  of  Judge  Reuben  Reynolds  and  a  sister  of  George  H. 
Reynolds,  one-time  attorneys  of  Alexandria. 

About  1872  the  second  floor  of  the  new  building  was  furnished  as  a 
school  room  and  two  teachers  were  employed.  .\  Mr.  \\'illis  was  hired  as 
principal  and  Miss  Kate  McClellan  taught  the  primary  pupils.  These  two 
teachers  remained  until  the  school  closed  in  the  spring  of  1873.  From  that 
time  on  there  is  a  complete  list  of  principals  and  superintendents,  which  will 
be  given  later.  In  the  summer  of  1876  a  "twin"  building  to  the  first  one  was 
erected  about  one  hundred  feet  to  the  east.  That  fall  one  room  in  the  new 
building  was  used.  In  1878  the  second  floor  of  the  new  building  was  finished 
and  four  teachers  were  employed,  Miss  Mary  Gunderson  (Mrs.  F.  B.  Yan 
Housen)  being  the  principal.  About  1882  the  schools  became  so  crowded 
that  one  of  the  rooms  in  the  old  building  was  divided  into  two  rooms.  Also 
about  that  time  the  Norwegian  Lutheran  church  was  rented  and  used  as  a 
school  room,  this  making  the  employment  of  six  teachers  necessary.  In  the 
summer  of  1883,  what  is  now  known  as  the  old  high  school  building  was 
erected.  John  Alton  having  the  contract.  Just  the  two  floors  of  this  latter 
Iniilding  were  used  for  school  purposes,  they  being  considered  ample  for 
some  time.  The  school  grew  faster  than  the  town,  however,  and  in  1888, 
the  Ward  school  was  opened  and  continued  for  several  years,  during  the  later 
years  with  two  teachers.  After  being  closed  for  some  time,  that  building  was 
reopened  in  1910  with  one  teacher,  .\l30ut  that  time  two  routes  for  trans- 
pcirting  pupils  were  established,  one  north  and  one  to  the  west.  In  191 1  the 
district  came  under  the  consolidation  act,  and  the  Ward  building  was  closed 
and  three  other  routes  established.  The  Washington  building  had  been 
thought  large  enough  to  accommodate  the  schools  for  years,  but  in  the  course 
of  a  short  time  they  were  again  crowded  and  during  the  summer  of  igo8  the 
old  high  school  building  was  remodeled,  rooms  being  furnished  in  the  attic 
and  in  the  basement,  these  rooms  being  added  to  later  until  four  floors  of  the 
building  were  crowded. 

In  1887,  during  the  superintendency  of  Mr.  Gaines,  the  school  was  put 
in  the  high-school  class.  When  the  Putnam  act  went  into  eft"ect  in  1909  a 
complete  industrial  course  was  added.  Sewing  and  manual  training  had  been 
taught  during  the  two  years  previous  and  in  1909  the  normal  and  commer- 
cial courses  were  added.  In  the  fall  of  1914  the  normal  department  was 
crowded  out  of  the  school  building  and  quarters  were  secured  in  the  court 
house.  That  fall  the  school  board  began  agitation  in  favor  of  a  new  and 
modern  high  school  building;  bonds  were  voted  on.  February  8,   19 15,  and 


tlie  contract  was  let  to  the  Xational  Contracting  Company  on  June  4,  1915. 
fortv-five  years  from  the  time  the  first  school  building  in  Alexandria  was 
erected.  One  of  the  interesting  features  of  Mr.  Bondurant's  sketch  is  a  list 
of  teachers  who  were  at  the  head  of  the  school  from  the  time  of  its  beginning 
in  the  little  log  cabin  f)n  the  Baumbach  hill.  It  may  be  that  the  order  in 
which  the  first  three  or  four  teachers  is  given  is  not  wholly  accurate,  as  the 
memory  of  early  settlers  had  to  be  depended  on  for  the  list  and  dates  and 
these  individual  recollections  do  not  all  agree. 

Miss  Janvier  seems  to  have  been  the  first,  teaching  in  1861.  She  was  a 
sister-in-law  of  George  Kinkaid,  one  of  the  townsite  proprietors.  Whether 
Olive  Darling  or  Mrs.  Haynes  is  the  next  in  order,  is  a  question,  Miss  Darl- 
ing probably  having  the  honor.  Then  came  Miss  Piatt  and  Miss  Wright, 
Mrs.  Ha3-nes,  Miss  Piatt  and  Miss  Wright  having  taught  in  the  stockade. 
Then  came  Miss  Anna  Worthington  and  a  man  named  Williams,  and  it  is 
thought  that  Miss  Hannah  Bennett  taught  a  short  term,  followed  by  Miss 
Pye.  The  first  school  building  then  was  occupied,  Miss  M.  Frank  Reynolds 
having  been  the  first  teacher  in  the  same.  The  heads  of  the  school  since  that 
time  have  been  as  follow:  Mr.  Willis,  in  the  fall  of  1872,  with  Miss  Kate 
McClellan  as  primary  teacher;  J.  H.  Dunn,  in  the  fall  of  1873,  Miss  Mary 
Alden  as  primary  teacher ;  A.  H.  Graham,  who  came  in  the  fall  of  1875  and 
taught  during  the  following  winter  and  until  his  death  in  the  fall  of  1876, 
A\'.  H.  Sanders  finishing  the  winter  term  and  J.  H.  Dunn  returning  to  con- 
duct the  spring  term  of  1877,  after  which  C.  A.  Carson  taught  until  Christ- 
mas, 1877,  when  W.  H.  Sanders  again  took  charge;  Miss  Mary  Gunderson, 
in  the  winter  of  1878-79;  C.  E.  Norton,  beginning  the  term  of  1879,  to  be 
succeeded  by  J.  W.  Chaney,  who  finished  the  same;  C.  J.  Gunderson,  term  of 
1880-81;  Joel  N.  Childs,  1881,  remaining  two  years,  during  which  time  the 
school  increased  to  six  rooms,  H.  H.  Kingsley  and  C.  L.  Greenough  follow- 
ing, each  remaining  one  year;  A.  D.  Gaines,  fall  of  1885,  remaining  five  years, 
a  period  of  progress  for  the  school;  J.  H.  Manchester,  one  year,  succeeded 
by  J.  E.  Phillips,  who  remained  diree  years,  after  which  followed  John 
Cranston,  C.  F.  W.  Carlson  and  W.  P.  Dyer,  under  the  latter  of  whom  the 
industrial  and  normal  departments  were  added:  C.  S.  Yeager,  1910-11,  fol- 
lowed by  J.  B.  Hagen,  who  remained  two  years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  he 
was  succeeded  by  F.  M.  Yockey,  the  present  superintendent. 


The  clerks  of  the  school  districts  in  Douglas  county  for  the  current  year 
(1916)  are  as  follow:     Xo  i,  J.  P.  Olson,  Osakis;  2,. A.  A.  Urness,  Alex- 


andria;  3,  Sylvester  Chase,  Forada:  4,  Emil  Gulbranson,  Farwell ;  5,  J-  O. 
Brandon.  Kensington;  6,  Henry  A.  Dau,  Alexandria;  7.  Aug.  J.  Alechels, 
Alexandria;  A.  Alfred  Foslien,  Garfield;  9,  Fred  Sweet,  Alexandria;  10, 
Otto  T.  Olson,  Xelson;  11,  A.  A.  Rooney,  Osakis;  12,  Mary  A.  Pollard, 
Osakis;  13,  Reinhold  Roth,  Alexandria;  14,  Chas.  Danek,  Lowry;  15,  Emil 
E.  Gahlon,  Xelson;  16,  Albert  Covel,  Alexandria;  17,  John  A.  Xorgren, 
Garfield;  18,  Peter  Cassell,  Alexandria;  19,  Frank  Radii,  Alexandria;  20, 
W".  R.  Guiles,  Farwell;  21,  Chas.  Robertson,  Osakis;  2t,,  Walter  C.  Havens, 
Garfield;  24,  T.  J.  Barros,  Alexandria;  25,  Eug.  Korkowski,  Brandon;  26, 
Alfred  Strand  Evansville;  2/.  Ole  J.  Holm,  Kensington;  28,  John  Kelly, 
Garfield;  29,  E.  O.  Steen,  Farwell;  30,  E.  H.  Boerner,  Alexandria;  31,  C. 
W.  Aleckstroth,  Brandon ;  ;3,2,  Edward  Erickson,  Evansville ;  ^t,.  M.  G. 
Dockham,  Osakis;  34,  Frank  Buscher,  Brandon;  35,  T.  O.  Bakken,  Evans- 
ville; 36,  R.  J.  \'ickerman,  Alexandria;  ^,7.  John  Hopfner,  Brandon;  38, 
.\lbert  J.  Flor.  Ashby ;  39,  Peter  Beheng,  Carlos ;  40,  Martin  Dahlberg,  Xel- 
son;  41,  Thos.  Collins,  Osakis;  42,  C.  O.  Colniark,  Kensington;  43,  Peter 
Faber,  Parkers  Prairie;  44,  John  Feiguni,  Brandon;  45,  John  P.  Edman, 
Kensington;  46,  John  Eggleston,  Parkers  Prairie;  47.  S.  M,  Carlson,  Alex- 
andria; 48,  John  H.  Strom,  Brandon;  49,  X'els  Christopherson,  Hoffman; 
50,  Joseph  Schlecter,  Alexandria;  51,  John  Sundquist.  Eagle  Bend;  52,  N. 
D.  Anderson,  Evansville;  53,  Geo.  Freudenberg,  Parkers  Prairie;  Ole  O. 
Lea,  Brandon;  55,  Xels  A.  Johnson,  Carlos;  56,  J.  IM.  Prazak,  Evansville; 
57,  H.  A.  Pries.  Evansville;  58,  Edwin  Johnson.  Melby;  59,  Chas.  Miller, 
Garfield;  60,  Emil  Johnson,  Alexandria;  61.  Chas.  G.  Olson,  Garfield;  62, 
P.  L.  Blank,  Carlos;  63,  John  Johnsrud,  Kensington;  64,  Frank  Pexsa, 
Carlos;  65,  Albert  Engstrand,  Carlos;  66,  Frans  Anderson,  Carlos;  67, 
Phtiebe  Withers.  Osakis;  68,  C.  J.  Christopherson,  Alexandria;  69,  Swan 
Anders()n,  Alexandria;  70,  Henry  Oberg,  Brandon;  71,  X.  M.  Anderson, 
Hoft'man;  J2.  C.  A.  Beckman,  Evansville;  73,  Roy  Downing,  Parkers  Prai- 
rie; 74,  C.  A.  Anderson,  Alexandria;  75.  Chas.  Braunscheveig.  Alexandria; 
76,  Frank  Schwartz,  Evansville;  yy,  C.  J.  Lindstrom,  Alexandria;  -S.  EWmg 
Ellingson,  Hoffman ;  79,  A.  S.  Peterson.  Farwell ;  80.  Emil  J.  Wahlstrom. 
Kensington;  81,  Theo.  Johnson,  Kensington;  82,  Henry  Olson,  Brandon; 
83,  J.  H.  Kapphahn,  Osakis;  84,  H.  J.  Marthaler,  Osakis;  85.  \\"illiam 
Bosnian.  Osakis;  86,  G.  E.  Willett.  Osakis:  87,  X.  H.  Strand,  Evansville; 
88,  Henry  Eggen.  Garfield;  89,  .\.  G.  Olson,  Evansville:  90,  L.  O.  Larson, 
Evansville:  gi.  R.  L.  Smith,  \'illard :  92,  AL  Clark,  Carlos;  93.  A.  L. 
( 'hajiman.   .Mexandria;  94,  John  Tvrdik.  .Me.xandria ;  93  J-  J-   Sursely,  Car- 


los:  96.  Frank  Freske,  Vining;  97,  Albert  Roth,  Villard;  98,  Peter  Streed, 
Carkos;  99,  F.  L.  Berglin,  Garfield;  100,  Henry  Kloehn,  Garfield;  102,  R. 
A.  Johnson,  Melby;  103,  Chas.  F.  Schelin,  Nelson;  104,  Aaron  Edman, 


The  teachers  in  these  several  districts  for  the  term  1 916-17  were  as 
follow:  No.  I,  Superintendent  E.  N.  Hamilton;  2.  Superintendent  F.  INI. 
Yockey;  3,  Elvira  Flint;  4,  Fanny  Lehto;  5,  Jennie  Halverson;  6,  Hattie 
Werline;  7,  Susan  Thirmesch:  8,  Eunice  Landa ;  9,  Tessie  Mcllravie;  10, 
Lydia  Johnson;  11,  Anna  A'.  Donahue;  13.  Mathilda  Renner;  14,  Sigrid 
Johnson;  15,  Alinetta  Sweet;  16,  Myrtle  Parmeter;  17,  Signe  Peterson, 
principal.  Ellen  Sangstead ;  18,  Hilda  Bostrom ;  19,  Meda  Drussell;  20, 
Peter  Xordby,  Myrtle  Weatherwax ;  21,  Alartha  Olson;  27,,  Clifford  Lar- 
son; 24.  X(ira  G.  \'iker;  2^.  Mary  \'.  Schirber;  26,  Alma  Moen ;  2j.  Rose 
Knutsun.  Minnie  Stenberg;  28,  Cathyrn  Augustine;  29,  Frankie  Xelson; 
30.  Minnie  I.  Johnson;  31,  Mr.  Hawley.  principal,  Jennie  Beckman,  Clara 
Xelson.  Esther  Erickson ;  7,2.  AJinnie  Johnson;  t,^.  Bessie  Lowrv;  34,  ;\Iar- 
garet  E.  Lawler;  35,  Mary  Xorem ;  36,  Grace  Franklin;  ^y,  Lillian  Erick- 
son; 38,  Clara  Tweeten;  39,  Mary  Palmer;  40.  Rose  Xelson;  41,  Emma 
Feda;  42,  Grace  Bondurant.  principal,  Lillian  Johnson,  Alphild  Lund;  44, 
Jennie  Barsness;  45,  Ernest  Olson,  principal,  Amelia  Nelson;  46,  .\nna 
Owen;  47,  Nettie  McFarlane;  48,  Isabelle  .\ngus;  49,  Constance  Erickson; 
50.  .\nna  G.  Olson;  51,  Hazel  Johnson;  52.  Elizabeth  Swenson;  53,  Cecelia 
Donahue,  Christine  Ekman;  54.  Ehera  Johnson;  55,  Jacob  Bixby,  principal, 
Freda  Dahlstrom;  56,  Mamie  Tamble ;  57.  Herman  Steubner,  principal;  58, 
Alma  Gradin;  59,  Edith  Anderson;  60;  Olive  Olson;  61.  X'ictor  Ostlund, 
principal,  Mrs.  Xelson;  62,  Margaret  Julig;  63,  Louise  Tax;  64,  .\melia 
Feda;  65,  Ellen  L.  Hedin ;  66,  Hannah  Clark;  67,  Esther  Lee;  68,  Myrtle 
Olson;  69,  Agnes  Dahlstrom;  70,  Mary  Jacobson;  71,  Petra  Reckadahl; 
72,  Teckla  Anderson;  yT,.  Carrie  Smith;  74.  Ellen  Anderson;  75,  Alice 
Modahl;  76,  Ruth  Werner;  yy,  Clara  Larson;  78,  Alma  Westerberg;  80, 
Xettie  Maroney;  81,  Jennie  Larson;  82,  Edna  Sweet;  83,  Mabel  Brink- 
man;  85,  Helen  Schmid;  86.  Frances  Blakeslee;  87,  Bertha  Norem;  88, 
Helga  Knutson ;  89,  Olga  Anderson ;  90,  Clara  Olson ;  92,  Margaret  Tav- 
lor;  93,  Edna  M.  Anderso"  •  94,  Ino  Cowing;  97,  Mabel  Palmer;  98,  Myrtle 
Benn,  principal,  Airs.  Swetland;  99.  Edith  Hanson;  100.  Elvera 
Engstrom,  principal;  102.  George  Hanson,  principal,  Cecil  Rinehart ;  10:;, 
Ralph  Borman,  principal. 


Churches  of  Douglas  County. 

No  definite  history  of  the  earHest  religious  services  held  in  the  beautiful 
lake  region  now  comprised  within  the  boundaries  of  Douglas  county  is  avail- 
able, but  it  is  known,  as  a  matter  of  tradition,  that  unorganized  services  were 
held  from  time  to  time  in  the  groves  or  in  the  humble  homes  of  the  earliest 
settlers  by  itinerant  preachers  long  before  there  was  any  definite  church  organ- 
•  ization  in  the  county,  Congregationalist  services  having  been  held  in  the 
Gregory  cabin  as  early  as  1859.  Though  not  the  first  church  to  file  its  articles 
of  incorporation,  it  is  pretty  clearly  established  that  th'e  Congregational  church 
at  Alexandria  was  the  first  formal  church  organization  in  the  county ;  having 
been  organized  in  December,  1867,  though  the  claim  is  made  that  the  church 
erected  by  the  Methodists  at  Alexandria  was  the  first  church  building  erected 
in  that  city.  That  was  in  the  fall  of  1868  and  the  church  stood  just  west  of 
the  present  church  building,  near  where  the  parsonage  now  stands,  adjoining 
the  church,  which  stands  on  the  northwest  corner  of  Sixth  avenue  and  F 
street,  just  one  square  west  of  the  business  center  of  the  citv.  With  char- 
acteristic liberality  the  Methodists  permitted  the  use  of  their  church  build- 
ing to  other  denominations  which  soon  sought  to  effect  organizations  in 
Alexandria  and  the  old  church  thus  was  the  point  of  beginning  for  several 
others  of  the  churches  of  Alexandria.  None  of  the  charter  members  of  the 
Methodist  church  is  still  living  and  no  full  records  of  the  early  days  of 
Methodism  thereabout  are  now  available,  such  information  as  the  present 
congregation  has  regarding  the  early  days  having  come  from  the  recollec- 
tions of  the  late  John  Bondurant,  a  pioneer  of  the  church,  a  record  of  whose 
narratives  were  carefully  penned  by  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Brown,  during  the  time 
of  the  latter's  pastorate  at  Alexandria,  1895-1900. 


Tliough  tlie  Methodist  church  at  Alexandria  may  have  been  the  first  to 
effect  a  formal  organization  it  was  not  the  first  to  file  its  articles  of  incor- 
poration, that  distinction  being  accorded  the  First  Methodist  Episcopal  church 
of  Osakis,  the  record  of  whose  incorporation  opens  the  record  of  incorpora- 



co\(;i;e(;ati().\al  riirui'ii,  alexaxduia. 


tions  in  Douglas  county,  the  first  page  of  Book  A  of  the  record  of  incorpora- 
tions for  that  county  carrying  the  following : 

"We,  Charles  Griswold,  presiding  elder;  F.  H.  Tubbs,  preacher  in 
charge;  L.  H.  Webster,  E.  F.  Chase  and  Marquis  Bowhall,  stewards,  and 
Simon  Coons,  class  leader  of  the  congregation  accustomed  to  attend  divine  ■ 
worship  at  Osakis  in  the  county  of  Douglas  and  state  of  Minnesota  cele- 
brated under  the  ministration  and  jurisdiction  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church,  said  officers  constituting  the  quarterly  conference  of  said  church  at 
and  for  the  said  town  of  Osakis,  do  hereby  certify  that  we,  the  said  officers 
in  said  c[uarterly  conference,  assembled  at  the  school  house  in  West  Union 
in  the  county  of  Todd,  in  said  state,  on  the  24th  day  of  February,  A.  D. 
1869,  did  and  hereby  do,  in  conformity  to  the  constitution,  rules  and  usages 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  and  by  virtue  of  the  authority  in  us 
vested  by  said  constitution  and  rules,  and  in  pursuance  of  Section  eighty- 
eight  (88)  of  Chapter  thirty-four  (34)  of  the  General  Statutes  of  Minne- 
sota, appoint  and  constitute  Simon  Coons,  Lemuel  H.  Webster,  William  B. 
Glover,  Esdore  F.  Chase,  Harlow  F.  Curtis,  Donald  Stevenson  and  Michael 
H.  Coons  trustees  of  the  said  church  and  congregation  at  the  said  town  of 
Osakis  by  the  corporate  name  of  The  First  Alethodist  Episcopal  Church  of 
Osakis,  by  which  name  the  said  trustees  and  their  successors  shall,  as  a  cor- 
poration, forever  hereafter  be  called  and  known.  In  testimony  whereof  we 
hereunto  subscribe  our  names  and  affix  our  seals  the  24th  day  of  February, 
A.  D.  1869.  Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of  James  Chambers, 
Elias  G.  Pike,  King  E.  Bohall,  Charles  Griswold,  presiding  elder;  F.  H. 
Tubbs,  preacher  in  charge ;  L.  H.  Webster,  steward ;  C.  F.  Chase,  steward ; 
M.  Bohall,  steward :  Simon  Coons,  class  leader,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church  at  Osakis,  IMinnesota.""  This  article  of  incorporation  was  attested 
by  James  Chambers,  notary  public,  and  was  filed  for  record  in  the  office  of 
the  register  of  deeds  of  Douglas  county  on  October  18,  1869,  at  9  o'clock 
a.  m. 

About  this  time  began  that  notable  influ.x  of  immigration  of  the  Scan- 
dinavian peoples  to  this  section  of  Minnesota  and  the  next  congregation  to 
file  articles  of  incorporation  in  the  office  of  the  register  of  deeds  of  Douglas 
county  was  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Falun  Congregation  of  the  town  of 
Osakis,  which  was  organized  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  John  Johnson, 
James  Alagny.  president,  and  Leonard  Forsgren,  secretary,  the  congrega- 
tion at  that  meeting  electing  Adam  Anderson,  Peter  Lundgren  and  Peter 
Hanson,  trustees.  This  second  article  of  incorporation  was  filed  for  record 
on  April  19,  1872. 


Seventy-three  distinct  congregations  have  filed  articles  of  incorix)ration 
in  the  ofiice  of  the  register  of  deeds  of  -Douglas  county.  Of  course  not  all 
of  these  congregations  are  now  existent,  not  a  few  of  them  having  dis- 
banded for  one  reason  or  another  and  some  others  having  merged  with  other 
.congregations,  giving  up  their  own  separate  identity,  but  the  larger  part  of 
them  are  still  continuing  and  flourishing,  the  religious  needs  of  the  people 
of  the  county  being  provided  for  by  no  fewer  than  fifty- four  church  organ- 
izations conveniently  located  in  the  towns  and  rural  neighborhoods  through- 
out the  county,  and  nearly  all  are  supplied  with  comfortable  and  tasteful 
houses  of  worship.  These  societies  comprise  the  following:  Congrega- 
tional, one ;  Episcopal,  one ;  Adventist,  one ;  Plymouth  Brethren,  one ;  Meth- 
odist Episcopal,  two;  Free  Methodist,  two;  Presbyterian,  four;  Swedish 
Baptist,  two;  Swedish  Mission,  three,  and  thirty-two  Lutheran  churches,  as 
follow :  Danish,  one ;  Finnish,  one ;  Norwegian  Free  church,  one ;  United 
and  Synod  Norwegian,  ten ;  Swedish,  thirteen,  and  German,  six.  The  Cath- 
olic churches  number  five  and  in  most  of  these  services  are  held  in  both 
English  and  German.  A  prominent  and  valuable  feature  of  most  of  these 
societies  is  a  well  organized  and  well  attended  Sunday  school,  with  a  County 
Sunday  School  Association  uniting  them  f(ir  mutual  benefit  and  support. 


Following  will  be  given  a  brief  summary  of  the  organization  of  the 
various  church  congregations  which  make  up  the  list  of  seventy-three  above 
referred  to.  This  list  is  made  up  from  the  record  of  incorporations  in  the 
register  of  deed's  office  and  is  set  out  in  the  order  in  which  the  articles  of 
incorporation  were  filed,  not  in  the  order  in  which  the  various  congregations 
were  organized ;  for  it  is  noted  that  many  of  the  congregations  did  not  incor- 
porate until  long  after  they  had  been  well  established  as  definite  religious 
bodies,  having  substantial  houses  of  jvorship  and  holding  regular  services. 
The  first  two  congregations  to  file  articles  of  incorixiration  have  been  noted 
above.  The  next  was  that  of  the  First  Methodist  Episcopal  church  of  Park- 
ers Prairie,  which  was  organized  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  Benjamin 
Roadruck,  in  the  township  of  Leaf  Valley,  November  13,  1872,  Benjamin 
Roadruck,  Albert  Tull  and  Cyrus  Smith  being  elected  trustees  of  the  con- 

On  July  I,  1872,  "the  male  persons  of  full  age  belonging  to  the  reli- 
gious society  heretofore  known  as  the  Norwegian  Evangelical  church  of 
Evansville  and  vicinity"  met  at  the  house  of  P.  Ohlson  in  the  town  of  Evans- 
ville  and  elected  Thomas  Bordson.  John  Davidson  and  P.  Ohlson  as  trustees. 


On  June  3,  1872,  the  congregation  of  the  Norwegian  Evangelical  Luth- 
eran church  of  Moe,  Solem,  Grant  and  Alexandria  met  at  the  parsonage  of 
the  church  of  Moe  and  elected  John  Arneson,  Charles  Peterson,  Ole  Endre- 
son,  Roar  Benson,  Ole  E.  Lien,  Ole  Thompson  and  Lorentz  Johnson,  trustees, 
the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  Ole  Amundsen  and  Andrew  J. 

On  May  20,  1872,  the  "F"irst  Congregational  Church  and  Society  of 
Alexandria"  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  church  theretofore 
occupied  by  said  society  in  Alexandria  by  the  election  of  William  E.  Hicks, 
George  F.  Sims  and  Robert  C.  McNeil  as  trustees. 

On  March  25,  1872,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  school  house  at  Osakis, 
professors  of  the  Baptist  faith  organized  a  congregation  of  that  communion 
and  elected  L.  Fail,  Rollin  Sanderson,  John  Daesusha,  Charles  Gilbert  and 
A.  Doesing.  trustees,  the  Rev.  William  M.  Wells  and  Abram  Doering  attest- 
ing the  minutes  of  the  meeting. 

On  June  17,  1872,  the  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  at 
Pelican  Lake  adopted  a  constitution  and  elected  Jan  G.  Llalt,  Aslak  Gunder- 
son  and  Ole  P.  Bowerset,  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  attested 
by  T.  Nettleson,  chairman,  and  Knut  Melby,  secretary. 

The  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Ida  was  incorporated 
on  November  5,  1874,  by  the  election  of  Martin  Nelson,  Amund  Bjorga  and 
August  Olson  as  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  Gil- 
bert Brackken  and  Gudbrand  Anderson. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  home  of  x\ndrew  Olson  at  Alexandria  on 
October  6,  1875,  the  congregation  of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of 
Alexandria  incorporated  by  electing  Ole  H.  Nelson,  David  Anderson  and 
Andrew  Olson  as  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by 
Chr.  Sangstad  and  David  Anderson. 

On  September  21,  1875,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  home  of  L.  K.  Aaker, 
the  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated 
by  the  election  of  C.  M.  Hanson,  L.  K.  Aaker  and  John  Sundblad  as  trustees, 
the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  L.  Johnson  and  Thorns  Oadson. 

On  February  7,  1876,  at  a  meeting  in  the  town  of  Lake  Mary  those  in 
that  vicinity  holding  to  the  profession  of  the  United  Brethren  in  Christ,  incor- 
porated under  the  corporate  name  of  the  United  Brethren  in  Christ  by  elect- 
ing John  Robinson,  Robert  McClellan,  George  Ingersol,  Eyar  Langdon  and 
H.  Laufman,  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  home  of  A\'illiam  M.  Wills  at  Alexandria  on 


April  22",  1876,  the  First  Regular  Baptist  church  of  Alexandria  was  incor- 
porated by  the  election  of  John  McFarland,  John  O.  Lindquist  and  William 
McAboy  as  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  school  house  in  district  Xo.  15  in  the  township 
of  Osakis  on  March  27.  1877,  "Our  Lord's  Scandinavian  Evangelical  Luth- 
eran Church  of  the  Town  of  Osakis  Under  Authority  of  the  Wisconsin 
Synod"  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  M.  J.  Kyed,  P.  T.  Peterson  and 
L.  Solum  as  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  attested  by  Jacob 
Anderson  and  A.  I.  Stadstad. 

The  Christian  Lake  church,  which  had  existed  since  the  year  1871,  held 
a  meeting  in  the  school  house  in  district  No.  58,  Lund  township,  on  May  10, 
1877,  and  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Christian  Nilsson,  Ole  Wahlin  and 
Daniel  Anderson  as  trustees,  the  congregation  adopting  a  constitution  in 
conformity  with  that  used  and  recommended  by  the  Swedish  Augustana 
Synod,  Andover,  Illinois. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  S.  A.  Sandberg  on  ^lay  17,  1869, 
the  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Ida  was  incorporated  by  the 
election  of  A.  Sandstedt,  C.  G.  Johnson  and  Charles  Johnson  as  trustees. 
The  meeting  was  presided  over  by  the  Rev.  S.  F.  Westerdahl,  chairman,  and 
P.  G.  Anderson  was  secretary. 

On  June  12,  1877,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  Peter  E.  Julin  in 
the  township  of  Moe,  the  congregation  of  the  Finns  church  of  Holmes  City 
lake  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Peter  E.  Julin,  John  W^atson  Lehto 
and  Herman  Jacobson  as  trustees. 

On  June  10,  1878,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  Frank  Engstran, 
the  Svenska  Lutherska  Augustana  Synod  Forsamlingen  in  Spruce  Hill  was 
incorporated  by  the  election  of  Ole  Johnson,  Frank  Egstran  and  Erik  Nelson 
as  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  l^eing  attested  by  Axel  Peterson  and 
N.  P.  Hegblad. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  Lewis  Hanson  in  the  town  of  Osakis 
on  February  19,  1879,  the  Scandinavian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of 
Osakis,  which  was  organized  on  October  2,  1873,  was  incorporated  by  the 
election  of  Hans  Jenson,  Knud  Smith  and  Peder  Boeson  as  trustees,  the 
articles  of  incorporation  being  attested  by  Ole  Thompson  and  Elling  Hal- 

On  July  28,  1879,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  village  of  Osakis,  Our  Lord's 
Norwegian-Danish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Osakis  was  incorporated 
bv  the  election  of  J.  P.  Simonson,  Jens  Lyseng  and  Ole  Broughton  as  trus- 


tees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  attested  by  J.  P.  Simonson,  Martin. 
Rasmuson  and  Ole  Broughton. 

At  a  meeting  at  the  home  of  G.  Klatt  on  August  25,  1879,  the  persons 
attached  to  the  Alexandria  Mission  of  the  Evangelical  Association  of  North 
America  incorporated  the  Salem  church  of  the  Evangelical  Association.  The 
meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  Rev.  E.  F.  Movius  and  Fr.  Kurell,  Sr., 
Aug.  Kruger  and  G.  Klatt  were  elected  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  Union  church  at  Osakis  on  March  25,  1879, 
Rev.  F.  X.  \\'alcott,  chairman,  and  Thomas  Bolles,  clerk,  the  Union  Religi- 
ous Society  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Harvey  Mills,  Chester  S. 
Boss  and  William  H.  Sevens  as  trustees. 

On  April  23,  1878,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  school  house  on  section  11, 
Solem  township,  the  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  in  Solem  was 
incorporated  by  the  election  of  Paul  Nilson,  R.  Bentson  and  Paul  Larson  as 
trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  attested  by  \\\  S.  Stadstad  and 
Christian  Olsen. 

The  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  Congregation  of  Evansville  was 
incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  on  February  3,  1883,  by  the  election  of 
Anders  Johnson,  John  Bylander,  C.  B.  Johnson  and  C.  J.  Johnson  as  trustees. 

The  congregation  of  the  First  Swedish  Baptist  church  of  Alexandria 
met  at  the  American  Baptist  church  in  Alexandria  on  January  i,  1883,  and 
with  the  Rev.  Martin  Dahlquist  as  chairman  and  N.  A.  Peterson  as  clerk 
incorporated  by  electing  John  Leverson,  John  Falk,  John  Jern,  N.  A.  Peter- 
son and  Martin  Dahlquist  as  trustees. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  congregation  of  Evansville  was  incorporated 
as  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Zionsborg  Congregation  on  May  6,  1885,  by  the 
election  of  Ole  Alberts,  Per  Erickson  and  Erick  T.  Malmgren  as  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  Octoljer  20,  1886,  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Church 
Svea  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  M.  Lungren,  N.  J. 
Johnson,  A.  P.  Erickson,  Andrew  Peterson  and  C.  H.  Larson  as  trustees. 
John  E.  Hedberg  was  chairman  of  the  meeting  and  J.  E.  Peterson,  clerk. 

The  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  Association  of  Oscar  Lake  was 
incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  on  June  30,  1885,  Lars  Fahlin,  John  Matson 
and  H.  L.  Lewis  being  elected  trustees,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being 
attested  In-  C.  G.  Johnson  and  C.  .\.  Peterson. 

The  first  board  of  trustees  of  the  First  Baptist  Society  of  Alexandria 
was  elected  on  May  18,  1885,  A.  R.  Campbell,  John  McFarlane  and  N.  L. 
Page  being  thus  elected,  the  articles  of  incorporation  Ijeing  attested  by  C.  B. 
Rockwell,  chairman,  and  John  A.  ^McKav.  clerk. 


At  a  meeting  held  on  January  15,  1887.  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Luth- 
eran Church  Lekvalten  of  Holmes  City  was  incorporated,  the  chairman  of 
the  meeting  being  John  E.  Hedberg;  clerk,  S.  O.  Hegenius,  and  the  trustees 
elected,  John  Smith,  John  Bergstrom,  Olaf  O.  Sodergren  and  John  Backelin. 

The  constitution  of  the  Ebenezer  church  of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran 
Congregation  of  the  L'naltered  Augsburg  Confession  of  Leaf  \"alley.  incor- 
porated, was  tiled  for  record,  January  24,  1887,  the  articles  of  incorporation 
being  signed  by  Christian  Froeming,  Carl  Grosenick.  William  Schmidt  and 
August  Hertig. 

A  certificate  of  election  of  trustees  of  the  First  Baptist  church  of  Alex- 
andria, signed  by  Rev.  Thomas  S.  Eigelberner,  chairman,  and  L.  S.  Kaiser, 
clerk,  and  filed  for  record  on  May  20,  1887,  certified  to  the  election  of  L.  S. 
Kaiser,  Almon  Morse,  John  McFarlane  and  Robert  AIcFarlane  as  trustees. 

The  St.  Petre  Norsk  Evangelical  Lutheran  Alenighed  in  the  village  of 
Brandon  was  incorporated  on  January  23,  1888,  the  incorporators  being 
Johan  O.  Berg,  Board  Solberg,  Ole  Enderson,  E.  Engebrightson,  Niels  Niel- 
sen and  Engebret  Torkelson,  with  the  following  officers :  President,  Johan 
O.  Berg;  secretary,  Ole  Enderson;  treasurer.  Board  Solberg;  trustees,  Ole 
Enderson,  Board  Solberg,  Johan  O.  Berg,  Niels  Nielson,  Engebret  Torkel- 
son and  E.  Engebrigtson. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  court  house  hall  on  May  5.  1888,  at  which  E. 
Hallgren  was  chairman  and  Ole  Olson,  clerk,  the  Swedish  Baptist  church  of 
Alexandria  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Nils  Peterson,  John  Severt- 
son  and  John  H.  Broms  as  trustees. 

The  Eastern  Moe  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  in  section 
I  in  the  township  of  ^loe,  at  a  meeting  held  in  that  church  on  November  8, 
1886,  presided  over  by  L.  Carlson,  chairman;  George  R.  Botner,  clerk;  was 
incorporated  by  the  election  of  Syvert  J.  \'ibstad,  Theodore  Thompson  and 
Carl  J.  Peterson  as  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  April  3,  i88g,  at  the  residence  of  P.  J.  Vickstrand 
on  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  30  of  La  Grand 
township.  Nils  Anderson,  chairman,  and  Emil  Johnson,  clerk,  the  Svenska 
Kristna  Forsamlingen  of  La  Grand  township  was  incorporated  by  the  election 
of  P.  J.  \'ickstrand,  Nils  Anderson  and  Emil  Johnson  as  trustees. 

The  Free  Methodist  church  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated  on  April  2"/, 
1889,  at  a  meeting  presided  over  by  William  H.  Black;  AL  F.  Childs.  clerk; 
William  H.  Black,  J.  W.  Glines  and  V.  D.  Nichols  being  elected  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  church  of  that  congregation  on  May  16,  1889, 
L.    Johnson,    chairman,    and    Nils    Ekblad,    clerk,    the    Swedish    Evangelical 


Lutheran  Fryksande  church  of  Urness  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of 
Nils  Ekblad,  John  R.  Randstedt  and  Nils  J.  Lindstrom  as  trustees. 

The  Svenska  Kristna  Missions  Forsamlingen  in  the  town  of  Id'a  was 
incorporated  on  February  8,  1890,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  residence  of  J.  E. 
Norgren  on  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  29  of  that  township,  A.  G.  Berg- 
strom,  chairman,  and  Erick  Johnson,  clerk,  and  A.  G.  Bergstrom,  Emil 
Peterson  and  John  Johnson  being  elected  trustees. 

The  First  Congregational  church  of  O&akis  was  incorporated  on  May 
20,  1890,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  C.  N.  Armstrong,' 
Frances  A.  Sargent  and  Lizzie  G.  Armstrong. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  school  house  in  Evansville  on  August  6,  1890, 
the  congregation  of  the  Presbyterian  church  there,  Rev.  James  Godward, 
chairman,  and  Charles  L.  Thomson,  clerk,  was  incorporated  by  electing  Will- 
iam Beach,  Christ  Nelson  and  John  Kron  as  trustees. 

Den  Svenska  Kristna  Forsamlingen  of  Spruce  Hill  at  a  meeting  held 
at  the  residence  of  Mary  Peterson  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  29  on  November  21,  1890,  Frans 
Anderson,  chairman,  and  Andrew  Larson,  clerk,  was  incorporated  by  the 
election  of  Andrew  Larson,  Alfred  Lingren  and  Joseph  Johnson,  trustees. 

The  First  Free  Methodist  church  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated  at  a 
meeting  held  at  the  parsonage  of  that  church  on  March  28,  1891,  Richard 
Boothroyd,  chairman,  and  John  W.  Glines,  clerk,  Jacob  Roth,  Richard 
Boothroyd,  Elizabeth  Covel  and  Elmira  Glines  being  elected  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  April  2,  1891,  C.  Aeberle,  chairman,  and  Carl 
Brockopp,  clerk,  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Zions  Congregation  of  the  LTn- 
altered  Augsburg  Confession  was  incorporated,  the  articles  of  incorporation 
being  signed  by  C.  Aeberle,  C.  Brockopp,  W.  Lemke,  M.  Haberer,  J.  Stoppel, 
Carl  Schulke,  Carl  Beltz  and  Andrew  Roth. 

The  Seventh  Day  Adventist  Church  Society  of  Osakis,  at  a  meeting 
held  at  the  church  of  that  society  at  Osakis  on  November  11,  1891,  W.  B. 
Hill,  chairman,  and  Euphemia  Imre,  clerk,  was  incorporated  by  the  election 
of  W.  B.  Hill,  Randall  Perkins,  Samuel  Johnson  and  G.  L.  Fry  as  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  April  4,  1892,  Frank  Johnson,  chairman,  and 
Mattis  Clark,  clerk,  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Spruce 
Hill  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Frank  Johnson,  Peter  Hanson  and 
A.  Osterberg  as  trustees. 

The  Emanuels  Church  of  the  Evangelical  Association  of  North  America 
at  Alexandria  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  on  June  17,  1895.  A-  H- 


Utzinger,  president,  and  Mrs.  Rosa  Zimmerman,  secretary,  August  Engel, 
Frank  Griebenow  and  Gustav  Klatt  being  elected  trustees. 

The  German  Evangelical  St.  Michael's  church  on  section  8  in  the  town- 
ship of  Carlos,  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  at  that  church  on  July  8, 
1896,  Herman  F.  Miller,  chairman,  and  August  Leucke,  secretary,  Frederick 
Kitzman,  August  Leucke  and  August  Blank  being  elected  trustees. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  Emmanuel  Congregation  of  the  L'naltered 
Augsburg  Confession  at  Carlos  was  incoqxjrated  at  a  meeting  held  on 
February  16.  1897,  A.  Bartz,  chairman,  and  J.  Schwerttiger,  secretary. 

The  Swedish  Evangelical  Mission  church  of  Christina  Lake  was  incor- 
porated at  a  meeting  held  at  the  residence  of  Olaf  Larson  in  Lund  township 
on  July  6,  1897,  N.  D.  Anderson,  chairman,  and  M.  Thornberg,  secretary, 
George  Larson,  Frederick  Olson  and  X.  D.  Anderson  being  elected  trustees. 

The  Scandinavian  Evangelical  Lutheran  Emaus  Congregation  of  Osakis 
was  incorporated  on  July  30,  1898,  J.  P.  Simonson,  James  P.  Johnson,  X.  P. 
Jacobson,  Lars  Christenson,  Andrew  Johnson,  E.  H.  Erickson,  C.  W.  Lar- 
son, R.  J.  Simonson,  C.  P.  Hanson,  T.  W.  Schleppergril,  Soren  Hanson, 
Lars  Jacobson,  Karl  Berry,  R.  P.  Clauson,  Peter  Larson  and  P.  J.  Stenmore 
signing  the  articles  of  incorporation;  J.  P.  Simonson,  president;  James  P. 
Johnson,  secretary-;  Erick  Erickson,  treasurer,  and  C.  P.  Hanson.  Soren 
Hanson  and  N.  P.  Jacobson,  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  school  house  in  district  30  of  Carlos  township, 
June  19,  1899,  the  Union  Church  Society  of  Carlos  was  incorporated,  Will- 
iam A.  Wheeler  acting  as  chairman  of  the  meeting,  H.  F.  ]\Iiller  as  clerk  and 
J.  O.  Stedje,  H.  F.  Miller.  August  Blank,  Parnell  Atkinson.  William  A. 
Wheeler  and  Mathias  Junt  being  elected  trustees. 

The  Union  Church  Society  of  Hudson  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting 
held  in  the  school  house  of  district  No.  6,  Hudson  township,  June  26,  1899, 
G.  J.  Strang,  chairman,  and  Fred  C.  Meade,  secretary,  F.  M.  Dille,  M.  D. 
Fredenberg,  Herbert  Boyd,  S.  S.  Pratt  and  J.  J.  Brown  being  elected  as 

The  Catholic  church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  at  Osakis,  in  the 
diocese  of  St.  Cloud,  was  incorporated  on  August  i.  1899,  the  articles  of 
incorporation  being  signed  by  James  Trobec,  bishop;  Edward  J.  Xagl.  \icar 
general;  P.  Ildephonse  Molitor,  O.  S.  B.,  pastor  in  charge;  and  \Mlliani 
Shinners  and  Sylvester  Housen,  lay  members  of  the  congregation. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  dwelling  house  of  Andrew  Knudson  on  sec- 
tion 21,  township  127,  range  39,  H.  Jenson,  minister;  Andrew  Knudson, 
chairman,  and  Torgal  Xordby,  clerk,  the  Bethesda  Society,  a  religious  society, 


was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Emer  O.  Steen,  Ole  Steen  and  Torgal 
Xordby  as  trustees. 

The  Catholic  church  of  Our  Lady  of  Seven  Dolors  at  Millerville  was 
incorporated  on  November  2"^,  1899,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being 
signed  by  James  Trobec,  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud ;  Edward  Nagl, 
vicar  general ;  Alois  Raster,  pastor  in  charge,  and  Michael  Kelly  and  J.  C. 
Drexler,  la}'  members  of  the  congregation. 

St.  Mary's  Catholic  church  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated  on  February 
2J,  1900,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  James  Trobec,  bishop 
of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud ;  Edward  J.  Nagl,  vicar  general ;  Otto  Weisser, 
pastor  in  charge,  and  Adam  J.  Renner  and  Mathias  N.  Kroll,  lay  members  of 
the  congregation. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  dwelling  house  of  John  W.  Johnson  in  the 
east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  't^T)^  township  128,  range  39, 
the  same  being  the  township  of  Moe,  Abraham  Hogana,  chairman,  and  John 
M.  Johnson,  clerk,  the  Suomalainen  Ewankelis-Lutherilainen  Kansallisseu- 
rakunta  of  the  town  of  Moe  was  incoqx)rated  by  the  election  of  Jacob  Olson, 
John  Gustav  Hiltunen  and  Ed.  A.  Johnson  as  trustees. 

The  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Kensington  was  incor- 
porated at  a  meeting  held  on  February  11,  1901,  Rudolph  Valkjuist,  chair- 
man, and  Charles  Lilyquist,  secretary,  J.  P.  Hedberg.  Charles  Lilyquist  and 
J.  A.  \\'edum  being  elected  trustees. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  Emanuel  Congregation  of  the  Lnaltered 
Augsburg  Confession  at  Carlos  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  on 
March  21,  1902,  Ferdinand  Fiss,  chairman,  and  Albert  Schulz,  secretar\-,  the 
articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  Ferdinand  Fiss,  H.  Bast,  John 
P'elton,  Gustav  Tonn,  Ferdinand  Zunker,  Carl  Scheunemann,  Herman 
Beulke,  Albert  H.  Schulz  and  W'illiam  Zunker. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  residence  of  Lars  Johnson  on  Alarch  17,  1903, 
Olaf  A.  Lafgren,  chairman,  and  E.  P.  Wickstrom,  clerk,  the  Scandinavian 
Christian  Free  Church  of  Evansville  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of 
Sven  Person,-  A.  P.  Johnson  and  Lars  Johnson  as  trustees. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  Dreieninigkeits  Congregation  of  Millerville 
township  was  incorporated  at  a  meeting  held  on  September  21,  1903,  Ernst 
Meissner,  chairman,  and  .\lbert  Pries,  clerk,  Adolph  Pries,  W'ilhelm  Klein 
and  Karl  Buse  lieing  elected  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  hall  at  518  Main  street  in  Alexandria  on 
December  19,  1905,  C.  .\.  Strandberg,  chairman,  and  George  A.  Anderson, 
clerk,  the  Scandinavian  Free  Church  of  God  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated 


by  the  election  of  Gottfried  Kruger,  C'.  A.  Sternljerg  and  Albert  Kruger  as 

The  Catholic  church  of  St.  Nicholas  of  Belle  River  was  incorporated 
on  February  2,  1910,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  James 
Trobec,  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud;  Edward  Nagl,  vicar  general; 
Ignatius  Tomazin,  pastor  in  charge,  and  Charles  B.  Pasch  and  A.  Joseph 
Wolters,  lay  members  of  the  congregation. 

On  March  19,  1906,  Fred  Swenson,  moderator,  and  W.  AI.  Dunnicliff, 
clerk,  the  First  Presbyterian  church  of  Garfield  was  incorporated  by  the 
election  of  F.  L.  Robbins,  John  A.  Nelson  and  W.  ^^^  Dunnicliff  as  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  May  10,  1879,  at  the  house  of  Swen  Waginius, 
Rev.  O.  Olson,  chairman,  and  Sven  Auslund,  clerk,  the  Swedish  Evangelical 
Lutheran  church  of  Wennesborg  in  Douglas  and  Grant  counties,  was  incor- 
porated by  electing  Alartin  Peterson,  Frick  ^Viklund  and  Sv.  Auslund  as 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  house  of  Gust  M.  Johnson  on  February  24, 
1906,  Per  Hanson,  chairman,  and  Gust  M.  Johnson,  clerk,  the  Swedish  Bap- 
tist church  of  Holmes  City  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Per  Hanson, 
Gust  M.  Johnson,  Maret  Hanson,  Ellen  Ekstrand  and  Annie  Johnson  as 

The  Catholic  church  of  St.  Anna  of  Brandon  was  incorporated  on 
February  10,  1909,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  James 
Trobec,  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud;  Edward  J.  Nagl,  vicar  general; 
Paul  Kuich,  pastor  in  charge,  and  August  Lehr  and  Jacob  Table,  two  lay 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  school  house  at  Carlos  on  April  5,  1909,  Scott 
Bund}-,  moderator,  and  C.  O.  Franzen,  clerk,  the  Carlos  Presbyterian  church 
was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  M.  E.  Smith,  James  B.  Howe,  C.  O. 
Franzen  and  Scott  Bundy  as  trustees. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  St.  John's  Society  of  Garfield  was  incor- 
porated at  a  meeting  held  in  the  village  hall  on  February  24,  1910,  August 
Stark,  Sr.,  chairman,  and  Carl  Kloehn,  secretary,  Fred  Berthel,  Henry 
Wadtke  and  Fred  Wittnebel  being  elected  trustees. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  January  19,  1910.  M.  B.  Juul,  president;  Carl  O. 
Augdahl,  secretary,  and  Julius  Larson,  treasurer,  the  Brandon  Evangelical 
Lutheran  church  was  incorporated  by  the  election  of  Anton  Strom,  O.  F. 
Olson  and  M.  Sektnan  as  trustees. 

The  First  Swedish  Baptist  church  of  Spruce  Hill  was  incorporated  at  a 


meeting  held  in  the  home  of  O.  A.  Peterson  on  ^lay  4,  1914,  Fred  Pahnborg, 
chairman,  and  Nathaniel  P.  Larson,  secretary,  O.  A.  Peterson,  Nathaniel  P. 
Larson  and  G.  A.  Erickson  being  elected  trustees. 

On  August  18,  1914,  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  home  of  .V.  Eastman  in 
E\-ansville,  G.  R.  Anderson,  chairman,  and  S.  A.  Swenson,  secretary,  the 
First  Swedish  Baptist  church  of  Evansville  was  incorporated  by  the  election 
of  Per  Johnson,  Mrs.  X.  P.  Johnson  and  O.  Skold  as  trustees. 


As  noted  in  the  introduction  to  this  chapter  the  house  of  worship  of  the 
First  Methodist  Episcopal  church  of  Alexandria  was  the  first  church  build- 
ing erected  in  that  city  and  from  all  accounts  the  first  to  be  erected  in  Doug- 
las county.  The  Minnesota  Conference  met  at  Red  Wing  in  1867  and  at  its 
business  session  voted  to  establish  a  church  at  Alexandria,  and  Rev.  William 
Bowdish  was  appointed  pastor.  The  next  year  the  first  church  building  was 
erected  in  Alexandria.  It  was  just  west  of  the  present  building,  near  where 
the  new  parsonage  now  stands.  The  second  pastor  appointed  to  that  field 
was  the  Rev.  C.  F.  Kingsland,  under  whom  a  revival  occurred  that  greatly 
increased  the  membership  of  the  church.  He  remained  but  a  year  and  was 
followed  by  the  Rev.  H.  G.  Hilton,  who  remained  two  years  and  during 
whose  pastorate  the  first  parsonage  was  built.  It  still  remains  at  the  rear 
of  the  church  in  the  possession  of  the  society.  In  1874  the  Rev.  C.  B.  Bre- 
count  was  appointed  to  the  Alexandria  charge,  that  having  been  his  first 
Minnesota  pastorate  and  under  his  ministrations  there  was  a  large  ingather- 
ing to  the  church.  Two  years  later,  in  1876,  the  Rev.  G.  S.  Dorsey  became 
pastor,  the  period  of  his  servic?  long  being  remembered  as  the  beginning  of 
a  period  of  trial  and  hardship.  It  was  in  that  year  that  the  grasshopper 
scourge  swept  the  fields  and  starvation  stared  the  people  in  the  face.  The 
pastor's  health  failed  and  he  asked  to  lie  released.  The  financial  pressure 
became  so  great  that  on  the  retirement  of  Reverend  Dorsey  the  church  doors 
were  shut  and  for  fifteen  months  no  regular  preaching  services  were  held. 
Even  the  Sunday  school  was  finally  closed. 

LInder  the  presiding  eldership  of  Reverend  Starkey,  Rev.  S.  M.  Bron- 
son,  of  Iowa,  was  secured  and  placed  in  charge.  He  reorganized  the  society 
and  placed  a  new  roof  on  the  building.  Dark  days  followed  in  close  succes- 
sion until  the  entire  membership  were  almost  disheartened  and  some  favored 
closing  the  church  again.  But  there  were,  as  usual,  a  few  faithful  ones,  whi). 
like  the  Scotch  bugle  boy,  never  had  learned  to  play  "retreat,"  and  who  per- 


sistently  pressed  for  victory.  The  Rev.  C.  T.  Barkulo  was  sent  as  pastor  in 
October.  1881.  He  was  a  faithful  preacher  of  the  Gospel  and  an  earnest, 
hard  worker,  and  soon  the  society  was  on  upgrade  again.  He  was  followed 
b}'  the  Rev.  S.  Snyder  who  had  a  stirring  re\-ival,  thus  strengthening  the 
church  very  materially.  He  was  followed  bv  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Ogle,  a  talented 
man  who  was  much  beloved  by  his  congregation.  It  was  about  this  time 
that  tiie  church  was  greatly  strengthened  by  the  accession  of  some  prominent 
men.  possessed  of  generous  hearts  and  zealous  endeavor  for  Zion.  Such  men 
as  J.  U.  Barnes,  William  Moses,  Robert  McCrory.  H.  A.  LeRoy  and  others, 
who  of  their  increasing  wealth  and  worth  gave  freely  to  the  prosperity  of 
the  church.  In  the  fall  of  1887,  Rev.  Samuel  White  was  appointed  pastor 
and  his  ministry  was  made  memorable  by  a  very  successful  revival  and  a 
new  building  was  decided  upon.  By  the  fall  of  188S  he  had  the  frame  of 
the  new  building  up,  when,  contrary  to  the  wishes  of  the  people,  he  was 
removed  to  another  charge. 

This  proved  unfortunate  to  the  society's  advance,  as  it  was  not  until  the 
coming  of  the  Rev.  R.  C.  Grose  in  the  fall  of  1889,  that  the  old  debt  was 
paid  off  and  the  building  properly  enclosed.  That  building  was  dedicated  on 
January  26.  1890.  In  the  fall  of  1891,  Rev.  H.  Treglawney  became  pastor 
and  was  successful  in  eliminating  all  indebtedness.  Ne.xt  was  the  Rev.  C.  W. 
Lawson  who  was  a  careful  and  untiring  shepherd  of  the  flock.  He  was  fol- 
lowed by  one  of  the  most  constructive  and  eft'ective  pastors  the  church  has 
had.  namely,  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Brown,  now  of  Grinnell,  Iowa.  Mr.  Brown 
ga\e  to  the  church  the  longest  pastorate  of  any  preacher  up  to  that  time — 
nearly  five  years.  They  were  years  of  material  improvements  and  spiritual 
growth.  The  new  parsonage  was  constructed  under  his  supervisi(in,  being 
until  recently  the  best  ministerial  home  in  the  Fergus  Falls  District. 

Under  the  head  of  "Notes  and  Comments,"  there  appears  this  interest- 
ing paragraph :  "The  old  church  building  when  no  longer  needed  was  sold 
to  \\'.  K.  Barnes  who  started  it  one  winter  across  Lake  Agnes  on  its  way  to 
his  farm  on  Lake  Darling  .(now  occupied  by  N.  J.  Nelson  and  family)  where 
it  is  now  used  as  a  barn  (where  it  can  truthfully  be  said,  it  is  "cold  as  a 
l:arn'").  \Mien  well  on  its  way  over  the  lake  it  broke  through  the  ice  as 
favoring  immersion  exclusively,  or  ])rotesting  against  the  indignity  put  upon 
it.  There  it  remained  for  some  time,  and  was  afterwards  taken  to  its  desti- 

The  foll(jwing  is  a  record  of  the  pastors  who  have  served  the  Methodist 
church  at  .Alexandria  as  taken  from  the  official  records :  ^\'illiam  M.  Bow- 
dish,    1867  to   1868;  C.  F.  Kingsland,    1868  to   1871  ;  J.  L.   Fasig,    1871   to 


1872:  H.  G.  Hilton,  1872  to  1874;  C.  B.  Brecount,  1874  to  1876:  George 
X.  Dorsey,  1876:  S.  M.  Bronson.  1878  to  October,  1880;  F.  I.  Fisher,  1880; 
D.  S.  Smith,  July  1881  to  October,  1881  :  T.  C.  Barkuloo,  October,  1881,  to 
1882:  S.  Snyder,  1882  to  March,  1883;  J.  B.  Ogle,  April,  1883,  to  September, 
1885:  S.  D.  Kemerer,  October,  1885,  to  1887;  Samuel  White,  1887  to  1888; 
H.  C.  Klingel,  1888  to  1889;  R.  C.  Grose,  1889  to  1891 ;  C.  H.  Terglawney, 
1891  to  1892:  C.  \y.  Lawson,  1892  to  1895:  J.  M.  Bjown,  1895  to  May, 
1900;  C.  \\'.  Cullinge,  'Slay,  1900,  to  June,  1901 ;  E.  H.  Nicholson,  June, 
1901,  to  October,  1904;  J.  G.  Crosier,  October,  1904,  to  1905;  R.  \\'.  \Mlcox, 
1905  to  1907;  George  E.  Tindall,  1907  to  the  present  time. 

During  the  present  pastorate  many  difficulties  have  been  met  and  prob- 
lems solved.  The  material  increase  of  the  church  has  been  most  encourag- 
ing. The  old  "basement  debt"  of  six  hundred  dollars  at  six  per  cent,  interest 
has  been  paid  in  full,  and  over  one  thousand  dollars  improvements  have  been 
made  upon  the  Iniildings,  so  that  the  buildings  are  all  under  good  repair. 
The  interior  aspect  of  the  church  parlor  has  been  greatly  enhanced.  Two 
beautiful  memorial  windows  have  been  installed  in  the  church  to  the  memories 
of  Robert  McCrory  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Moses,  beloved  pioneers  of 
the  church  and  faithful  servants  of  God,  through  whose  generosity  and 
untiring  zeal  the  church  was  sustained  in  some  of  its  years  of  severe  trials. 
During  the  year  19 15  the  budget  ran  up  to  over  two  thousand  five  hundred 
dollars,  the  largest  of  any  year  in  the  history  of  the  church,  except  when  the 
church  was  dedicated. 

The  spiritual  growth  of  the  church  has  also  paralleled  its  material  in- 
crease. Revivals  have  been  held  every  year  and  have  been  the  means  of 
increasing  the  membership  from  eighty-four  at  the  commencement  of  the 
present  pastorate  to  one  hundred  and  seventy-three  at  the  present,  with 
twenty  in  the  pastor's  probationer's  class.  The  superintendent  of  the  Sun- 
day school  is  O.  L.  Solstad;  president  of  Epworth  League,  Dr.  D.  E.  Whit- 
tenberg;  president  of  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  Mrs.  T.  R.  Alton;  president  of 
Woman's  Missionary  Society,  Mrs.  L.  Madison ;  stewards,  O.  W.  Landeen, 
George  Susens,  W.  H.  Horton,  A.  F.  Storm,  C.  J.  Larson,  H.  H.  Grielaenow. 
J.  A.  Poalson,  Mrs.  O.  W.  Landeen,  Mrs.  S.  D.  Johnson,  ^^Irs.  D.  L.  John- 
son, Mrs  George  Bracken,  Mrs.  H.  N.  Doyle;  trustees,  G.  Jesse  Strang, 
M.  R.  McArdle,  Thomas  Cooper,  Herman  H.  Squires,  Gus.  E.  Antlerson, 
Fred  G.  Boomgaarden,  George  W.  Ramsdell.  Franklin  George,  Jacob  Luckert. 

The  Rev.  George  E.  Tindall,  present  pastor  of  the  church,  is  also 
called  to  speak  at  Brandon,  Hoffman  and  Garfield.  For  three  years  he  pulj- 
li.^^hed  at  Alexandria  the  Fergus  Falls  District  Methodist,  a  quarterly  ]nilili- 


cation  in  the  interests  of  the  church  of  that  district,  and  during  the  twentv- 
six  years  of  his  ministerial  activity  in  Minnesota,  having  begun  his  pastoral 
work  on  May  20,  1890,  his  first  charge  having  been  the  church  at  Ada,  has 
in  other  ways  been  one  of  the  most  active  ministers  of  the  Methodist  church 
in  this  state.  Mr.  Tindall  is  a  native  of  Canada  and  left  his  old  home  near 
Bradford,  Ontario,  in  1890.  to  take  up  his  ministerial  caUing  in  t'his  state 
and  has  ever  since  served  in  Minnesota,  his  se\eral  charges  having  been  at 
Ada,  Melrose,  Grove  Lake,  Staples,  Long  Prairie,  Frazee,  Aklev,  Warren 
and  Alexandria. 


Sometime  in  the  year  i860,  two  years  after  the  advent  of  the  first  white 
settlers  in  what  is  now  Douglas  county,  the  Rev.  C.  S.  Harrison,  a  Congre- 
gational missionary,  and  representative  of  the  American  Home  Missionary 
Society  of  that  denomination,  then  stationed  at  Sauk  Center,  held  what  is 
claimed  by  some  to  be  the  first  religious  service  within  the  bounds  of  the 
present  city  of  Alexandria  and  probably  of  Douglas  county.  This  service 
was  held  in  a  bedroom  of  a  log  house  owned  bv  P.  L.  Gregors".  Mr.  Harri- 
son probably  continued  to-  come  to  Alexandria  for  occasional  services  for 
about  six  months. 

In  the  winter  of  1866  and  1867  Mrs.  Theresa  T.  Hicks  and  Mrs.  Ann 
B.  Whitcomb,  being  anxious  that  the  young  should  have  some  Christian 
training,  gathered  a  little  flock  together  within  the  old  stockade  and  formed 
a  Sunday  school.  In  the  summer  of  1867  the  American  Home  Missionary 
Society  again  became  interested  through  the  Minnesota  sui>erintendent,  Rev. 
Richard  Hall,  and  sent  Rev.  B.  F.  Haviland  to  work  in  this  district.  On  the 
14th  day  of  December,  1867,  a  meeting  was  held  in  the  court  house  hall  to 
consider  the  propriety  of  organizing  a  Congregational  church  in  Alexandria. 
The  church  was  duly  organized  with  the  following  members,  who  brought 
letters  from  their  respective  churches.  Rev.  B.  F.  Haviland,  J.  R.  Lowell, 
S.  B.  Chikls,  Eliza  Lowell,  L.  R.  Chi-kls,  Ann  B.  Whitcomb,  Antoinette  Darl- 
ing, L.  J.  Hobert,  H.  T.  Haviland  and  Theresa  T.  Hicks — three  males  and 
seven  females.  The  officers  elected  were  Rev.  B.  I".  Haviland,  clerk;  J.  R. 
Lowell,  deacon,  and  S.  B.  Chikls,  treasurer.  On  April  i.  1869,  ]\Ir.  Havi- 
land resigned  his  charge.  The  little  company  were  still  meeting  in  the  court 
hciuse  hall  for  services.     George  F.  Whitcomb  was  elected  clerk. 

In  the  fall  of  1868  W.  E.  Hicks  donated  a  lot  for  a  church  and  the 
people  of  the  village  all  contributed  towards  the  erection  of  a  new  church 


building  on  the  site  of  the  present  Methodist  Episcopal  church  and  parsonage. 
The  Methodists  had  recently  formed  an  organization  and  the  new  building 
was  known  as  the  Methodist  church.  Upon  its  completion  the  Congregation- 
alists  used  it  alternately  with  the  Methodists.  The  first  mention  found  in  the 
records  of  meeting  in  the  new  church  was  on  June  26,  1869.  In  July,  1869, 
Rev.  Reuben  Evarts  came  to  x\lexandria  to  care  for  the  young  church  and 
continued  in  his  work  until  July,  1871.  Little  is  on  record  concerning  the 
work  during  the  two  years  except  that  the  pastor  was  to  receive  seven  hun- 
dred dollars  salar),  a  part  of  which  was  to  be  paid  l)y  the  Home  Missionary 
Society.  There  is  no  record  of  any  pastor  being  at  work  from  July,  1871, 
to  May,  1873,  but  the  church  was  not  idle,  for  in  October,  1872,  after  having 
tendered  a  call  to  Rev.  Mr.  Williams — who  did  not  accept — the  church  voted 
to  raise  five  hundred  dollars  and  proceed  at  once  to  build  a  parsonage,  the 
building  committee  being  James  Purdon,  George  C.  Whitcomb  and  L.  G. 
Sims.  The  parsonage  was  built  on  lots  donated  by  W.  E.  Hicks  on  the 
site  of  the  present  Congregational  church  which  comprises  three  entire  lots. 
On  May  i,  1873,  Rev.  William  W.  Norton  became  pastor  of  the  church 
which  was  evidently  not  yet  very  strong,  as  the  salary  was  to  be  seven  hun- 
dred and  free  parsonage,  the  church  paying  but  two  hundred  dollars  of  the 
amount.  It  was  during  this  pastorate  that  the  church  seemed  to  take  on  new 
life  and  great  progress  was  made.  On  May  20,  1873,  a  church  "society"  was 
organized  and  a  corporation  formed  to  be  known  as  "The  First  Congrega- 
tional Church  and  Society  of  Alexandria,"  and  William  E.  Hicks,  George 
C.  Sims  and  Robert  C.  McNeil  were  elected  trustees.  During  the  Rev.  Will- 
iam W.  Norton's  pastorate  of  four  years  the  membership  increased  from 
nine  to  thirty-three :  the  parsonage  was  enlarged  and  improved ;  a  new  chiu-ch 
seating  two  hundred  was  built  and  furnished  at  a  cost  of  about  two  thcu- 
sand  six  hundred  dollars,  all  l)ut  five  hundred  dollars  of  which  was  raised  bv 
the  church  and  society.  At  the  conclusion  of  his  pastorate  in  April,  1877, 
the  following  appears  on  the  record :  "Although  the  grasshoppers  have 
inpoverished  the  country,  yet  the  condition  of  the  church  both  spiritually 
and  financially  is  excellent  and  the  future  prospects  very  encouraging." 

■  Rev.  P.  S.  Smith  was  acting  pastor  for  one  year  from  Mav  i,  1877, 
and  on  January  4,  1878,  was  held  the  first  regular  annual  meeting,  the  fol- 
lowing officers  who  had  served  since  May,  1874,  being  elected:  Clerk,  W. 
E.  Chidester;  treasurer,  Mrs.  George  C.  Whitcomb;  deacon,  W.  E.  Chid- 
ester.  Rev.  Quinc}-  L.  Dowd  was  pastor  from  September  i,  1878,  to  Sep- 
tember I,  1880.  June  24,  1879,  a  constitution  for  the  "society"  and  a  com- 
pact of  agreement  between  the  "church"  and  "society"  was  adopted,  and  thus 


the  regular  organization  of  "The  First  Congregational  Church  and  Society 
of  Alexandria"  was  i^erfected  after  an  existence  of  more  than  six  years.  At 
the  annual  meeting  of  the  church  in  January,  1879,  William  S.  Mules  was 
elected  clerk,  Andrew  Purdon,  treasurer,  and  L.  G.  Sims,  deacon.  At  the 
first  annual  meeting  of  the  "society"  held  on  May  24,  1880,  George  C. 
Whitcomb  was  elected  trustee  for  a  term  of  three  years,  thus  showing  that 
finally,  after  many  years  of  struggle,  the  machinery  of  that  part  of  the 
church  organization  was  working  smoothly.  On  the  19th  day  of  Jnly  in 
the  same  year  an  amendment  to  the  constitution  was  adopted  increasing 
the  number  of  members  of  the 'board  of  trustees  to  five  and  Messrs.  D.  H. 
Mason  and  George  H.  S.  Campbell  were  elected  the  additional  members. 

On  November  i,  1880,  Rev.  W.  W.  Norton  was  recalled  to  the  pastorate 
and  continued  for  one  year.  The  church  had  evidently  been  strengthened, 
for  when  Rev.  \Mlliam  Gill  was  called  to  the  pastorate  in  December,  1881, 
the  church  promised  to  pay  four  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  of  the  seven  hun- 
dred dollars  salary.  This  pastor  continued  until  April,  1883,  when  Rev.  J.  S. 
Jewell  was  called,  taking  charge  on  June  i.  This  seemed  to  be  a  time  of 
awakening,  as  the  church  assumed  self-support  and  also  increased  the  salary 
to  one  thousand  dollars.  This  result  was  largely  due  to  the  wise  planning  of 
the  previous  pastor.  Rev.  William  Gill.  On  account  of  sickness  in  his  family 
this  pastorate  continued  but  two  years.  The  church  was  supplied  during 
the  summer  of  1885  by  Rev.  J.  A.  Stemen,  who  declined  a  call  to  become 
permanent  pastor.  Rev.  S.  M.  Wilcox  was  then  called  to  the 'work  and  began 
his  pastorate  on  December  i,  1885,  and  continued  five  years.  Whether  or 
not  this  was  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  Young  People's  Society  of 
Christian  Endeavor  is -not  shown  by  the  records,  but  in  December,  1888,  the 
society  and  the  Sunday  school,  which  had  been  continued  since  its  first 
organization  in  1866,  both  gave  annual  reports  for  the  first  time.  At  this 
same  meeting  the  Ladies'  Society  gave  its  first  annual  report,  although  the 
report  showed  it  was  not  the  first  year  of  its  organization  as  it  showed  cash 
on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  of  sixty-five  dollars.  .  On  January  i, 
1 89 1,  Rev.  George  W.  Jackman  came  to  the  church  as  pastor,  liut  remained 
only  one  year. 

It  is  said  "There  is  a  man  for  every  crisis"  and  the  man  was  evidentlv 
found  when  the  church  called  to  the  pastorate  Rev.  George  E.  Soper,  in 
June,  1892.  Although  there  had  been  a  steady  advance  under  the  leadership 
of  nearl\-  e\ery  pastor,  it  was  during  "Sir.  Soper's  pastorate  that  the  present 
church  1)uilding  was  erected,  the  membership  was  largely  increased,  and  the 
church  came  into  pniminence  among  the  churches  of  the  state.     After  ha\- 


ing  finished  the  present  beautiful  and  commodious  church  edifice,  the  state 
association  was  invited  to  meet  in  Alexandria.  This  invitation  was  accepted 
and  in  1895  the  pastors  and  delegates  of  the  churches  of  the  state  met  in 
their  fortieth  annual  meeting.  From  that  time  the  Congregational  church 
of  Alexandria  has  held  a  high  place  among  the  churches  of  the  state. 

The  first  action  of  which  there  is  any  record  with  reference  to  the 
erection  of  the  present  house  of  worship  was  taken  by  the  society  at  itr 
annual  meeting  in  January,  1889,  when  Mrs.  J.  H.  Lebson,  Mrs.  F.  B.  Van 
Ht)esen  and  W.  S.  Moles  were  appointed  a  committee  to  devise  wa3's  and 
means  for  raising  funds  for  the  purpose,  and  at  the  annual  meeting  held  in 
January,  1890,  Mesrs.  H.  K.  White,  C.  H.  Raiter,  George  G.  S.  Campbell 
were  added  to  this  committee.  At  a  special  meeting  held  November  18, 
1892,  it  was  resolved  "That  this  church  and  society  proceed  to  the  erection 
of  a  new  church  building  to  cost  twelve  thousand  dollars,  provided  that 
amount  of  money  be  first  raised,  and  the  following  building  committee  was 
appointed :  I'".  B.  Van  Hoesen,  treasurer ;  George  L.  Treat,  secretary ;  A.  S. 
Mason,  master  mechanic.  At  a  later  meeting  the  members  of  the  board  of 
trustees,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Samuel  D.  Moles,  C.  H.  Raiter,  G.  B.  Ward, 
J.  H.  Letson  and  George  G.  S.  Campbell  were  added  to  this  committee.  The 
building  was  completed  and  dedicated  with  a  week  of  services  beginning  on 
December  17,  1893.  Its  total  cost,  including  furniture  and  heating  plant, 
was  twenty  thousand  five  hundred  and  thirty-five  dollars  and  forty-two 
cents,  which  was  all  paid  before  dedication. 

An  important  feature  of  Mr.  Soper's  pastorate  was  the  inaugeration  of 
rural  missionary  work  at  four  out  stations  in  the  towns  of  Hudson,  Lake 
Mary.  Carlos,  and  Miltona,  supported  in  part  by  members  of  the  church  and 
society.  This  work,  started  in  1896,  was  successfully  carried  on  for  six 
years  by  Rev.  George  F.  Norton,  Rev.  F.  P.  Ferguson  and  Rev.  Alexander 
Thorn,  resulting  in  the  organization  of  churches  at  Carlos  and  Hudson,  and 
the  erection  of  two  church  buildings,  and  its  final  abandonment  was  due 
largely  to  changed  conditions  on  the  fields.  The  church  building  in  the  town 
of  Carlos  was  located  about  two  miles  west  of  the  present  Carlos  village  and 
was  shared  with  the  German  Lutherans  and  Norwegian  Lutherans.  After 
being  used  for  several  years  it  was  destroyed  by  fire  and  a  new  church  was 
built  by  the  Lutherans  at  Carlos  village.  After  the  location  of  the  village 
of  Forada  on  the  new  Soo  Line  railroad  the  Hudson  church  building  was 
sold  to  the  Presbyterians  and  moved  about  a  mile  and  a  half  to  its  present 
location  in  said  village  where  the  church  work  started  as  above  stated  is 


being  successfully  carried  on  by  the  Presbyterians.  A  revival  service,  led  by 
Rev.  Mr.  Hartsough,  was  conducted  during  this  pastorate  and  was  fruitful 
in  adding  a  number  of  members  to  the  church  rolls.  The  work  continued 
to  grow  during  the  five  and  one-half  years  of  Mr.  Soper's  pastorate,  which 
ended  on  December  31,  1887. 

Rev.  William  H.  Medlar  succeeded  to  the  pastorate  in  May,  1898,  and 
continued  till  December  i,  1903,  five  and  one-half  years.  During  this  pastor- 
ate the  records  show  two  distinct  features  of  work,  the  first  being  that  of 
rural  missionary  work,  and  the  second  the  successful  revival  services  con- 
ducted by  Mr.  Hunt  from  which  thirty  united  with  the  church  by  confession 
of  faith.  The  total  membership  was  increased  from  one  hundred  and  fifty- 
eight  to  two  hundred  and  thirty-eight.  The  splendid  work  done  among  the 
young  people  under  Mr.  Medlar's  leadership  needs  also  to  be  mentioned. 

•Rev.  William  J.  Paske  accepted  the  call  and  became  pastor  of  the 
church  on  May  i,  1904.  Some  institutional  features  of  work  were  added  to 
the  church  ec|uipment  in  the  summer  of  1905.  '  A  Men's  Club  was  organized 
which  finished  off  a  portion  of  the  basement  of  the  church  and  installed  there- 
in bowling  alleys  at  a  cost  of  five  hundred  and  eighty  dollars,  which  fur- 
nished wholesome  recreation  for  all  who  cared  to  avail  themselves  of  the 
opportunity,  boys  and  girls  alike,  as  well  as  members  of  the  club.  During  the 
year  1904  a  beautiful  new  parsonage  was  erected  at  an  expense  of  over  five 
thousand  five  hundred  dollars  on  lots  directly  west  from  the  church  building. 
In  1907  a  magnificent  organ  was  installed  in  the  church  at  an  expense  of 
three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  Mr.  Paske's  pastorate  ended  on  Sep- 
tember I,  1907. 

The  next  pastor  to  take  up  the  work  was  Rev.  Alfred  A.  Secord,  begin- 
ning on  November  15,  1907,  and  ending  on  September  i,  1913,  being  more 
than  five  years  and  nine  months  and  the  longest  in  the  history  of  the  church. 
Mr.  Secord's  pastorate  was  not  marked  by  any  great  increase  in  the  material 
equipment  of  the  church,  as  in  some  former  pastorates,  but  there  was  a  strong 
steady  and  well  balanced  growth  along  all  lines,  with  a  marked  increase  of 
influence  in  the  whole  community.  In  1907  the  church  received  a  legacy 
from  the  estate  of  Francis  B.  Van  Hoesen  of  one  thousand  dollars  for  the 
purpose  of  making  repairs  to  the  church  building  when  needed.  Union 
revival  services  held  in  1908  under  the  leadership  of  Rev.  Milford  H.  Lyon. 
brought  into  the  church  about  thirty  new  members.  The  benevolences  of  the 
church  were  largely  increased  and  became  the  largest  in  its  history.  In  1911 
the  General  Congregational  Association  of  the  state  again  held  its  annual 
meeting  with  the  church. 


On  December  i.  19 13,  Rev.  Frederick  Osten-Sacken  commenced  his 
pastorate  which  continued  to  July  i,  1916,  the  two  and  one-half  years  being 
characterized  by  a  large  increase  in  membership,  seventy-six  members  being 
received  and  there  being  a  net  gain  of  fifty-seven.  A  Men's  Sunday  Club  of 
over  fifty  members  was  organized  which  has  charge  of  the  bowling  alleys 
and  holds  a  weekly  meeting  at  the  Sunday  school  hour  in  a  room  which  it 
provided  in  the  basement  of  the  church,  for  the  discussion  of  religious  and 
social  topics. 

This  history  would  not  be  complete  if  it  failed  to  mention  the  mission- 
ary and  charitable  work  of  the  church.  A  child  of  the  American  Home  Mis- 
sionary Society,  and  assisted  by  it  for  the  first  sixteen  years  of  its  life,  as 
well  as  by  the  Church  Building  Society  in  the  erection  of  its  first  parsonage 
and  church  building,  the  church  has  always  recognized  its  obligations  to 
these  societies  especially,  and  at  the  same  time  has  always  contributed  to 
other  missionary  and  educational  objects  as  well  as  to  local  charities.  In 
carrying  on  the  rural  missionary  enterprise  before  mentioned,  and  assisting 
in  the  erection  of  the  two  church  buildings  in  the  towns  of  Hudson  and 
Carlos,  an  opportunity  was  afforded  to  repay  to  some  extent  its  debt  to  the 
home  mission  and  church  building  societies.  These  contributions  amounted 
to  about  four  hundred  dollars  per  year  for  about  six  years  for  carrying  on 
that  work,  and  to  nearly  one  thousand  six  hundred  dollars  for  the  church 
buildings.  In  1898  the  total  benevolences  are  recorded  as  eight  hundred  and 
twelve  dollars,  and  in  1899,  one  thousand  nine  hundred  eighty-six  dollars, 
including  the  church  building  subscriptions.  For  the  last  ten  years  the  total 
annual  benevolences  have  averaged  aver  nine  hundred  dollars. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  the  growth  of  the  church  in  membership  by 
decades.  In  1877,  at  the  end  of  the  first  decade,  there  were  33  members; 
in  Deceniljer,  1887,  there  were  81;  in  December,  1897,  158;  in  December, 
1907,  158;  and  at  the  present  time,  September,  1916,  there  are  247.  The 
officers  who  have  served  the  church  are :  Deacons,  J.  R.  Lowell,  S.  B. 
Childs,  \\'illiam  E.  Chidester,  L.  G.  Sims,  George  T.  Robards,  Fayette  C. 
Meade,  George  L.  Treat,  Andrew  Purdon,  Samuel  D.  Moles,  George  E. 
Middleton.  Charles  W.  Ridley,  Millard  Fifield,  Arthur  S.  Mason,  J.  A. 
Cranston,  Frank  Kent,  J.'  Willis  Knox,  Hugh  E.  Leach  and  Fred  C.  Meade. 
Those  who  are  conspicuous  for  their  long  service  are :  William  E.  Chidester, 
from  May  i,  1874,  to  September  19,  1898,  over  twenty- four  years  and  four 
months;  George  L.  Treat  from  August  2,  1883,  to  the  present  time,  thirty- 
three  years;  Andrew  Purdon,  from  December  28,  1893,  to  the  present,  near- 
ly thirty-three  years;  and  Fayette  C.  Meade,  from  August  2.  1883,  to  Janu- 


ary  2,  1896,  and  from  January  10,  1907,  to  the  present  time,  over  twenty- 
two  years.  The  present  deacons  are :  George  L.  Treat,  Andrew  Purdon.  J. 
\\'inis  Knox,  Hugh  E.  Leach,  Fred  C.  Meade,  and  Fayette  C.  Meade,  honor- 
ary deacon. 

Deaconesses,  beginning  on  December  31,  1896:  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Cami> 
bell,  Mrs.  Annie  E.  Roberts.  Mrs.  IMary  E.  Chapman,  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Stevens, 
Mrs.  Lucy  Whitcomb.  Mrs.  Anne  Raiter,  Mrs.  Albert  Hubbell,  Mrs.  F.  L 
Cook,  Mrs.  A.  G.  Sexton,  Mrs.  Hattie  Barnes,  Mrs.  Maud  Larson,  Mrs. 
H.  S.  Campbell,  ^Irs.  Lillian  Boyd,  Mrs.  Angeline  Hounsel  and  Mrs.  J.  A. 

Clerks:  Rev.  B.  F.  Haviland.  George  T.  ^^'hitconll).  William  E.  Chid- 
ester,  AMlliam  S.  Moles,  ^Irs.  X.  E.  Dowd,  Andrew  I'urdon,  Airs.  A.  E. 
Loring,  Joel  X.  Childs,  George  L.  Treat,  Henry  A.  Barnes,  Nathan  M. 
Barnes.  George  E.  ]^Iiddleton,  Dr.  C.  L.  Good,  Arthur  S.  Mason.  The  pres- 
ent clerk  is  George  L.  Treat.  Among  those  who  have  served  as  treasurer 
are :  Airs.  Ann  B.  \\  hitcomb,  George  C.  Whitcomb,  Andrew  Purdon.  Alex- 
ander Forbes,  Eder  E.  Houghwont,  Fayette  C.  Meade,  J.  H.  \\'ettleson, 
William  Walker,  \Mlliam  E.  Xesbitt  and  James  A.  Kinney. 

The  trustees  who  have  served  the  "society"  are:  W'illiam  E.  Hicks, 
George  C.  Sims,  Robert  C.  McNeil,  George  C.  Whitcomb,  William  S.  Moles, 
David  H.  Mason,  George  G.  S.  Campbell,  George  W.  Robards,  Gershom 
B.  Ward,  Samuel  D.  Moles,  Christ  H.  Raiter,  James  H.  Letson,  Andrew 
Purdon,  Horatio  Jenkins,  Francis  B.  \"an  Hoesen,  Constant  Larson,  Tallef 
Jacobson,  Hugh  E.  Leach  and  \\'illiam  J.  Sheldon.  George  H.  S.  Camp- 
bell has  served  continuously  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  since  July 
19,  1880,  and  as  secretary  of  the  board  since  January  5,  1883,  and  C.  H. 
Raiter  has  served  as  a  member  since  1883.  The  present  trustees  are:  Hugh 
E.  Leach,  president;  George  G.  S.  Campbell,  secretary;  C.  H.  Raiter,  J.  H. 
Letson  and  W'illiam  J.  Sheldon. 

There  are  a  number  of  auxiliary  societies  connected  with  the  church 
which  have  contributed  largely  to  its  growth  and  work  and  which  should 
be  briefly  mentioned.  The  first  of  these  is  the  Sunday  school,  which  was 
organized,  as  has  been  said,  even  before  the  church,  and  has  been  success- 
fully carried  on  ever  since,  largely  furnished,  through  its  training,  recruits 
for  the  church  membership.  From  a  very  small  class  it  has  grown  to  a 
membership  of  about  two  hundred  at  the  i>resent  time,  though  there  have 
been  some  ups  and  downs  in  its  history.  Those  who  have  acted  as  superin- 
tendent of  the  school  since  1880  are:  L.  G.  Sims,  George  L.  Treat,  E.  E. 
Houghwont.  Samuel  D.   Moles.  Joseph  H.  ^^■ettleson.   Prof.  J.   E.   Phillips, 


Prof.  J.  A.  Cranston,  Mrs.  Nellie  Page,  Mrs.  O.  J.  Robards,  J.  W.  Knox, 
Constant  Larson,  Ezra  E.  McCrea. 

The  Young  People's  Society  of  Christian  Endeavor  has  been  in  exist- 
ence since  1887,  and  while  it,  too,  has  had  its  ups  and  downs  it  has  done 
a  valuable  work  among  the  young  people  in  fitting  them  for  more  advanced 
church  work.  The  combined  active  membership  of  the  senior  and  junior 
societies  in  January,  1916,  was  one  hundred  and  three. 

The  Woman's  Missionary  Society,  organized  in  February,  1885,  has 
done  much  to  advance  the  interest  of  Missions  in  the  church.  Its  first  report 
to  the  church  at  the  annual  meeting  in  December,  1886,  showed  total  con- 
tributions to  home  and  foreign  missions  of  sixty-two  dollars  and  these 
annual  contributions  have  gradually  increased  until  the  present  time.  For 
the  last  few  years,  including"  the  value  of  missionary  boxes  of  clothing,  the 
annual  offering  amounts  to  from  three  hundred  dollars  to  four  hundred  dol- 
lars.    The  society  has  a  present  membership  of  fifty-two. 

One  of  the  strongest  forces  in  the  material  work  of  the  church  has  been 
the  Ladies'  Society.  While  a  work  society  existed  at  an  early  period  probably 
no  formal  organization  was  attempted  until  1885  or  1886.  From  that  time 
tlie  society  has  been  very  active.  It  now  has  a  membership  of  fifty-three. 
The  records  show  that  in  1893-4  the  society  expended  in  furnishings  for  the 
new  church  building  $2,335  •  that  in  1900  it  paid  for  the  lots  on  which  the 
parsonage  now  stands  $1,150;  that  in  1903  it  expended  "mostly  for  carpet" 
for  the  church  $634;  and  that  in  1904  it  took  the  lead  in  building  the  par- 
sonage and  paid  $2,171  of  the  expense.  In  1905  it  contributed  $500  toward 
the  expense  of  the  new  organ.  These  are  some  of  the  larger  things  that  it 
has  accomplished,  btit  it  has  also  contributed  largely  towards  the  running 
expenses  and  the  local  charitable  work  of  the  church  as  there  has  been  need. 

Only  one  of  the  original  members  survives,  Mrs.  Thresa  T.  Hicks,  who 
is  still  a  member  of  the  church,  though  for  many  years  unable  by  reason 
of  deafness  and  blindness  to  take  part  in  the  church  work.  Others  who 
have  been  members  from  an  early  period  are  George  F.  Whitcomb.  1868, 
Deacon  Andrew  Rudon  and  Mrs.  LucyE.  Whitcomb,  1875,  and  Mrs.  Chris- 
tine Walker,  1877.  Among  those  now  deceased  who  were  members  for  the 
longest  period  may  be  mentioned,  David  H.  Mason,  missionary  of  the 
American  Sunday  School  Union  for  more  than  twenty-five  years,  from 
1874  to  1906,  and  Deacon  William  E.  Chidester  from   1873  to  1898. 

While  there  are  many  members  who  have  taken  a  prominent  part 
in  the  work  of  the  church  from  an  early  period  none  are  more  worthy 
to  be  mentioned  for  their  Christian  character  and  zeal  and   for  their  long 


and  arduous  service  than  Mrs.  Ann  B.  Whitcomb,  one  of  the  original  band; 
Mrs.  Lucy  Finch,  Deacon  WilHam  E.  Chidester  and  Deacon  Andrew  Pur- 
don.  In  conchision  it  remains  to  be  said  that  the  leadership  in  providing 
the  splendid  equipment  in  church  building  parsonage,  pipe  organ,  etc.,  was 
found  in  the  large  donations  of  Christ  H.  Raiter  and  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen  and 
in  the  splendid  labors  of  the  board  of  trustees,  without  which  such  equip- 
ment would  not  have  been  possible. 


One  of  the  first  churches  of  the  Norwegian  Lutheran  communion  in 
Douglas  county  is  that  of  the  Norwegian  Lutheran  church  at  Evansville, 
which  was  formally  organized  and  rules  and  regulations  adopted  on  Octo- 
ber 9,  1896.  Previously  ministers  from  other  settlements  came  periodically 
to  preach  to  the  persons  of  that  faith  in  the  Evansville  neighborhood  and 
it  was  not  until  1871  that  the  permanent  pastor  was  chosen.  Rev.  Carlson 
was  the  first  minister  to  fill  the  position  and  he  remained  four  years.  From 
the  fall  of  1875  to  1885,  the  Reverend  Stadstad  served  the  congregation 
as  pastor,  and  from  that  date  the  Rev.  T.  A.  Sattre  has  filled  the  position, 
for  years  having  been  recognized  as  one  of  the  oldest  ministers  of  that 
communion  in  continuous  service  in  one  parish  in  western  Minnesota.  The 
services  of  the  congregation  until  1880  were  held  in  the  old  log  school  house 
on  the  hill  and  in  that  year  the  present  commodious  house  of  worship 
was  erected.  In  1900  the  congregation  provided  a  fine  parsonage  for  the 

The  two  churches  of  the  Norwegian  Lutheran  communion  in  Moe 
township  have  for  many  years  been  large  factors  for  good  in  that  commun- 
ity. These  churches  are  maintained  under  one  charge,  the  minister  in  charge 
filling  both  pulpits  alternately.  The  Moe  Norwegian  Lutheran  church  on 
section  7  of  Moe  township  was  erected  in  1878,  the  first  pastor  being  the 
Rev.  Lauritz  Carlson,  and  the  East  Moe  church  was  erected  in  1882.  The 
two  congregations  aggregate  more  than  one  hundred  families  and  the  par- 
sonage is  maintained  in  conjunction  with  the  first  named  church. 

The  Norwegian  Lutheran  church  of  Alexandria  was  organized  at  a 
meeting  held  in  the  school  house  in  tliat  city  on  April  17,  187J,  the  following 
persons  participating :  Lars  K.  Aaker,  John  Sundblad.  Ove  I\I.  Week, 
Lorintz  Johnson,  S.  N.  Miller,  G.  Dahl,  O.  R.  Wulfsberg  and  Katherine 
H.  Aaker,  others  joining  a  short  time  afterward,  as  follows:  Mrs.  Kris- 
tine  \'andvke,  Oluf  Solum  and  familv,  Thomas  Oakson,  Christian  AI.  Han- 

X()i;wi:(;iAX    ij-riiicuAX    ciukcii.   kvaxsvii.M' 


son,  Stean  Torgerson  and  Theodore  Bordson;  in  1875  Christoffer  Larson 
and  Sophia  Larson  and  in  1876,  Olef  King.  The  first  church  building  was 
erected  in  1876  and  the  following  pastors  have  served:  Rev.  Lauritz  Carl- 
sen,  1872-75;  Rev.  O.  H.  Auberg,  1877-79;  Rev.  A.  L  Stadstad,  1876, 
1880-85;  Rev.  T.  A.  Sattre,  1886-1900;  Rev.  B.  A.  Benson,  1901-15;  Rev. 
Grant  Mile  Rundhaug,  19 16.  The  present  membership  of  the  congregation 
is  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  and  a  very  comfortable  parsonage  is 
maintained  adjoining  the  church.  The  pastor  in  charge  also  has  charge  of 
the  congregation  of  the  Scandinavian-American  Lutheran  church  at  Carlos 
and  of  the  church  of  Our  Savior  at  Nelson. 


The  Norwegian  Lutheran  church  at  Evansville  was  organized  and  rules 
and  regulations  for  the  same  were  adopted  on  October  9,  1869.  Previously, 
ministers  from  other  settlements  came  periodically  to  preach  to  the  people 
of  that  faith  and  it  was  not  until  in  1871  that  a  permanent  pastor  was 
chosen.  Reverend  Carlson  was  the  first  minister  to  fill  the  position  and  he 
remained  four  years.  From  the  fall  of  1875  to  1885  Reverend  Stadstad 
served  the  congregation  as  pastor,  and  from  that  date  Rev.  T.  A.  Sattre, 
the  present  pastor,  has  filled  the  position  with  ability  and  marked  success. 

Until  in  1880  the  services  were  held  in  the  "old  log  school  house  on  the 
hill,"  but  in  that  year  the  present  commodious  building  was  erected.  The  fine 
parsonage  near  the  church  was  built  in  1900.  The  first  trustees  of  the 
church  were  Ole  Granddokken,  John  Davidson  and  John  Saterlie.  The 
present  congregation  consists  of  about  four  hundred  and  the  church  and 
parsonage  are  free  from  debt. 


The  first  ministers  of  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Augustana  church  to  visit 
Douglas  county  were  Eric  Norelius  and  Peter  Carlson  and  that  was  during 
the  summer  of  1865.  They  travelled  on  foot  and  by  ox-team  through  the 
dense  woods  and  uninhabited  prairies.  The  next  year  Rev.  J.  Magny  came 
to  the  countv  and  organized  the  Oscar  Lake  church  in  Holmes  City  town- 
ship. He  visited  a  number  of  places  in  the  county'  and  prepared  them  for 
future  religious  work. 

In  September,  1879.  in  the  Svea  church  at  Alexandria,  the  .Mexandria 
District   was   established.      The   district   was   verv   large,    extending   to    the 


Pacific  Coast  on  the  west  and  to  the  extreme  north  of  Canada  on  the  north, 
but  in  this  vast  territory  there  were  then  only  nineteen  small  congrega- 
tions. The  following  ministers  were  present  at  that  meeting:  J-  P.  Matt- 
son,  L.  C.  Lind,  P.  J.  Lundblad,  S.  J-  Kronberg  and  L. -Johnson.  Of  these 
all  have  passed  to  their  reward  except  Reverend  Kronberg.  who  lives  on 
his  farm  near  Melby,  Minnesota. 

There  are  eleven  churches  of  this  denomination  in  the  county,  namely  : 
Svea,  at  Alexandria;  Ida,  in  Ida  township,  Falun,  in  Osakis  township; 
Spruce  Hill,  in  Spruce  Hill  township;  Oscar  Lake,  in  Holmes  City  township; 
Holmes  City,  at  Holmes  City;  Wennersborg  in  Solem  township;  Immanuel, 
at  Evansville ;  Christine  Lake,  in  Lund  township ;  Fryksende,  in  Urness 
township,  and  Zionsborg,  in  Evansville  township. 


Svea  church  at  Alexandria  was  organized  and  inctirporated  in  1877. 
For  a  time  the  congregation  used  the  church  building,  located  where  the 
present  church  stands,  together  with  the  Norwegian  congregation,  but  pres- 
ently the  Norwegians  built  a  church  of  their  own  and  each  then  had  its 
separate  house  of  worship.  The  present  fine  Svea  church  building  was 
erected  in  1909.  There  is  a  commodious  parsonage  next  to  the  church  and 
this  is  owned  in  common  by  Svea  and  Ida  congregations.  The  ministers  of 
this  church  have  been  the  following:  L.  C.  Lind,  John  Hedberg,  A.  ]\Ielin. 
A.   Mattson,  the  last  named  being  the  present  very  efficient  pastor. 

Ida  church  was  organized  in  1869  and  incorporated  in  1877.  Its  pres- 
ent edifice  was  erected  in  1897.  The  church  owns  a  parsonage  at  Alexan- 
dria in  common  with  the  Svea  church.  The  congregation  has  been  served 
by  the  above  named  pastors  of  the  S^•ea  church,  and  A.  Mattson  is  the 
present  pastor. 

Falun  church  was  organized  on  ]\Iay  31,  1871,  at  a  meeting  at  which 
Peter  E.  Hanson  was  chairman  and  E.  L.  Forsgren,  secretary.  Lars  Berg- 
strom,  E.  L.  Forsgren  and  John  Marites  Johnson  were  elected  deacons. 
Adam  Anderson,  Peter  Lundgren  and  P.  E.  Hanson  were  elected  trustees. 
Later  on  in  the  same  year  the  church  was  incorporated  and  Adam  Anderson, 
Peter  Lundgren  and  P.  E.  Hanson  continued  to  be  trustees.  The  mem- 
bership then  was  sixty-five.  The  first  church  building  was  built  of  logs 
and  was  quite  a  large  building.  It  was  located  on  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  8  in  Osakis  township.  The  present  building  was  erected  in  1886  and 
there  is  a  commodious  parsonage  near  the  church.     The  following  pastors 


have  served  Falun  church :  P.  J.  Lundblad,  J.  P.  Hedberg,  A.  ]\[eliu.  J. 
S.  Ryding,  and  P.  G.  Ording,  the  latter  of  whom  is  the  present  ver\-  efficient 

Spruce  Hill  church  was  organized  in  1876;  incorporated  in  1878  and 
its  present  church  building  was  constructed  in  1902.  For  some  years  the 
church  was  served  by  the  pastor  who  served  the  church  at  Parkers  Prairie, 
and  later  by  the  pastor  of  the  Falun  church. 


The  church  work  among  the  Swedish  people  of  the  western  part  of 
Douglas  county  has  been  carried  on  by  the  Christina  Lake  pastorate  since 
1 87 1.  Rev.  J.  Magny  organized  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Christina  Lake 
congregation  in  that  year  and  it  was  incorporated  in   1877. 

In  the  year  1874,  Re^'.  S.  J.  Kronberg  was  called  by'  the  mission 
board  of  the  Minnesota  conference  to  take  charge  of  the  church  work 
among  the  Swedish  people  of  Douglas,  Otter  Tail  and  Grant  counties. 
The  pioneers  were  very  religious.  They  felt  that  they  could  not  live  and 
prosper  without  having  the  church  of  their  fathers  in  their  midst.  Lender 
the  able  leadership  of  Reverend  Kronberg,  the  beautiful  Christina  Lake 
church  building  was  erected  which  yet  serves  as  the  place  of  worship. 
This  was  by  no  means  a  small  undertaking  when  the  financial  circumstances 
of  the  people  at  that  time  are  considered. 

This  congregation  has  been  a  prominent  factor  in  the  upbuilding  of 
this  community,  and  many  men  and  women  have  been  better  fitted  for  the 
duties  of  life  through  the  infiuence  of  this  church.  Northwestern  College, 
which  is  now  located  at  Fergus  Falls,  had  its  beginning  here  under  the  name 
of  Lund  .\cademy,  and  the  school  room  of  the  church  served  as-  the 
home  of  the  college  during  the  first  year.  Nearl}-  all  of  the  charter  mem- 
bers of  this  congregation  have  been  laid  to  rest  in  the  peaceful  cemetery 
adjoining  the  church,  but  the  good  work  begun  by  them  will  continue  through 
generations  to  come. 

When  the  Great  Xorthern  railway,  then  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  & 
Manitoba  road,  was  built  through  Douglas  county  in  1879,  the  \nllage  of 
Evansville  came  into  existence.  The  Swedish  people  in  the  village  and 
surrounding  country  at  that  time  belonged  to  the  Christina  Lake  congrega- 
gation,  but  in  1883  the  Swedes  and  Norwegians  erected  a  small  church 
in  the  western  part  of  the  village.  In  1884  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Imnianuel 
congregation  of  Evansville  was  organized  and  the  Swedes  became  the  sole 


owners  of  the  above  mentioned  church  building.  This  building  was  replaced 
by  a  modern  church  in  1906.  Upon  the  resignation  of  Reverend  Kronberg, 
who  faithfully  served  this  pastorate  for  thirty  years,  the  residence  of  the 
pastor  was  changed  from  Christina  Lake  to  Evansville.  In  19 13  the  pastor 
erected  a  beautiful  modern  house  next  to  the  church  at  a  cost  of  five  thou- 
sand dollars,  which  makes  this  property  a  valuable  addition  to  the  village. 

The  Swedish  Lutheran  Fryksende  congregation,  in  the  township  of 
L^rness,  south  of  Evansville,  was  organized  in  1877  and  a  church  building 
was  then  erected. 

In  1884  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Zionsborg  congregation  was  organ- 
ized and  a  church  was  built  in  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  township 
of  Evansville. 

The  abo\e  mentioned  four  congregations  constitute  the  Christina  Lake 
pastorate  which  has  been  served  by  the  following  ministers :  Rev.  S.  J. 
Kronberg,  from  1874  to  1904;  Rev.  Eric  Floreen,  from  1905  to  1908; 
1908-1910,  no  residence  pastor;  from  1910  to  1912  by  Rev.  C.  E.  Holmer, 
and  from  19 12  to  the  present  day  Rev.  S.  W.  Swenson  has  been  the  pastor. 
In  closing  this  brief  review  of  the  history  of  the  Christina  Lake  pastorate, 
Mr.  Swenson  appended  the  following:  "It  would  have  been  a  pleasant  duty 
for  the  writer  to  mention  many  faithful  men  and  women  who  have  been 
connected  with  the  work  in  this  pastorate,  Ijut,  as  space  does  not  permit,  we 
close  with  the  assurance  that  God  knows  them  all  and  He  will  give  the 
due  reward." 


One  of  the  very  earliest  church  organizations  in  Douglas  county  was 
that  of  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Oscar  Lake,  which 
was  organized  in  1886,  largely  through  the  individual  efforts  of  O.  Fahlin. 
one  of  the  first  settlers  of  that  community.  For  some  time  services  were 
held  in  the  homes  of  the  settlers  of  that  neighborhood,  but  after  awhile 
a  small  church  building  was  erected.  The  second  and  present  house  of 
worship  was  erected  in  1884  at  a  cost  of  above  three  thousand  dollars  and 
was  dedicated  in  1886  by  the  Rev.  J.  Fremling,  president  of  the  conference. 
The  pastors  who  have  had  charge  there  are  as  follows:  Rev.  J.  IMagny, 
Rev.  Aaron  W'ahlin,  Rev.  L.  Johnson,  Rev.  J.  A.  Johnson,  Rev.  Rudolph 
\'all(|uist  and  the  present  pastor,  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Ericksson,  who  is  also 
pastor  of  the  Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  of  Holmes  City,  where 
he  makes  his  home,  and  of  the  church  of  the  same  communion  at  Xorunga, 


over  the  line  in  Pope  cmmty.  The  church  at  Hohnes  City  was  organized 
in  1875,  services  being  held  in  convenient  places  of  meeting  until  a  house 
of  worship  was  erected  in  1889.  the  building  being  consecrated  on  December 
3,  1890,  by  the  Rev.  P.  Sjblom,  the  cost  of  the  church  having  been  in  the 
neighborhood  of  three  thousand  dollars.  A  parsonage  is  maintained  for  the 
pastor  at  Holmes  City,  the  cost  of  the  same  having  been  shared  by  the  con- 
gregation at  Oscar  Lake  and  a.t  Norunga.  Among  the  ministers  who  pre- 
ceded Mr.  Eriksson  at  Plolmes  City  were  the  Rev.  O.  Lindh,  Rev.  J.  P. 
Hedberg,  Rev.  J.  J.  Johnson  and  Rev.  Rudolph  Vallcjuist.  The  three 
churches  in  this  charge  are  well  organized  for  effective  service,  the  various 
departments  of  the  work  of  the  church  being  well  represented  by  active 


At  the  same  time  that  Alexandria  and  Douglas  count}-  were  celebrating 
their  home  coming  week  in  the  summer  of  1916,  the  Swedish  Baptist  church 
was  celebrating  its  thirty-tifth  anniversary.  A  large  number  of  the  mem- 
bers, former  members  and  friends  from  far  and  near  were  present.  The 
programs  extended  over  several  days  and  were  well  attended.  Great  interest 
in  the  meetings  prevailed. 

The  congregation  was  organized  on  July  2,  1881,  at  the  home  of  John 
Broms  with  A.  A.  Linne,  of  the  American  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  pres- 
ent. N.  A.  Peterson  was  chosen  president  and  A.  A.  Linne,  secretary. 
Thirteen  persons  joined  as  members  on  this  day.  They  are  J.  Broms.  Fred 
Severson,  Johanes  M.  Broms,  Ulrika  S.  Broms.  Ida  Broms,  Ole  E.  Floding, 
Karin  Floding,  N.  J.  Anderson,  Christine  Anderson,  Nils  A.  Peterson  and 
Anna  Peterson.  The  first  deacons  were  Fritz  Severson  and  Nils  A.  Pet- 

In  December  ]\Iartin  Dahlquist  was  engaged  as  pastor  which  position 
he  held  for  three  years.  The  progress  and  growth  of  the  church  was  marked 
from  the  start,  so  in  1885  there  were  forty  members.  At  that  time  the 
American  Baptist  church  on  Seventh  avenue  was  hired  as  the  public  meet- 
ing place.  Following  Mr.  Dahlquist  came  Reverend  Hallgren  in  1877  and 
the  progress  of  the  congregation  became  still  more  marked,  so  in  189 1  there 
was  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-five.  It  was  during  this  time 
that  the  congregation  secured  the  present  site  and  built  their  own  church. 
In  1891  Reverend  Hallgren  went  to  Sweden  and  this  left  the  congregation 
without  a  fixed  pastor.  But  Mr.  Ole  Sutherlund  served  in  the  capacity 
as  such  until  the  following  }-ear  when  Rev.  A.  G.  Holm  took  charge.     The 


church  was  completed  in  1894  and  in  1895  and  the  membership  had  reached 
one  hundred  and  eighty. 

.\t  that  time  a  great  change  took  place.  A  branch  church  was  organ- 
ized from  a  part  of  the  membership  at  Reynolds,  Todd  county.  Also  a 
large  number  of  the  members  migrated  to  Canada  and  a  Swedish  Baptist 
church  at  Alidale  was  organized  almost  exclusively  from  members  that  had 
left  .Alexandria.  This  for  a  time  greatly  reduced  the  local  organization  but 
it  continued  to  prosper  because  of  the  self-sacrifices  and  energy  of  those 
who   remained. 

In  1 90 1  the  Holmes  City  members  organized  the  Holmes  City  con- 
gregation and  have  later  built  for  themselves  a  very  beautiful  church  in 
the  village  of  Holmes  City. 

In  191 2  the  local  church  was  remodelled  and  enlarged  at  a  consider- 
able expense.  It  is  now  one  of  the  largest  churches  of  the  city  and  cen- 
trally located,  so  is  often  used  for  large  temperance  gatherings  and  meet- 
ings of  similar  nature  by  outsiders. 

The  acti\'ities  of  this  congregation  are  extensive  and  felt  in  many  parts 
of  the  county  through  its  Sunday  schools  and  various  Ladies"  Aid  organi- 
zations. One  of  the  features  of  this  church  organization  is  the  persistent 
and  energetic  temperance  work.  Its  membership  can  always  be  counted 
upon  as  loyal  supporters  in  any  movement  of  this  kind,  no  matter  under 
what  auspices  such  movement  may  be  conducted. 

Rev.  A.  O.  Lundeen,  the  present  pastor,  has  brought  new  life  and 
energy  into  the  organization  and  the  growth  and  influence  of  the  congre- 
gations are  steadily  gaining  ground. 


In  the  fall  of  1874  the  Rev.  A.  Hertwig,  resident  at  South  Effington, 
made  a  number  of  explorations  into  the  townships  of  Miltona,  Carlos,  Belle 
River  and  Spruce  Hill.  A  number  of  German  Lutherans  were  found  scat- 
tered through  these  townships  and  that  same  fall  the  Emmanuel's  German 
Evangelical  Lutheran  congregation  was  organized.  Services  were  held  at 
the  homes  of  the  various  members  until  a  small  church  could  be  built  near 
the  present  farm  of  William  Zunker.  The  members  being  far  scattered, 
progress  was  slow  and  some  years  later  a  number  of  the  original  members 
severed  their  connection  and  joined  in  building  a  Union  church  near  the  pres- 
ent cemetery  at  Carlos.  The  rest  built  the  present  church  of  the  Emmanuel's 
congregation  just  at  the  outskirts  of  the  village  of  Carlos.     That  building 


was  put  Up  in  1898,  there  being  fourteen  members  of  the  church  at  the 
time,  and  is  still  used  as  a  house  of  worship  by  the  congregation.  After 
the  Rev.  A.  ,  Hertwig  moved  from  South  Effington  to  Gaylord  the  Rev. 
A.  Bartz,  of  Alexandria,  had  charge  of  the  congregation  until  the  sum- 
mer of  1910,  when  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Jank  was  called  and  was  installed  as  the 
first  resident  pastor.  He  had  charge  of  the  congregation  until  in  May,  1914, 
and  in  June  of  that  same  year  the  present  pastor,  the  Rev.  Paul  F.  Siegel, 
took  charge.  Connected  with  the  Emmanuel  congregation  at  Carlos  there 
is  a  small  congregation  at  Park  Hill,  over  in  Todd  county,  also  under  the 
charge  of  Mr.  Siegel.  Naturally,  in  a  mixed  settlement,  such  as  that  around 
Carlos,  the  progresss  of  a  one-language  church,  and  that  foreign,  must  be 
slow.  The  congregation  at  present  numbers  thirty  voting  members,  about 
eighty-five  communicant  members  and  about  one  hundred  and  seventy  souls. 
There  are  no  auxiliaries  to  the  church,  but  the  congregation  upholds  a  paro- 
chial school,  though  in  the  winter  of  1915-16  there  were  only  seven  in 
attendance  at  the  same.  The  pastor  also  serves  as  teacher  in  the  school.  It 
is  reported  that  a  new  church  is  badly  needed,  the  present  edifice  not  holding 
more  than  half  the  congregation  and  without  doubt  the  next  few  years  will 
see  a  new  church  edifice  erected  alongside  the  parsonage  in  town. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  Zion's  congregation  at  Alexandria  had  its 
origin  about  thirty-five  years  ago  in  a  small  way,  when  a  few  German 
Lutheran  families  who  had  settled  in  and  near  Alexandria  formed  a  congre- 
gation, which  has  grown  into  the  present  flourishing  parish.  The  Rev.  Hert- 
wig, then  stationed  at  Effington,  over  the  line  of  Ottertail  county,  who  was 
one  of  the  missionaries  of  that  faith  in  the  Northwest,  served  the  little  con- 
gregation at  converrkmt  seasons  and  after  the  arrival  of  a  few  more  Ger- 
man Lutheran  families  the  congregation  was  formally  organized,  December 
2-j,  1886,  with  seven  charter  members,  Andrew  Roth,  Matth.  Haberer,  Fred 
Fiebranz,  Carl  Beltz,  Fred  Kitzke,  Carl  Schuelke  and  Julius  Stoppel.  At 
first  the  small  congregation  held  its  services  in  private  houses ;  then  it  rented 
the  Lutheran  Norwegian  church  for  its  meetings.  But  in  the  year  1889  the 
little  flock  built  a  church  building  of  its  own,  a  small  building,  but  the  little 
congregation  was  delighted  now  to  have  its  own  spiritual  home.  As  the 
Reverend  Hertwig  by  this  time  had  eleven  places  to  serve,  the  congrega- 
tion at  Alexandria,  with  four  other  small  congregations,  the  ones  at  Villard, 
Carlos,  English  Grove  and  Oak  Hill,  in  the  next  year  called  its  own  pastor, 
the  Rev.  A.  Bartz,  who  is  still  serving.  In  the  year  1899,  the  congrega- 
tion meantime  having  outgrown  the  building  erected  in  1888,  a  new  and 
larger  church   edifice,  the  present  church  building,   was  erected,   and  great 


was  the  joy  of  the  members  when  the  Lutheran  Zion's  Congregation  was 
permitted  to  enter  this  new  house  of  worship.  As  the  work  for  the  pastor 
thenceforward  increased,  the  parish  was  divided  in  1902,  Villard  and  two 
other  places  calHng  their  own  pastor.  A  few  years  later  another  division 
took  place,  Carlos  and  Oak  Hill  organizing  as  a  parish  and  calling  their 
own  pastor.  By  that  time  a  new  congregation  had  been  founded  at  Garfield, 
which  asked  to  form  a  parish  with  the  congregation  at  Alexandria  and  this 
mutually  agreeable  union  still  exists.  In  191 1  Zion's  congregation  celebrated 
the  twenty-fifth  anniversary,  or  silver  jubilee,  of  its  organization  and  in  the 
next  year  another  important  step  was  taken  by  the  congregation  in  calling 
a  special  teacher  for  its  parochial  school,  the  latter  theretofore  having  been 
conducted  by  the  pastor.  Prof.  W.  Melchert,  the  teacher  then  called,  is 
still  serving  in  that  capacity.  In  this  school,  besides  religion,  all  the  branches 
of  the  common  school  are  taught  in  two  languages,  English  and  German. 
Besides  this  school  training,  there  is  a  two-year  course  of  special  instruction 
of  the  upper  classes  in  religion  by  the  pastor,  preparatory  to  confirmation. 
To  attain  this  end  the  Ijetter,  the  congregation  erected  in  1914  a  handsome 
two-room  modern  school  building.  The  congregation  at  present  has  more 
than  eighty  voting  members,  three  hundred  communicants  and  five  hundred 
baptized  members,  and  the  Word  of  God  is  preached  in  its  midst  in  two 
languages,  German  and  English. 


There  are  several  active  parishes  of  the  Catholic  church  in  Douglas 
count}',  including  St.  Mary's  at  Alexandria,  Immaculate  Conception  at 
Osakis,  St.  Ann's  at  Brandon,  the  Seven  Dolors  at  Millerville,  and  the 
church  in  Belle  River,  the  latter  presided  over  by  the  Rev.  Emil  Steinach; 
while  there  are  several  parishes  in  adjoining  counties,  a  part  of  whose  mem- 
bership is  gained  from  Douglas  county. 

The  first  religious  services  for  the  Catholics  of  Alexandria,  the  county 
seat,  were  held  in  a  small  apartment  at  the  residence  of  Charles  Sondag  and 
among  the  first  priests  who  administered  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  people 
in  those  pioneer  days  was  the  Re\-.  Edward  Guenther.  In  compliance  with 
the  rec|uest  of  a  few  Catholics  in  that  community  Bishop  Seidenbusch 
granted  permission  for  the  erection  of  the  little  church,  which  stood  until  the 
present  handsome  church  of  St.  Mary's  was  erected  at  Alexandria  about 
fifteen  vears  ago.  It  was  on  July  2,  1882,  that  the  little  frame  building  was 
dedicated,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Visitation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  by 


the  Rev.  Father  Othmar,  who  attended  the  parish  from  St.  John's  University 
at  Collegeville.  The  Benedictine  Fathers  directed  the  congregation  until 
1895,  when  Rev.  Father  Tomazin  was  ordered  to  provide  for  it  in  connec- 
tion with  his  pastorate  in  Belle  River.  In  February,  1899,  the  Benedictines 
were  again  intrusted  with  the  charge,  and  following  a  mission  conducted 
in  June  of  that  year  by  the  Rev.  Father  Augustine,  of  Moorhead,  the 
trustees  secured  the  appointment  of  a  priest  to  administer  services  regularly 
every  Sunday  instead  of  once  or  twice  a  month,  as  was  done  previously, 
and  the- charge  was  conferred  upon  Rev.  Otto  Weisser,  who  officiated  from 
October  of  that  year  until  October,  19 10,  it  being  during  his  pastorate  that 
the  parish  was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  state,  as  set  out  in  a 
previous  paragraph.  Father  Weisser  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  L.  J.  Haupt, 
who  became  the  first  resident  priest  in  Alexandria  and  he  has  been  suc- 
ceeded in  turn  by  the  Rev.  Henry  Leuthner,  Rev.  James  Walcher,  Rev. 
Leo  Gans,  Rev.  Peter  Gans,  Rev.  Paul  Kuich,  Rev.  Van  Dinter  and  the 
Rev.  Francis  Welp,  the  present  pastor.  St.  Mary's  parish  maintains  a  com- 
modious parish  residence  and  the  various  organizations  of  the  church  display 
their  activities  by  their  works.  These  include  the  Confraternity  of  Chris- 
tian ^Mothers,  the  Ladies'  Sewing  Circle,  the  Young  Ladies  Sodalitv  and 
St.  Mary  Court  No.  1067,  Catholic  Order  of  Foresters,  the  latter  of  which 
was  organized  in  February,  1900.  with  a  membership  of  twenty-one. 

Though  the  Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  at  Osakis  did  not 
come  into  being  until  the  summer  of  1899,  the  people  of  the  Catholic  faith 
in  that  vicinity  had  not  been  deprived  of  the  comfort  of  divine  service, 
in  the  earlier  days  the  few  scattered  families  attended  service,  under  consid- 
erable sacrifice,  at  the  church  on  the  Benedictine  farm  about  two  miles  north- 
west of  West  Union.  But  as  Osakis  grew  and  prospered,  more  Catholic 
families  settled  in  the  vicinity  and  the  project  of  having  a  church  of  their 
own  came  to  fulfillment.  One  of  the  circumstances  which  contributed  to 
the  establishment  of  a  Catholic  parish  at  Osakis  was  the  fact  that  the  Bene- 
dictine Fathers  had  resolved  to  dispose  of  their  farming  property  near 
Lhiion.  which  was  soon  followed  by  the  decision  to  move  the  St.  Alexis 
church  into  the  town  of  West  Union,  thereby  making  the  distance  still 
farther  for  the  Catholics  in  and  around  Osakis.  In  the  beginning  of  April, 
1899,  the  Rev.  Ildephonse  Molitor,  pastor  of  the  church  of  St.  Alexius  at 
West  Union,  called  a  meeting  of  Catholics  of  Osakis  and  vicinity  for  the 
purpose  of  organizing  a  congregation.  At  that  meeting  twenty-eight  were 
present  and  the  details  of  raising  funds  and  providing  for  the  erection  of  a 
church  were  entrusted  to  a  committee.     Eight  lots  were  bought   for   iour 


hundred  dollars  in  C.  P.  Hanson's  addition  to  Osakis  and  work  on  the 
edifice  was  begun  without  delay.  One-half  of  the  church  furniture  and 
five  hundred  dollars  in  cash  was  gi\en  the  Osakis  congregation  when  it 
separated  from  St.  Alexius  parish.  At  the  beginning  the  congregation  con- 
sisted of  forty-five  families  and  it  was  incorporated,  August  11,  1899,  under 
the  name  of  The  Cluirch  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  as  set  out  in  a 
previous  paragraph.  The  original  plan  was  to  build  a  brick-veneered  church. 
Init  scarcity  of  funds  precluded  the  idea  of  veneering  it  and  hence  it  remained 
unfinished  until  the  latter  part  of  October,  1905.  The  church  was  dedi- 
cated on  December  17,  1900,  bv  the  Rt.  Rev.  James  Trobec,  D.  D.,  bishop 
of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud.  The  foundation  and  the  frame  work  of  the 
church  cost  about  three  hundred  dollars  and  the  brick  veneering  was  added 
at  a  cost  of  eight  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  From  its  inception  until  October, 
1900,  the  congregation  was  attended  to  partly  by  Fathers  from  the  Benedic- 
tine Abbey  at  Collegeville  and  partly  from  ,St.  Alexius  church.  In  October, 
1900,  it  was  made  a  permanent  mission  of  St.  Alexius  church  of  \\'est 
Union  and  on  September  14,  1905,  it  became  a  parish  having  a  resident  priest. 
The  following  Benedictine  Fathers  have  been  pastors  of  the  church  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception  or  attended  the  same  from  the  abbey:  Rev.  Ilde- 
phonse  Molitor,  Rev.  Charles  Cannon,  Rev.  Oswald  Baran,  Rev.  Louis 
Traufler,  Rev.  Maurus  Ferdinand,  Rev.  Ralph  Knapp  and  Rev.  Philip 
Bahner.  On  April  4,  1906,  Rev.  Philip  Bahner  called  a  meeting  of  the  lay 
trustees  to  consider  the  feasibility  of  building  a  parish  house.  At  that  meet- 
ing it  was  decided  to  proceed  at  once  with  the  erection  of  a  parish  house 
and  to  make  a  loan  of  one  thousand  dollars  to  cover  the  stipulated  cost. 
In  the  spring  and  summer  of  1906  the  present  parsonage  was  built.  Father 
Bahner  doing  much  of  the  carpenter  work  himself.  Services  were  conducted 
every  Sunday,  as  there  was  no  mission  connected  with  the  parish.  Father 
Bahner  remained  pastor  until  October,  1907,  when  the  Benedictine  Fathers 
were  relieved  of  Osakis.  The  Rt.  Rev.  James  Trobec  then  appointed  Rev. 
Frederick  Hinnenkamp,  pastor,  who  took  charge  of  the  parish  on  October  12, 
1907.  Father  Hinnenkamp  was  pastor  until  August  4,  191 1,  when  he  was 
transferred  to  the  church  of  Our  Lady  of  Angels  at  Sauk  Center.  During 
his  pastorate  substantial  improvements  were  made  in  both  the  church  and 
the  house.  The  interior  of  the  church  was  laid  with  steel  sheeting  and 
beautifully  decorated.  Two  hot-air  furnaces  were  installed  in  the  basement 
of  the  church,  these  and  the  improvements  in  the  house  and  on  the  premises 
being  paid  for  in  cash,  the  money  for  the  same  being  raised  by  church  fes- 
tivals, donations  and  subscriptions.     Services  were  conducted  every  Sunday 

'  ^  v-lHIBHIi 

'/     ./Wk 


^  e  1  1 






and  Holy  Day,  except  on  the  first  Sunday  of  each  month,  when  Father 
Hinnenkamp  attended  St.  Ann's  congregation  at  Brandon,  which  order  co- 
tinues  to  the  present  time.  x\fter  Father  Hinnenkamp  had  been  transferred 
to  Sauk  Center,  Rev.  John  Fuss  was  pastor  of  the  church  of  the  Immacu- 
late Conception  for  three  months.  Then  the  spiritual  wants  of  the  people 
were  ministered  to  for  some  time  by  the  Rev.  William  Scheiner,  pastor  of 
St.  Alexius  church  at  West  Union.  After  that  -the  Benedictine  Fathers  of 
St.  John's  Abbey,  Collegeville,  conducted  services  at  Osakis  two  Sundays 
a  month  until  February  23,  1913,  when  the  bishop  appointed  the  Rev. 
Joseph  Wessendorf,  pastor.  On  account  of  ill  health  Father  Wessendorf 
was  compelled  to  leave  the  following  June.  z\gain  the  Benedictine  Fathers 
were  called  upon  for  their  kind  assistance,  until  the  bishop  could  send  Rev. 
John  Van  der  Boer,  who  had  charge  of  the  parish  for  nearly  six  months. 
Father  Wessendorf  resumed  his  pastorate  on  March  26,  1914,  and  has  con- 
tinued the  same  to  this  day.  Within  the  past  few  years  the  parish  has 
increased  considerably  and  at  present  numbers  about  seventy  families,  or 
three  hundred  and  fifty  members.  Because  of  this  increase  in  membership 
and  on  account  of  the  general  prosperity  the  parish  was  able  to  reduce  its 
liabilities  by  two  thousand  nine  hundred  dollars  in  the  past  four  years,  leav- 
ing at  present  an  incumbrance  of  only  six  hundred  dollars  on  all  its  prop- 
erty. On  December  24,  1902,  the  church  corporation  purchased  two  acres  of 
land  from  Charles  Anderson  for  a  cemetery,  for  a  consideration  of  two  hun- 
dred dollars.  The  remains  in  the  old  cemetery  near  the  Evergreen,  or 
Rhinehart,  cemetery,  were  then  taken  up  and  removed  to  the  new  site.  The 
Christian  Mothers  Society  of  the  Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  was 
estabhshed  on  October  19, -1902,  by  the  Rev.  Maurus  Ferdinand.  This 
society,  together  with  the  Sewing  Circle,  or  Ladies  Aid  Society,  has,  by 
means  of  festivals,  suppers  and  energetic  work,  supplied  the  church  with 
the  necessary  linens  and  vestments,  has  provided  for  the  repair  of  cassocks 
and  altar  linen  and  the  scrubbing  of  the  church  and  has,  moreover,  provided 
the  church  with  some  beautiful  statues,  a  marble  votive  stand,  flowers  and 
other  furnishings  for  the  sanctuary  and  has  borne  the  expense  of  fencing  in 
the  cemeterv,  the  society  Ijeinjj  n  living  monument  to  what  union  and  effort 
can  accomplish 

The   Church   of   the    Seven    Dolors   at   Millerville,   of   which   the   Rev. 

Ignatius  Wippich  has  been  the  pastor  since  in  April,    1910,   is  one  of  the 

twenty-five  parishes  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud  which  is  in  the  possession 

of  a  parochial  school,  which  w^s  erected  at  a  cost  of  something  more  than 



seventeen  thousand  dolars  in  1913,  after  a  very  vigorous  and  effective  cam- 
paign in  that  behalf  directed  by  the  pastor,  Father  \\'ippich,  who  wrote  in 
Latin  and  placed  in  the  cornerstone  of  the  new  school  a  document,  of  which 
the  following  is  a  free  translation : 

"To  the  greater  glory  of  God  and  veneration  of  Alary,  the  sorrowful 
mother  of  our  Redeemer,  the  patroness  of  our  parish,  and  for  the  safvation 
of  souls  from  generation  to  generation,  souls  redeemed  by  the  blood  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  for  the  welfare  of  our  country;  the  cornerstone  for 
the  proposed  new  parochial  school  at  Millerville,  in  the  county  of  Douglas 
and  state  of  Minnesota,  was  laid  and  blessed  by  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bernard  Richter, 
domestic  prelate  and  pastor  of  the  St.  Boniface  church  of  Melrose,  on  the 
feast  of  the  glorious  Apostles,  Peter  and  Paul,  on  a  Sunday,  on  the  29th 
of  June,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  nineteen  hundred  and  thirteen,  when  Pius 
X,  by  Divine  Providence,  Pope,  was  gloriously  reigning  over  the  Catholic 
church,  when  James  Trobec,  by  Divine  Mercy  and  grace  of  the  Holy  Apos- 
tolic See,  was  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Cloud,  when  Ignatius  W'ippich,  a 
priest  born  in  the  diocese  of  Emland,  East  Prussia,  was  pastor  of  the  St. 
Mary's  church,  under  the  title  of  the  Seven  Dolors,  at  Millerville,  and  Chas. 
L.  Julig  was  treasurer,  and  John  Bitzan,  secretary  of  the  congregation,  and 
also  when  to  the  board  of  consultation  belonged  John  Kelly,  Frank  Kor- 
kowski,  Frank  Ledermann,  Martin  Pinkowski,  Edward  Schirber  and  Peter 
Wagner;  when  Eugene  Korkowski  was  president  of  the  St.  Joseph  (Men's) 
Society;  Ferdinand  Dobmeyer,  chief  ranger  of  the  Catholic  Order  of  For- 
esters; Conrad  Abel  of  the  St.  Aloysius  (Young  Men's)  Society;  Widow 
Anna  Maria  Kotschevar,  president  of  the  Christian  Mothers'  Society,  and 
Barbara  Kotschevar,  president  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Sodality,  under  the 
patronage  of  St.  Rosa  of  Lima:  when  'Woodrow  Wilson  was  President  of 
the  United  States  of  America;  Adolph  Eberhart,  governor  of  the  state  of 
Minnesota,  and  Jacob  Thoennes,  mayor  of  the  village  of  Millerville,  this 
festival  took  place  on  a  beautiful  day  and  a  great  multitude  participating. 
The  builder  of  the  school  is  John  Abel,  a  youth  of  Millerville.  The  archi- 
tect, Edward  J.  Donahue,  of  St.  Paul.  Of  the  visiting  priests  were  Revs. 
John  Sand  of  Effington,  Paul  Kuich  of  Alexandria,  Emil  Stemach  of  Belle 
River,  and  the  newly  ordained  Victor  Stiegler.  And  to  Thee,  O  Sorrowful 
Mother,  to  whose  honor  this  statue,  which  decorates  the  parochial  school,  is 
today  blessed,  again  also  this  parish  is  dedicated,  that  through  thy  interces- 
sion, the  Almighty  God  may  reward  all  benefactors  of  this  school  with 
eternal  goods,  and  that  our  pledge  may  be  brought  before  the  Throne  of  the 


Almighty — namely,  lienediction,  and  glory,  and  wisdom,  and  thanksgiving, 
honor  and  power  and  strength  to  our  God  for  ever  and  ever.     Amen." 

The  St.  Mary's  parochial  school  is  situated  in  a  healthful  and  pleasant 
locality,  north  of  the  church  on  a  hill  and  is  surrounded  by  a  grove.  It  has 
a  front  elevation  of  fifty-nine  feet  and  a  side  elevation  of  forty-one  feet. 
The  building  is  constructed  of  white  brick  on  a  concrete  basement.  In  the 
basement  are  the  boiler  room,  coal  bunks,  kitchen  and  dining  room  for  the 
V'en.  Sisters,  play  room  and  lavatories.  The  first  ston,'  contains  two  spacious 
class-rooms  with  all  sanitary  and  modern  equipments.  The  second  story  is 
used  exclusively  as  a  residence  for  the  Sisters  of  St.  Benedict. 

The  Church  of  Our  Lady  of  Seven  Dolors  at  Millerville  is  familiar  to 
all  residents  of  Douglas  county  and  its  towering  spire  can  be  seen  for  miles, 
overtopping  everything  in  the  vicinity.  The  first  church  in  Millerville  was 
built  in  1868,  prior  to  which  mass  had  been  said  at  the  homes  of  some  of  the 
early  settlers,  among  whom  were  the  Larsungs,  the  Weavers  and  John  A. 
Miller,  for  the  latter  of  whom  Millerville  was  named.  The  old  church,  built 
of  logs,  was  pulled  down  to  give  place  to  the  present  church  building,  which 
was  erected  in  1892.  The  first  priest  officiating  at  Miller  was  Father  Pierce, 
in  1867,  who  was  succeeded  by  Father  Tomazin,  who  built  the  priest's  house, 
which  building,  as  well  as  the  first  church,  has  long  since  disappeared.  Father 
Tomazin  remained  until  1873  and  was  succeeded  by  Father  Holzer,  Father 
Schneider,  Father  Hilbert,  Father  Cramer,  Father  Gunther.  Father  Ewen, 
Father  Jerome.  Father  Brogerding,  Father  W'eist,  Father  Kicken,  Father 
Alois  Rastor  and  the  present  pastor.  Father  Wippich.  On  account  of  his 
maserly  eloquence  and  his  excellent  character.  Father  Otto  Weist  was  held 
in  very  high  regard  throughout  that  community  and  in  October,  1901,  a 
beautiful  and  costly  monument  was  erected  over  his  final  resting  place. 

The  mission  of  St.  Nicholas  at  Belle  River,  to  which  also  belongs  the 
Catholics  of  Carlos,  four  miles  distant,  was  founded  in  1870  by  the  Rev. 
Father  Tomazin,  a  Slovenian  missionary  amongst  the  northern  Indians  of 
the  Sioux  and  Chippewa  tribes,  a  countryman  of  the  renowned  Indian  mis- 
sionary. Father  Pierz.  Pioneer  divine  service  was  at  first  held  in  the  home 
of  Frank  Ouinn,  the  father  of  the  late  James  Quinn,  at  one  time  county 
commissioner  and  nearly  always,  since  the  organization  of  the  parish,  treas- 
urer and  trustee  of  the  St.  Nicholas  church;  Frank  Quinn,  his  father,  and 
John  Clausen,  pioneers,  donating  each  ten  acres  of  land  to  Bishop  Thomas 
L.  Grace,  for  the  foundation  o{  a  church  at  Belle  River.  The  first  church 
was  built  of  logs,  on  the  present  cemetery  in  1871,  and  was  dedicated  by  the 
late  Archbishop  Thomas  S.  Grace,  of  St.  Paul.     On  the  same  occasion  some 


children  of  the  parish  were  confirmed.  In  September  of  the  same  year  the 
renowned  Jesuit  missionary,  P.  Havier  Weninger,  held  the  first  mission 
(revival).  Rev.  Ignatius  Tomazin  attended  the  parish  until  August,  1873, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Schenk,  the  Bohemian  pastor  of  Long 
Prairie,  whose  life  was  so  siiddenly  and  sadly  terminated  in  1883,  when  he 
accidentally  shot  himself  to  death.  The  management  of  the  St.  Nicholas  con- 
gregation was  now  conducted  by  the  Benedictine  Fathers,  of  Collegeville, 
Re\'.  Pater  Placidus,  the  Greek  scholar,  who  later  on  for  a  few  years  became 
rector  of  a  Greek  college  in  Rome,  Italy,  and  who  is  now  a  celebrated  pro- 
fessor at  St.  John's  University,  Minnesota;  Rev.  Peter  Alfred,  presentlv 
pastor  of  the  Catholic  church  at  Moorhead,  Minnesota;  Rev.  IMartinus,  at 
present  at  Weire's  Grover,  Stearm  county,  Minnesota,  and  then  for  seven 
years.  Rev.  Pater  Tldephons,  who  attended  the  parish  from  the  Benedictine 
convent  at  West  Union,  now  secularized  and  sold.  In  1891  Rev.  Ignatius 
Lager  took  charge  of  the  congregation  until  the  year  1893.  ^^'^  1883  already, 
under  the  leadership  of  Pater  Placidus,  the  second  frame  church  had  been 
built  by  the  contractors,  Christ  Raiter  and  Spooner,  of  Alexandria,  and  one 
year  later  the  little  parsonage,  by  Messrs.  William  Maher,  John  Collins  and 
Anton  Schneiderhan,  Sr.  In  1890  Rev.  Ignatius  Lager  had  an  addition 
built  to  the  parsonage,  destined  for  a  parochial  school,  which  however,  was 
used  for  a  winter  chapel.  During  his  term  of  office  Rev.  Peter  Post,  a 
saintly  Jesuit  Father,  conducted  a  successful  mission  in  his  parish.  In  1893 
Father  Lager  was  followed  in  office,  again  by  the  Rev.  Father  Tomazin, 
who  in  191 5  celebrated  his  golden  jubilee  of  the  priesthood  in  unison  with 
his  Lordship,  the  Rt.  Rev.  Thomas  O'Gorman,  bishop  of  Sioux  Falls,  South 
Dakota,  with  whom  he  had  been  ordained  priest  on  the  5th  of  November, 
1865,  in  the  cathedral  of  St.  Paul,  Minnesota.  The  Reverend  Jubilarian 
(who  during  his  second  term,  incorporated  the  parish  with  Joseph  Woltors, 
Sr.,  as  secretary,  and  Charles  Pasch,  as  treasurer,  Bishop  James  Trobec,  at 
that  time  ordinary  of  the  St.  Cloud  diocese,  as  president  and  Rt.  Rev.  Mgr. 
Edward  Nagl,  vicar  general,  as  vice-president,  and  himself  as  chairman  of 
the  incorporation  of  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas),  remained  as  pastor  in 
Belle  River  until  1907,  when  he  was  transferred  to  Padua,  ^Minnesota,  being 
succeeded  by  Rev.  Herman  Klein.  He  again  provided  a  successful  mission 
through  the  Dominican  priest.  Rev.  Pater  Thuente,  of  Minneapolis,  and 
made  many  improvements  in  the  church  and  priest's  house,  ^^■ith  the  permis- 
sion of  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  James  Troliec,  Rev.  H.  Klein  and  Rev.  Emil 
Joseph  Steimach,  of  St.  Mary's  church,  Rice,  Benton  cuunty,  Minnesota, 
exchanged  their  ijarishes  on  the  i8th  of  October,  190S.     Under  the  present 


pastor,  Emil  Joseph  Steimach,  the  ditiferent  parish  societies  were  organized: 
St.  Nicholas  Sodality  for  single  and  married  men;  St.  Ann"s  for  Christian 
mothers;  St.  Agnes'  for  young  ladies,  and  Childhood  of  Jesus'  for  the  chil- 
dren. The  purpose  of  these  sodalities  is  the  material  as  well  as  spiritual 
advancement  of  the  parish  in  general  and  the  spiritual  growth  and  sanctifica- 
tion  of  the  individuals  in  particular.  In  1909  a  hot  air  furnace  system  was 
installed  in  the  church,  the  gallery  enlarged  and  other  improvements  made 
on  premises,  in  church  and  parsonage.  Messrs.  James  Quinn  and  Peter 
Beheng  were  trustees  under  the  present  administration  up  to  191 3,  when  the 
latter  resigned  as  secretary,  being  succeeded  in  the  office  by  Henry  Wolters. 
In  June,  1905,  a  well-attended  mission  was  given  by  the  Rev.  Peter  Bour.  On 
the  8th  of  August,  191 5,  in  the  afternoon,  around  three  o'clock,  a  fire  broke 
out  in  the  sacristy  of  the  church  and  in  less  than  an  hour  the  building  was 
transformed  into  a  heap  of  ashes.  The  cause  of  the  conflagration  could  not 
be  ascertained,  but  most  likely  started  in  the  charcoal  box  on  the  sacristy 
table.  The  following  Sunday  service  was  conducted  on  the  new  porch  of  the 
parsonage,  people  having  their  provisional  seats  in  the  surrounding  grove. 
A  mass  meeting  for  the  following  Sunday  was  announced  (for  the  22d  of 
August).  At  the  latter,  the  following  building  committee  was  elected:  E.  H. 
Steimach,  pastor,  chairman  ex-officio;  August  Kohlhaas,  (acting)  vice- 
chairman;  Peter  Beheng,  treasurer;  Henry  Wolters,  secretary;  Albert  Ritten, 
John  Dunn,  Anton  Schneiderhan,  Jr.,  and  Thomas  Ouinn.  After  organiza- 
tion of  committee,  a  plan  for  the  new  church  was  selected,  Messrs.  Alban  and 
Lockhart,  of  St.  Paul,  chosen  as  architects ;  funds  collected,  with  three  thou- 
sand seven  hundred  dollars  insurance,  amounted  to  about  twenty-two  thou- 
sand dollars.  On  the  19th  of  October,  the  contract  for  the  new  church  was 
let  to  the  lowest  liidder,  William  Schueller,  contractor  and  builder,  of  Fergus 
Falls,  who  gave  bonds  and  commenced  work  on  the  new  church  on  the  27th 
of  April,  1916.  The  laying  of  the  cornerstone  took  place  on  the  30th  of 
May,  Decoration  Day.  His  Lordship  Rt.  Rev.  Joseph  Busch,  performed  the 
ceremony,  also  blessed  the  two  new  bells  of  two  thousand  pounds  and  one 
thousand  four  hundred  ninety  pounds  respectively,  and  preached  the  English 
sermon,  whilst  Rt.  Rev.  Mgr.  B.  Richter,  of  Melrose,  preached  in  German. 
The  following  reverend  priests  were  present  besides  the  pastor :  Rev.  John 
Sand,  Effington;  Rev.  Ignatius  Wippich,  Millerville;  Rev.  Francis  Beitscher, 
Long  Prairie;  Rev.  .Math.  Billmayr,  Brownsville;  Rev.  Charles  Gruenwald, 
St.  Cloud;  Rev.  Joseph  Wessendorf,  Osakis;  Rev.  Eugene  Scheirer,  Hold- 
ingsford.     The  beautiful  new  church  of  Gothic  style,  seating  some  eight  hun- 


dred  people,  was  dedicated  on  the  15th  of  October,  1916.  Previous  to  its 
dedication  the  premises  around  the  church  were  beautiful  and  the  interior  of 
the  sanctuary  was  furnished  appropriately  with  nice  altars,  statuary  and 
furniture  of  quality  and  beauty.  The  parishioners,  about  one  hundred  and 
six  families,  irrespective  of  German,  Bohemian.  Hollandish,  Belgian.  Irish 
and  English  extraction,  are  good,  loyal  fervent  Americans  and  showed  their 
unity,  their  ci\ic  pride  and  religious  fervor  by  contributing  most  generously 
of  money  and  lalDor,  until  their  pious  aspirations  materialized  in  this  beauti- 
ful temple  of  God,  crowning  their  efforts  and  sacrifices  and  attesting  their 
love  of  God  and  zeal  of  salvation. 


Emmanuel  Episcopal  church  at  Alexandria  was  organized  earl_\-  in  the 
seventies,  among  the  leading  families  in  the  organization  of  the  same  being 
the  Cowings,  the  \'an  Dykes,  the  Dickens,  the  Abercrombies,  the  Brophys 
and  the  Spragues,  and  on  August  31,  1875,  under  the  ministry  of  the  Rev. 
George  Stewart,  the  first  rector,  the  present  attractive  old  Gothic  edifice  which 
has  ever  since  served  the  Episcopal  congregation  as  a  house  of  worship,  was 
dedicated,  the  document  attesting  the  fact  being  signed  by  Bishop  Benjamin 
Whipple,  first  bishop  of  Minnesota,  to  whose  memory  a  memorial  w-indow 
has  been  placed  in  the  church.  Among  the  other  memorial  windows  in  the 
church  is  one  to  the  memory  of  Rt.  Rev.  Mahol  Morris  Gilbert,  bishop  coad- 
jutor; to  Mary  A.  Cowing,  one  to  Efifie  Viola  Moore,  one  "presented  by 
tourists,"  one  presented  by  the  St.  Andrew's  Brotherhood  and  one  to  Lucile 
Brown.  The  beautiful  altar  is  a  memorial  to  Louis  J.  Brown,  the  altar  rail 
to  Mary  Henrietta  Alleyne  Mingfield,  the  altar  chairs  to  Smith  Bloomfield, 
the  missal  stand  to  Ellen  A'enoss,  the  cross  and  altar  vases  to  ]\Iartha  S.  D. 
Plank,  the  litany  desk  to  Richard  and  Cecelia  Heard,  the  prayer  book  to 
Mary  Ann  and  John  James  Peacock.  There  is  also  a  window  presented  by 
the  St.  Monica  Guild  and  one  presented  by  "friends."  There  have  been 
fifteen  rectors  of  Emmanuel's  Episcopal  church  since  its  organization,  the 
Rev.  George  Stewart  having  been  followed,  in  turn,  by  the  Rev.  I.  T.  Oslx)rn, 
Rev.  Thomas  K.  Allen,  Rev.  F.  B.  Nash,  Rev.  Mark  Jukes,  Rev.  F.  M. 
Bacon,  Rev.  Charles  Rollit,  Rev.  James  McCausland,  Rev.  F.  E.  Alleyne, 
Rev.  George  \V.  Barnes,  Rev.  Glen  White,  Rev.  H.  J.  Kaiser,  Rev.  Samuel  L. 
Mitchell  and  the  Rev.  E.  C.  Schmeiser.  the  latter  of  whom  has  been  in  charge 
since  March.   1916. 



The  Church  of  Christ  (Scientist)  at  Alexandria  is  a  recent  organiza- 
tion, the  meniljers  of  which  hegan  to  liold  regular  Sunday  services  at  the 
home  of  Mrs.  Alta-Mae  Jacobson  on  July  12,  1914.  At  that  time  there  were 
only  about  seven  or  eight  persons  interested  in  the  meetings,  but  the  home 
soon  became  too  small  to  accommodate  the  growing  congregation  and  on 
November  22.  19 14,  the  group  moved  into  the  present  charters  of  the  Chris- 
tian Science  church,  a  small  hall  over  the  Carlson  grocery  store  on  the  city's 
main  street.  The  group  grew  steadily  and  on  Alarch  21,  1916,  organized  an 
authorized  Christian  Science  Society  at  Alexandria,  complying  with  the  rules 
of  the  First  Church  of  Christ  (Scientist)  at  Boston.  There  are  seventeen 
charter  members,  four  of  whom  are  members  of  the  Mother  Church.  The 
officers  consist  of  a  first  reader,  a  second  reader  and  a  board  of  trustees.  The 
first  reader  is  Mrs.  Alta-Mae  Jacobson;  second  reader,  ]\Irs.  Caroline  von 
Baumbach;  trustees:  President,  Mrs.  Margaret  Unumb;  treasurer,  Miss 
Amelia  Jasperson ;  clerk,  Alta-Mae  Jacobson ;  Mrs.  Mary  Robards  and  Will- 
iam Olson.  The  group  has  a  committee  for  the  distribution  of  Christian 
Science  literature,  which  sends  the  Monitor,  a  daily  newspaper  of  clean 
journalism;  the  Sentinel,  a  weekly  magazine,  and  the  Journal,  a  monthly 


The  Seventh-Day  Ad\entist  church  of  Alexandria  was  organized  on 
November  8,  1885,  with  twelve  charter  members  and  E.  A.  Curtis  as  elder. 
For  awhile  a  rented  building  was  used  for  a  place  of  worship  until  a  build- 
ing could  be  bought.  The  church  building  now  occupied  was  dedicated  for 
service  on  January  2^,  1900,  the  dedicatory  service  being  conducted  by 
Pastor  C.  W.  Flaise.  Following  Mr.  Curtis  the  pastors  of  the  church  have 
been :  G.  L.  Budd,  E.  M.  Chapman,  W.  W.  Ruble,  and  E.  L.  Sheldon,  the 
present  pastor. 

Of  the  many  young  people  who  have  grown  up  and  been  fostered  by 
this  church,  four  have  become  ministers  of  the  Gospel  and  are  holding  posi- 
tions of  trust  in  different  places.  A  school  room  has  been  added  to  the 
church  building  and  for  nine  months  of  the  year  a  teacher  is  employed  and 
instruction  is  given  the  children  in  the  usual  grade  studies  and  on  Bible  sub- 
jects, especial  efifort  being  made  to  build  up  Christian  character.  There  is  in 
the  church  a  strong  Missionary  Volunteer  Society  of  young  people,  which 
meets  regularly. 


There  are  several  church  companies  at  different  places  in  the  county 
which  hold  regular  services,  but  have  not  as  }'et  secured  church  buildings. 


Some  years  ago  there  was  a  Presbyterian  church  mission  established  at 
Alexandria  under  the  direction  of  the  mission  board  of  that  church,  but  it 
could  not  get  a  foothold  and  was  presently  abandoned.  The  only  actrv'e 
congregations  of  the  Presb_vterians  in  Douglas  county  are  those  at  Forada, 
presided  over  by  the  Reverend  Owen,  who  is  building  up  a  flourishing  and 
compact  organization  there,  and  the  church  at  Evansville,  which  now  has 
a  stated  pastor,  and  a  church  at  Osakis. 


It  was  not  long  after  the  establishment  of  a  social  order  hereabout  that 
the  newspaper  appeared  and  from  the  very  beginning  Douglas  county  has 
been  favored  b}'  the  presence  of  admirable  mediums  of  publicity,  the  news- 
papers of  the  county  ranking  very  high  among  the  country  journals  of  the 

The  first  newspaper  established  in  Douglas  county  was  the  Alexandria 
Post,  which,  under  its  present  hyphenated  name  of  the  Post-Nczvs,  is  still 
being  published,  having  had  an  unbroken  existence  since  September  2^,  1868, 
on  which  date  it  was  launched  on  the  then  untried  "sea  of  journalism"  in 
this  section  of  Minnesota  by  William  E.  Hicks,  owner  of  the  Alexandria 
townsite,  who  was  a  tried  New  York  City  newspaper  man,  and  who  asso- 
ciated with  him  in  the  initial  stages  of  the  venture  George  \\^  Benedict,  a 
practical  printer,  of  St.  Cloud,  who  before  the  year  was  out  retired  and  the 
paper  was  continued  alone  by  Hicks  until  late  in  the  fall  of  1870,  when 
Joseph  Gilpin,  a  veteran  of  the  Civil  War  and  an  experienced  printer,  took 
over  the  publication,  Hicks  in  the  meantime  having  been  elected  to  the 
Legislature  and  his  townsite  and  other  business  interests  requiring  all  of 
his  time.  Mr.  Gilpin  had  grown  up  "at  the  case''  on  a  newspaper  in  Buffalo. 
New  York,  and  when  the  Civil  War  broke  out  had  enlisted  for  service  in  a 
New  York  regiment.  His  health  became  broken  and  he  found  work  at  the 
printer's  "case"  in  the  cit}-  did  not  agree  with  him  after  the  completion  of 
his  militarv  service,  therefore,  in  July,  1867,  he  came  to  Minnesota  and  for 
the  benefit  he  thought  might  be  derived  in  a  physical  way,  homesteaded  a 
farm  on  the  shores  of  beautiful  Lake  Darling,  just  north  of  Alexandria,  and 
thought  he  would  become  a  farmer,  but  the  old  lure  of  the  print-shop  was 
too  strong  and  a  couple  of  years  after  the  PoJ^had  been  started,  he  traded 
his  farm  to  Hicks  for  the  newspaper  property  and  resumed  the  calling  with 
which  he  was  much  Ijetter  acquainted  than  with  the  methods  of  breaking  a 
frontier  farm. 

Mr.  Gilpin  continued  the  publication  of  the  Post  until  1874,  in  which 
vear  he  sold  the  paper  to  A.  B.  Donaldson,  of  Minneapolis,  a  professor  in 


the  State  University,-  and  returned  to  his  former  home  in  Buffalo,  but  pres- 
ently returned  to  Alexandria  and  on  August  i,  1877,  started  the  Douglas 
County  Nc-di'S,  the  publication  of  which  he  continued  until  1894,  when 
Charles  Mitchell,  of  St.  Cloud,  came  over  and  bought  both  the  Post  and  the 
Xcivs  and  consolidated  the  two  pajiers  under  the  present  name  of  the  Post- 
Xczi's.  Charles  Mitchell,  a  lirnther  of  William  Mitchell,  of  the  St.  Cloud 
Journal,  continued  the  publication  of  the  Post-Xc<^'s  until  Noveml)er  7.  1902, 
when  he  sold  the  paper  to  Ezra  E.  McCrea,  of  St.  Paul,  an  experienced 
newspaper  man,  who  has  ever  since  been  editor  and  publisher  of  the  paper. 
Mr.  McCrea,  who  formerly  was  deputy  city  clerk  of  St.  Paul,  had  a  ten-year 
experience  in  newspaper  work  before  taking  up  the  work  at  Alexandria,  hav- 
ing been  a  reporter  on  both  the  Pioneer  Press  and  the  DispatcJi  at  the  state 
capital  and  had  for  some  time  been  a  reporter  for  the  Associated  Press  in 
New  York  City. 


An  examination  of  the  files  of  the  old  Alexandria  Post,  preserved  at 
the  office  of  the  Post-N^ews  would  revive  many  memories  of  other  days  in 
the  minds  of  old  residents  who  might  look  over  the  same.  The  Post  was  an 
admirably  printed  sheet  from  the  very  start,  its  initial  issue  showing  the 
work  of  a  master  hand.  It  was  pointed  out  by  the  editor  that  the  mechani- 
cal outfit,  which  had  been  shipped  over  from  Chicago,  was  in  place  and  ready 
for  operation  within  two  weeks  after  the  order  was  placed.  When  the  Post 
Avas  established  Grant  and  Colfax  were  the  nominees  of  the  Republican 
party  for  president  and  vice-president,  respectiveh',  and  their  names  were 
carried  at  the  mast-head  of  the  paper  in  its  very  first  issue.  The  electors  on 
the  Republican  national  ticket,  whose  names  were  published,  were  W.  T. 
Rambush,  of  Freeborn  county;  Oscar  Malmros,  of  Ramsey  county;  C.  T. 
Brown,  of  Nicollet  county,  and  T.  C.  Jones,  of  Anoka  county.  The  con- 
gressional ticket  was,  for  first  district,  M.  S.  ^\'ilkinson ;  second  district, 
Ignatius  Donnelly;  legislative  ticket,  for  Stearns  county,  S.  B.  Pinney;  out- 
side of  Stearns  county.  William  E.  Hicks.  Large  attention  was  paid  by  the 
Post  to  local  political  conditions,  a  warm  local  fight,  with  particular  refer- 
ence to  the  congressional  nomination  then  being  on.  In  the  second  issue  of 
the  Post  there  was  printed  the  correspondence  between  Gen.  L.  T.  Hubbard 
and  Ignatius  Donnelly  regarding  a  plan  of  arbitration  of  the  differences  be- 
tween the  two,  arising  out  of  the  congressional  nomination,  the  Post  con- 
cluding its  comment  on  the  proposition  by  declaring  that  "should  the  board 


of  arbitration  settle  the  matter  of  differences  between  the  candidates  harmon- 
iously, which  we  trust  they  will,  the  choice  of  the  board,  we  have  no  doubt, 
would  Ije  recognized  and  accepted  by  the  entire  party,  and  this  is  as  it  should 
be."  The  Republican  county  ticket  for  that  year,  as  carried  by  the  Post  in 
its  initial  issue,  was  as  follow:  For  auditor.  William  M.  Pye;  register  of 
deeds,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen ;  sheriff,  (i.  W.  Harper;  corner,  Daniel  Shotwell; 
judge  of  probate,  H.  S.  Boyd ;  surveyor,  Henry  Blackwell :  treasurer,  T.  W. 
Sprague;  court  commissioner,  N.  B.  Patterson;  county  commissioner,  second 
district,  Levi  E.  Thompson. 

Proper  attention  was  paid  to  local  social  doings  in  those  days  and  in 
the  second  issue  of  the  Post  there  was  printed  a  considerable  item  under  the 
head  of  "The  Alexandria  Ball,'-'  the  public  being  informed  that  "tlie  ball 
given  by  Mr.  McLeod,  of  the  Woodhull  House,  on  Monday  night  last,  was 
a  complete  success.  About  thirty  couples  were  present.  Dancing  began  at 
nine  o'clock  and  was  continued  until  midnight,  when  supper  was  announced 
and  all  sat  down  to  a  splendid  repast,  served  in  Mrs.  McLeod's  inimitable 
style.  Thorough  justice  lieing  done  to  the  substantials  and  delicacies  of  the 
supper,  dancing  was  resumed  and  continued  until  daybreak.  .Vll  the  partici- 
pants went  home  pleased  and  satisfied.  Russell's  music,  McLeod's  supper  and 
Darling's  management  are  all  that  are  necessary  to  make  a  night  pass  pleas- 
antly. These  reunions  of  town  and  country  are  agreeable  and  aid  greatly 
in  promoting  a  friendly  feeling  among  those  present.  We  hope  these  social 
gatherings  may  be  more  frecjuent."  That  same  issue  of  the  paper  devoted 
three  columns  to  a  report  of  the  fourteenth  annual  conference  of  the  Method- 
ist Episcopal  church  at  St.  Anthony,  including  a  list  of  appointments  for  the 
several  districts  of  the  state,  it  being  noted  that  C.  F.  Kingsland  was  appointed 
to  the  Alexandria  church  and  O.  Hoover  to  the  Osakis  church  in  the  St. 
Cloud  district.  L'nder  the  head  of  "Our  Xew  Church,''  it  was  stated  that 
"In  our  last  issue  we  alluded  to  a  moA-ement  towards  erecting  a  Methodist 
church  in  Alexandria.  As  a  further  evidence  of  the  energ\'  and  public  spirit 
of  the  citizens  in  this  matter,  we  take  great  pleasure  in  stating  that  the  build- 
ing is  already  in  course  of  construction,  carpenters  commencing  work  on 
Monday  morning  last.  The  citizens  can  now  confidently  calculate  upon 
having  a  suitable  house  of  worship  ready  for  occupancy  within  sixty  da\'s." 
In  the  same  column  it  was  noted  that  "We  were  delighted  with  the  good  dis- 
play of  the  vocal  powers  of  the  ladies  of  Alexandria  at  the  morning  church 
service  last  Sunday.  There  is  abundant  material  in  our  congregation  for 
good  singing  and  we  hope  to  see  an  organ  placed  in  the  church  to  accompany 
our  lady  singers."     This  item  is  supposed  to  have  had  reference  to  the  con- 


gregation  of  the  Congregational  church,  which  at  that  time  was  holding  serv- 
ices in  the  old  court  house  hall  and  to  which  Mr.  Hicks  later  donated  the 
fine  corner  lot  on  which  the  present  Congregational  church  stands.  Under 
the  head  of  "Personal"'  it  was  noted  in  the  second  issue  of  the  Post  that  "Air.- 
G.  W.  Benedict,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Alexandria  Post,  went  below 
on  Sunday  last,  after  assisting  in  the  publication  of  the  first  number  of  our 
paper,  which  in  point  of  mechanical  appearance,  we  are  not  afraid  to  com- 
pare with  any  newspaper  that  has  been  started  on  the  frontier  of  late  years. "" 
The  grain  market  quotations  then  were  as  follow :  "Wheat  is  lower,  selling 
at  $1.05  for  Xo.  I.  All  the  markets  below  are  lower.  Oats  are  C|uoted  at  50 
to  53  cents.     Wheat  at  Center,  $1  to  $1.50." 

The  business  interests  of  Alexandria  seemed  well  represented  even  at 
that  early  date  and  the  Post  carried  the  following  advertisers  in  its  columns : 
F.  B.  Van  Hoesen,  attorney  at  law;  Scandinavian  House,  L.  Johnson,  pro- 
prietor: H.  L.  Gordon  and  L.  W.  Collins,  Gordon  &  Collins,  attorneys  at  law 
and  real  estate  agents;  Gates  &  Blood,  general  freighters,  running  "regularlv 
once  a  week  between  St.  Cloud  and  Alexandria,  rates  from  $1.50  to  $2  per 
100  pounds;"  Van  Hoesen  &  Mitchell.  F.  B.  \'an  Hoesen  and  James  S. 
Mitchell,  real  estate  agency;  John  S.  Mower,  attorney  at  law  and  insurance; 
AI.  H.  Tolan,  bootmaker  and  repairer ;  George  C.  Whitcomb,  countv  auditor 
and  register  of  deeds,  "any  business  required  to  be  done  by  non-resident  land 
holders  executed  promptly  and  no  exorbitant  charges;"  Dr.  O.  E.  Andrews, 
physician  and  surgeon ;  Thomas  Cowing,  general  merchandise ;  \\'oodhulI 
House.  John  ]iIcLeod,  proprietor;  Hammond,  Rima  &  Co.,  shingle  manu- 
facturers; \\'.  E.  Hieks,  lumber  yard;  C.  Shultz,  gunsmith  and  dealer  in 
sportsmen's  and  hunter's  goods ;  G.  C.  Marshall,  saloon ;  E.  G.  Holmes,  gen- 
eral merchandise  and  farm  implements.  Holmes  City ;  John  Sundblad.  board- 
ing house  and  saloon;  C.  Sonday,  merchant  tailor;  J.  F.  Bell  &  Company, 
St.  Cloud,  dry  goods ;  Alexandria  Flouring  Mills,  "the  highest  price  paid  for 
wheat;"  Joseph  Gilpin,  builder  and  plasterer;  D.  Fredenberg,  carriage  and 
wagon  factory ;  Smith  &  Herbert,  boots,  shoes  and  leather ;  St.  Germaine.  St. 
Cloud ;  D.  B.  Hull,  house,  sign  and  carriage  painting,  glazier  and  paper- 
hanger;  Andrew  Lundberg,  carpenter  and  jointer;  Robert  Walker,  black- 
smitliing  and  horse-shoeing;  S.  J.  Holmberg.  wagonmaker;  J.  H.  Holla- 
Ijaugh,  liardware;  T.  F.  Cowing,  Alexandria  Store,  drx  goods  and  general 
merchandise;  J.  B.  Cowing,  groceries  and  meat  market;  Pomme  de  Terre 
Station  Hotel,  D.  Burns,  proprietor;  Mueller  Brothers,  dry  goods  and  general 



In  the  summer  of  1893,  ^^^-  S.  Gilpin,  son  of  the  veteran  ethtr.r,  Joseph 
Gilpin,  and  Newton  Trenham  started  a  newspaper  at  Alexandria  which  they 
called  the  Citizen  and  which  the_\-  began  publishing  largely  in  behalf  of  the 
Grange  movement.  Presently  Gilpin  sold  his  interest  in  the  paper  to  Tren- 
ham and  moved  to  Hamilton,  North  Dakota,  where  he  started  a  paper  which 
he  conducted  for  three  or  four  years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  he  went  to 
Osseo,  Wisconsin,  and  started  there  the  Ossco  .Yczi's.  which  he  is  still  pub- 
lishing. Trenham  later  sold  the  Citizen  to  J-  A.  Kinney,  whiT  is  still  con- 
ducting the  same. 


Twent)--six  years  ago  a  man  by  the  name  of  Clark  arri\ed  at  Brandon 
and  proceeded  to  establish  a  newspaper  for  that  thriving  village.  He  was 
an  e.x-county  attorney  of  Itasca  county  and  considerable  was  expected  of 
his  venture  by  the  people  of  that  community.  The  paper  he  started  he 
named  Blue  Bells.  But  he  proved  to  be  an  eccentric  sort  and  the  publica- 
tion was  rather  erratic.  Frecjuently,  weekly  editions  would  be  omitted.  He 
continued  about  a  year  and  sold  out  to  Hans  Peterson  and  Fred  Andrews, 
two  of  Brajidon's  promising  and  energetic  young  men.  They  edited  the 
paper  for  some  time,  when  it  proved  the  income  was  not  sufficient  to  keep 
the  venture  going. 

But  the  people  of  Brandon  acquired  a  taste  of  ha\ing  a  local  news- 
paper and  were  not  willing  to  let  matters  drop  so  readily.  At  E\ansville, 
A.  C.  Lawrence  was  located  and  they  made  an  arrangement  with  him  to 
take  over  the  property.  They  assisted  him  to  the  extent  of  fetching  his 
household  goods  and  family  to  Brandon  and  he  began  reviving  the  Brandon 
Echo.  He  gave  the  Aillage  a  live  and  interesting  newspaper,  but  he  also 
encountered  the  same  ditficulty — small  income — too  small  to  maintain  a 
family  of  three  large  people.  It  was  claimed  that  tlie  three  together  would 
ti])  the  scales  at  more  than  700  pounds  and  that  they  ate  regularh"  three 
pijunds  of  the  liest  roast  lieef  each  dinner.  The  Echo  was  then  sold  to 
George  S.  Myron,  who  mo\-ed  the  plant  into  his  house,  the  one  now  occu- 
pied by  Anton  H.  Str(im.  Up  to  that  time  the  plant  had  been  located  in 
the  Decker  building,  yet  standing  south  of  the  Larson  hardware  store.  'Slv. 
Lawrence  went  to  Alexandria  and  there  started  a  new  paper  which  lasted 
only  a  short  while,  though. 

Mr.   Borgen  was  a  good  printer  and  put  new  life  into  the  Echo.     It 


appeared  to  prosper  and  gain  prestige.  He  was  appointed  postmaster  and 
this  gave  him  additional  income  and  prestige,  and  he  materially  improved 
the  publication.  Large  fonts  of  type  were  added  and  the  old  army  press 
was  disposed  of  and  the  Minnesota  stop-cylinder  press,  on  which  the  Alex- 
andria Post  Xczcs  had  been  published  for  several  years  was  installed.  The 
paper  was  changed  from  a  four-page  seven-column  to  an  eight-page  five- 
column.  The  business  men  ot  the  \-illage  patronized  him  liberally  and  did 
what  they  could  to  assist  in  giving  the  community  a  li\e  little  local  paper. 
But  re\erses  set  in  and  in  time  the  ownership  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
Brandon  State  Bank.  Again  the  business  men  took  a  hold  to  retain  the 
paper  .and  keep  it  alive.  Carl  A.  ^^'old.  the  present  editor,  agreed  to  edit 
it  for  the  bank  until  some  other  arrangement  could  be  made.  But  this 
appeared  to  Ije  a  difficult  matter  and  a  proposition  was  made  to  Wold,  which 
he  accepted  and  became  the  owner  of  the  plant. 

Up  to  this  time  the  temperance  question  had  not  received  much  atten- 
tion in  the  local  papers.  In  fact  the  saloons  had  been  the  most  prominent 
feature  in  the  business  and  political  life  of  a  community.  But  a  change 
was  dexeloping.  Their  work  was  "growing  distasteful  and  protests  began 
to  come  frequently.  The  system  was  gradually  changing  from  the  local 
saloonkeeper  wlio  lived  in  the  place  and  invested  his  income  in  the  village, 
educated  his  children  there  and  took  a  live  interest  in  the  development  of 
the  towns,  as  is  customary  of  business  men,  to  men  who  acted  as  mere 
agents  for  some  brewery  outside  of  the  village  and  whose  only  interest  in 
the  place  was  the  amount  of  profits  turned  in.  This  system  produced  a 
class  of  saloon  keepers  that  sometimes  did  not  act  wisely  or  very  scrupu- 
lously. They  gener^ited  a  general  protest  from  the  better  class  of  residents 
and  the  temperance  movement  was  on. 

Mr.  \\'old  upon  assuming  the  management  of  the  Echo  at  once  dis- 
continued the  liquor  advertising.  This  was  resented  by  the  saloon  keepers 
and  at  once  a  fight  was  on.  \\'old  tried  to  avoid  this  and  for  a  long  time 
ignored  the  attacks  and  advocated  prohiljition  and  no-license.  From  this 
condition  developed  an  organization  in  the  count)-  that  has  done  much  to 
create  sentiment  for  no  saloons  and  a  dry  county. 

After  three  years  work  in  Brandon,  temperance  advocates  of  the  county 
started  a  movement  to  reorganize  the  paper  and  mo\e  the  plant  to  Alexandria, 
where  the  Eclio  would  l>e  in  a  position  to  assume  the  work  for  the  whole 
county.  From  a  small  circulation  it  has  developed  a  large  circulation  and 
has  the  liberal  support  of  the  people. 

The   plant    of   the   Park   Region   Echo   is   now    equipped   with   a   good 


cylinder  press,   jobber,   linotype   and   other  necessary   machinery    for   news- 
paper and  job  work. 


.\  newspaper  formerly  puljhshed  at  Alexandria  was  the  Rcl^ublican, 
which  was  established  more  than  twent}-  }'ears  ago  by  U.  B.  Shaver,  who  con- 
tinned  its  publication  a  few  years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  he  sold  it  to 
A.  C.  Lawrence,  who  continued  the  publication  of  the  same  until  growing 
financial  difficulties  caused  him  to  seek  a  change  of  base  and  he  moved  the 
plant  to  Fergus  Falls. 


The  Osakis  Rcviciv  was  established  in  1890  by  A.  L.  Heikes  and  was 
a  four-page  seven-colimin  paper.  It  was  printed  on  one  of  the  first  Wash- 
ington hand-presses  ever  brought  to  Minnesota.  The  Rci'ic-zv  became  the 
property  of  Clement  H.  Bronson,  the  present  publisher,  in  December,  1892. 
Mr.  Bronson  at  that  time  enjoying  the  distinction  of  being  the  youngest 
editor  in  the  state.  From  a  four-page  paper  with  a  circulation  of  two  hun- 
dred and  forty  copies  weekly,  the  Rcviciv  has  grown  to  an  eight-  to  sixteen- 
page  seven-column  newspaper,  having  a  circulation  of  over  one  thousand 
five  hundred  copies  weekly.  The  Rcz'iciv  is  now  printed  in  a  modern  news- 
paper plant  occupying  a  floor  space  forty  by  one  hundred  feet.  The  office  is 
equipped  with  a  linotype  machine,  power  presses  and  attached  newspaper 
folder,  each  piece  of  machinery  being  driven  by  an  individual  electric  motor. 
The  Rcznczv  has  always  been  consistently  Republican  in  politics. 


The  Brandon  Foiiiin  was  founded  at  Brandon  by  A.  B.  Johnson  on 
October  15,  19 10.  about  two  years  after  the  Echo  had  been  moved  from  that 
village  to  Alexandria.  Five  years  later,  October  15,  1915,  the  Forum  was 
purchased  by  W.  J.  B.  Moses,  who  has  since  been  editor  and  publisher  of  the 


The  Enterprise,  published  at  Evansville,  was  established  in  1889  by 
H.  G.  Urie,  who  later  sold  to  P.  A.  Neff,  who  in  turn  sold,  the  paper  to  W.  N. 
Bronson,  brother  of  the  editor  of  the  Osakis  Review,  who  is  still  publish- 
ing it. 

CHAFTl'K  .\I\', 
Thk  Bench   and   Bar. 

The  first  attorneys  to  locate  in  Douglas  county  for  the  practice  of  their 
profession  were  John  Randolph  and  John  S.  Mower,  who  came  to  Alexan- 
dria in  1867,  when  this  city  was  only  a  straggling  village.  Reuben  Reynolds 
also  came  that  same  year.  Mr.  Reynolds  was  county  attorney  from  1871  to 
1873.  ^I''-  Mower  was  the  first  county  superintendent  of  schools,  serving 
from  1869  to  1873,  and  was  also  editor  of  a  newspaper.  F.  B.  V^an  Hoesen. 
one  of  the  very  early  settlers  at  Alexandria,  was  a  lawyer  and  served  as 
county  attorney  from  1869  to  1871,  but  spent  most  of  his  years  here  as  a 

In  1 87 1,  Knute  Nelson,  a  young  lawyer  from  Wisconsin,  who  had  been 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  Dane  county  in  1869  and  practiced  there  two  years, 
came  to  Alexandria  and  formed  a  partnership  with  Reuben  Reynolds  for  the 
practice  of  law.  Mr.  Nelson  was  county  attorney  from  1873  to  1875;  was 
elected  to  the  state  Senate  in  1875;  was  elected  to  Congress  in  1883  and 
served  there  until  1892;  was  elected  governor  of  Minnesota  in  1892  and 
served  two  terms;  in  January,  1895,  he  was  elected  United  States  senator 
and  has  since  represented  this  state  in  the  Senate. 

Nelson  Fulmer  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Mr.  Nelson  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar" at  .\lexandria.  Mr.  Fulmer  practiced  law  here  for  several  years; 
was  county  attornev  from  1875  to  1879,  and  later  moved  to  St.  Cloud,  where 
he  was  collector  of  the  McCormick  Harvester  Company  and  finall\-  had 
charge  of  collections  for  that  company  in  a  large  part  of  the  state. 

William  F.  Ball  came  to  Alexandria  from  Canada  in  1875  and  opened 
an  office  for  the  practice  of  law.  After  residing  here  about  ten  years  Mr. 
Ball  moved  to  Fargo,  North  Dakota,  where  he  died  recently. 

George  H.  Reynolds,  a  son  of  Reuben  Reynolds,  came  to  Alexandria  in 
1877.  He  was  county  attorney  from  1879  to  1883.  He  afterward  mo\ed  to 
St.  Cloud  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  there  until  his  death  in   1914. 

Col.  Horatio  Jenkins,  a  native  of  Massachusetts,  who  had  gone  south 
after  the  Civil  War,  came  to  Alexandria  from  Florida  in  1880  and  engaged 


in  the  practice  here  until  his  death.  He  was  county  attorney  from  1883 
to  1889. 

George  L.  Treat,  a  native  of  Wisconsin,  and  a  graduate  of  Ann  Arhor 
law  school,  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  at  Alexandria  in  1883,  and 
has  been  here  ever  since,  engaged  in  the  law,  loan  and  insurance  business. 

C.  J.  Gunderson  was  educated  at  Minnesota  State  University  and  the 
Ann  Arbor  law  school  and  began  practice  in  Alexandria  in  1886,  and  has 
ever  since  been  one  of  the  resident  attorneys.  Mr.  Gunderson  was  county 
attorne}-  from  1889  to  1903,  and  served  eight  years  in  the  state  Senate. 

Constant  Larson  is  a  native  of  Douglas  county  and  after  graduating 
from  the  law  school  of  the  State  University  began  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession at  Alexandria  in  1894.  Mr.  Larson  was  county  attorney  from  1903 
to  191 3,  and  is  the  present  city  attorney. 

Hugh  E.  Leach  came  to  Alexandria  in  1906  and  formed  a  partnership 
with  C.  J.  Gunderson  for  the  practice  of  law.  Mr.  Leach  was  elected  county 
attorney  in  1913  and  is  now  serving  in  that  "office. 

Ralph  S.  Thornton  was  educated  at  Drake  University,  Iowa,  where  he 
was  graduated  from  the  law  department  in  191 3.  He  came  to  Alexandria 
in  October,  19 14,  and  has  since  been  engaged  here  at  his  profession. 

F.  E.  Ullman  located  in  Alexandria  in  1906  and  after  practicing  law 
here  for  a  short  time  moved  to  another  field. 

Nick  Langhausen  had  a  fine  law  office  at  Alexandria  in  19 12,  but  his 
library  was  burned  in  1914  and  he  cjuit  the  practice. 

A.  A.  Andrews  practiced  law  for  about  six  months  at  Alexandria  in  1914. 


O.  A.  Felt,  who  was  a  graduate  of  the  L^niversity  of  Minnesota,  located 
at  Evansville  in  1896.  He  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  there  until  his 
death  in  1908. 

A.  G.  Osterberg  practiced  law  at  Brandon  until  his  removal  to  Mille 
Lacs  county,  several  years  ago,  where  he  is  now  register  of  deeds  for  that 

F"rank  H.  Borchert  located  at  Osakis  in  1896  and  opened  a  law  office 
there.  Mr.  Borchert  is  also  interested  in  the  banking  business  and  is  the 
present  postmaster  of  Osakis. 

E.  R.  Ruggles  was  formerly  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  in  Douglas 
countv,  but  is  now  manager  of  a  summer  hotel,  called  "Idlewild,"  at  Osakis. 




Ever  since  its  organization  Douglas  county  has  been  a  part  of  the  seventh 
judicial  district,  which  is  comprised  of  the  counties  of  Clay,  Becker,  Otter 
Tail,  Wadena.  Douglas,  Todd,   Morrison,  Mille  I^cs,  Benton  and  Stearns. 

The  judges  who  have  presided  in  this  district  are  as  follow:  James  M. 
McKeLyey  of  St.  Cloud,  Stearns  county,  who  assumed  office  on  August  i, 
1866;  L.  M.  Collins,  of  St.  Cloud,  April  19,  1883;  L.  L.  Baxter,  of  Fergus 
Falls,  Otter  Tail  county,  March  18,  1885;  D.  B.  Searle,  of  St.  Cloud,  Novem- 
ber 14,  1887;  Myron  D.  Taylor,  of  St.  Cloud,  December  i,  1906;  Carroll  A. 
Nye,  of  Moorhead,  Clay  county,  January  i,  1911  ;  William  L.  Parsons,  of 
Fergus  Falls,  April  18,  1913,  and  John  A.  Roeser,  of  St_Cloud,  April  i,  1913. 

The  three  last  named  are  the  present  judges  of  this  district,  having 
concurrent  jurisdiction,  and  assignments  are  made  by  the  senior  member. 
Judge  Nye. 

The  Medical  Profession. 

During  the  early  )ears  of  the  settlement  of  this  region  there  were  no 
regular  practicing  physicians  hereabout,  the  settlers  relying  on  the  experi- 
ence of  such  of  their  number  as  might  have  a  knowledge  of  "simples"  to 
help  them  out  of  their  ailments  in  ordinary  cases  and  sending  over  to  Sauk 
Center  for  a  physician  in  case  of  emergencies,  but  as  the  charge  for  attend- 
ance by  a  physician  from  that  distance  was  almost  prohibitive,  the  emergency 
was  generally  extreme  when  such  a  call  was  made.  Occasionally  traveling 
doctors  would  come  out  this  way  and  make  the  rounds  of  the  settlements, 
but  as  far  as  the  recollection  of  the  survivors  of  that  period  goes  Doctor 
Andrews  was  the  first  physician  definitely  to  locate  at  Alexandria,  where  he 
remained  in  practice  for  several  years.  Doctor  Andrews  was  not  only  a 
good  physician,  but  an  excellent  surgeon,  who  had  had  considerable  experi- 
ence as  a  practitioner  in  the  iron  region  near  Duluth  before  locating  at 
Alexandria.  He  later  moved  to  Aloorehead,  where  he  spent  the  rest  of  his 

It  was  during  the  time  of  Doctor  Andrews's  residence  at  Alexandria 
that  Doctor  Borden,  a  young  graduate  physician  from  Boston,  came  out 
here  and  located  at  Alexandria,  where  he  remained  some  years,  later  return- 
ing to  Boston,  whence  news  presently  came  of  his  death  there.  Then  came 
Dr.  Godfrey  ^'ivian,  an  Englishman,  who  also  came  down  from  the  iron 
range,  a  surgeon  of  wide  experience,  who  remained  at  Alexandria  for  years, 
at  the  end  of  which  time  he  went  to  California,  where  he  spent  the  remainder 
of  his  life.  Not  long  after  the  coming  of  Doctor  Vivian,  Doctor  Lewis 
appeared  on  the  scene  and  the  two  formed  a  partnership  and  started  a  drug 
store,  of  which  Doctor  Lewis  became  the  active  manager,  the  latter  spending 
the  balance  of  his  life  at  Alexandria. 

In  1 88 1  Dr.  S.  W.  McEwan,  who  had  started  in  practice  at  Evansville, 
moved  to  Alexandria  and  presently  formed  a  partnership  with  Doctor  Vivian, 
which  continued  until  the  latter's  appointment  as  postmaster,  when  Doctor 
McEwan  and  Dr.  H.  J.  Boyd,  the  latter  of  whom  meanwhile  had  located  at 
Alexandria,  formed  a  partnership.  Doctor  Boyd  was  a  son  of  one  of  the 
l)ioneer   families  of  Hudson  township  and  had  grown  to  manhood   in  this 


community.  He  received  his  medical  education  in  Cincinnati  and  afterward 
for  a  time  was  engaged  in  practice  in  New  York,  but  about  1883  he  returned 
to  Douglas  county  and  .engaged  in  practice  at  Alexandria,  where  he  spent 
the  rest  of  his  life,  his  death  occurring  about  1909.  His  son,  Dr.  Leon  A. 
Boyd,  is  now  in  practice  at  Alexandria.  Doctor  McEwan  became  very  suc- 
cessful in  his  practice,  at  the  same  time  taking  an  active  part  in  public  affairs, 
and  remained  actively  in  practice  until  his  death  about  ten  years  ago. 


In  the  meantime,  as  in  all  communities,  other  physicians  had  been  locat- 
ing at  Alexandria,  some  of  these,  however,  remaining  but  a  short  time  until 
attracted  to  some  other  location  and  thus  created  no  Aery  distinct  impression 
upon  the  community.  Among  those  who  did  locate  with  a  definite  purpose 
to  remain  may  be  mentioned  Dr.  James  H.  Drake,  a  young  physician,  who 
engaged  in  practice  at  Alexandria  for  a  year  or  two  and  then  went  to 
Mondak,  Montana.  Dr.  Frithiof  L.  Kling  also  was  located  for  some  time 
at  Alexandria,  but  presently  moved  to  the  neighboring  county  seat,  Elbow 
Lake,  where  he  is  now  engaged  in  practice.  Dr.  W.  E.  Ellis,  of  Prentice, 
Wisconsin,  also  located  at  Alexandria,  but  after  awhile  returned  to  the  place 
from  which  he  had  come,  and  Dr.  Charles  A.  Lester,  another  physician  of 
some  years  standing  in  Alexandria,  located  at  Winona,  this  state.  Dr. 
Eugene  A.  Hensel,  who  succeeded  to  the  practice  of  Doctor  McEwan  upon 
the  death  of  the  latter,  grew  up  in  Douglas  county,  his  parents  having  been 
pioneers  here.  He  was  graduated  from  Bush  Medical  College,  at  Chicago, 
and  began  practice  at  Alexandria  in  the  nineties,  remaining  there  until  in 
January,  1910,  when  he  moved  to  San  Diego,  California,  where  he  is  now 
engaged  in  practice.  Besides  Dr.  Leon  A.  Boyd,  mentioned  above,  the  other 
practitioners  at  Alexandria  at  present  are  Dr.  M.  B.  Ruud,  Dr.  L.  W.  Satter- 
lee.  Dr.  A.  D.  Haskell  and  Dr.  L.  M.  Keene. 


The  oldest  practicing  physician  at  present  in  Douglas  county  is  Dr.  C.  M. 
Long,  of  Osakis,  who  was  a  classmate  of  Doctor  McEwan  at  Rush  Medical 
College,  and  who  is  now  the  only  member  left  of  the  regular  medical  fratern- 
ity in  this  region  of  forty  years  ago,  all  the  early  physicians  at  Fergus  Falls, 
Alexandria,  Osakis,  Sauk  Center  and  St.  Cloud  save  himself  having  passed 
to  their  reward  years  ago.     When  Doctor  Long  settled  in  Douglas  county  in 


1878  Alexandria  was  but  a  small  hamlet  and  Osakis  was  but  a  feeding  place 
for  the  ox-trains,  to  use  the  Doctor's  own  words  in  expressing  the  situation. 
He  arrived  at  Osakis  on  the  old  stage  from  Melrose,  and  the  St.  Paul,  Min- 
neapolis &  Manitoba  railroad  was  laid  through  Osakis  to  Alexandria  in  the 
fall  of  that  same  year,  the  first  mixed'  train  being  run  through  Osakis  and 
on  to  Alexandria  on  November  i6.  When  Doctor  Long  settled  in  practice  at 
Osakis,  Doctor  Vivian  and  Doctor  Lewis  were  in  practice  in  Alexandria 
and  had  been  there  for  some  time,  continuing  in  partnership  until  the  death 
of  Dr.  Lewis  at  Chaska  about  1882.  Doctor  Long  was  the  first  resident 
physician  at  Osakis  and  has  remained  there  continuously  ever  since  settling 
in  the  village,  the  list  of  physicians  who  later  located  there  comprising 
Doctors  Rathburn,  Anderson,  Scoboris,  Cleveland,  Titus,  A.  J.  Gilkinson  and 
Hengstler,  the  two  latter  of  whom  are  now  practicing  there  in  partnership. 

For  twenty  years,  or  until  the  railway  physicians  in  the  smaller  towns 
were  discontinued.  Doctor  Long  was  the  local  physician  for  the  Great  North- 
ern railroad.  From  his  description  of  the  disadvantages  under  which  the 
physician  labored  in  the  period  covering  the  earUer  years  of  his  practice,  it 
is  apparent  that  too  much  cannot  be  said  in  praise  of  the  pioneer  physicians 
or  of  the  efforts  they  put  forth  amid  all  possible  disadvantageous  conditions. 
During  most  parts  of  the  year  the  roads  were  almost  impassible  on  account 
of  mud  holes,  stumps,  rocks,  ruts  and  the  heavy  snow  banks  of  the  cold 
winters  of  those  early  days.  The  question  of  price  or  of  pay  for  services  was 
not  considered,  but  all  calls  were 'answered  with  a  devotion  to  the  profession 
and  an  interest  in  the  patient  that  was  as  noble  as  it  was  unselfish,  for  many 
times  the  physician  received  not  even  a  civil  "thank  you"'  for  his  services. 

In  those  days  it  not  infrequently  happened  that  the  deep  snow  drifts 
were  the  belated  physician's  protecting  bed  against  freezing  and  the  old  army 
rifle  kept  the  hungry  "sassy"  wolves  at  bay.  Surgical  operations  often  were 
performed  during  the  night  hours  in  the  remote  districts  without  counsel  or 
assistance.  All  emergencies  had  to  be  met  fearlessly,  without  any  advantage 
save  the  exercise  of  double  wits,  courage  and  "dare."'  Difficult  surgical  opera- 
tions had  to  be  performed  under  conditions  that  would  make  a  modern  physi- 
cian's hair  stand  on  end,  there  then  being  no  opportunity  for  the  antiseptic 
surgery  of  today,  and  it  is  remarkable  what  good  results  usually  followed 
those  daring  operations.  Though  in  too  many  cases  the  families  who  were 
compelled  to  call  in  the  services  of  the  physician  were  poor  and  had  no 
intention  of  paying  for  the  service,  there  sat  the  true  physician,  all  night, 
watching  and  devising,  devoted  to  the  interests  of  his  patient,  though  know- 
ing that  he  was  not  to  be  remunerated  when  all  was  over. 


The  medical  profession  is  represented  at  Alillerville  by  Dr.  John  C. 
Drexler,  and  at  Kensington  by  Dr.  Otto  L.  Hanson  and  at  Carlos  by  Dr. 
P.  A.  Love.  Doctor  Gray  formerly  was  engaged  in  practice  at  Garfield, 
which  village  is  now  without  a  physician. 


So  far  as  can  be  ascertained  the  following  list  contains  the  names  and 
years  of  service  of  all  the  physicians  who  have  resided  at  Evansville :  Doctor 
Hahnemann  came  in  1881  and  moved  away  in  1886;  Doctor  AIcKenzie  came 
in  1886  and  stayed  until  1887;  Dr.  Charles  Nootnagel  resided  here  in  1887-89; 
Doctor  Spaulding,  1890-91;  Dr.  R.  I.  Hubert,  1891-94;  Dr.  Charles  Van 
Cappellen,  1894-96;  Dr.  C.  R.  Ward,  1895-1903:  Dr.  C.  W.  Meckstroth, 
1896-1901 ;  Doctor  Bachman,  1901-1902;  Dr.  G.  B.  Mathison,  1902-1910; 
Doctor  Regner,  1906-07;  Dr.  G.  R.  Melzer  came  in  1910;  Dr.  W.  Hufifman, 
1912-13;  Doctor  Ekrem,  1914-15;  Doctor  Ruud  and  Dr.  P.  G.  Cowing  came 
to  Evansville  in  1916  and  are  now  engaged  in  the  practice  there. 


The  physicians  who  have  practiced  at  Brandon  have  been  as  follow : 
Doctor  Brown  came  about  1883  and  resided  here  several  years;  Doctor  Foss, 
1885-86;  Dr.  Charles  Van  Cappellen,  1889-1904;  Dr.  Gisle  Bjornstad,  1893- 
96;  Dr.  John  Lyng,  1 899-1 901 ;  Dr.  C.  W.  Meckstroth  came  in  1901  and  still 
resides  here.  Dr.  C.  Nootnagel,  Sr.,  a  homeopath,  practiced  five  miles  west 
of  Brandon  from  1876  until  his  death  a  few  years  ago. 


From  the  traveling  "tinker,"  as  the  settlers  about  the  old  stockade  used 
to  call  the  itinerant  dentists  who  were  wont  to  call  at  the  settlement  there  or  at 
the  other  early  settlements  in  Douglas  county  in  pioneer  days,  to  the  skilled 
and  trained  dental  surgeons  of  today  is  a  far  cry,  indeed.  In  the  old  days 
tooth-pulling  was  the  chief  remedy  for  dental  ailments,  though  some  of  the 
traveling  dentists  were  equipped  with  a  sort  of  a  kit  of  tools  with  which 
they  would  attempt  the  filling  of  teeth,  Init  the  sufferer  usually  discovered 
that  the  filling  would  be  dropping  out  within  a  short  time.  In  consequence 
of  the  bad  practice  of  these  itinerants  the  pioneers  usually  relied  upon  the 
family  physician  for  dental  services,  the  same  being  confined  to  tooth-pulling. 


except  in  the  cases  of  those  who  cared  to  make  a  trip  to  the  cities  for  dental 

It  was  not  until  about  1880  that  Alexandria  had  a  resident  dentist.  Dr. 
James  Bell,  who  came  over  from  Minneapolis  and  located  at  the  county  seat, 
the  first  resident  dentist  in  Douglas  county.  Doctor  Bell  presently  formed  a 
partnership  with  Doctor  Hand,  who  came  in  later,  and  that  partnership  was 
continued  for  some  time.  Doctor  Hand  later  moving  to  Long  Prairie  and 
Doctor  Bell  back  to  Minneapolis.  Doctor  Jordon  was  the  next  dentist  to 
locate  at  Alexandria  and  he  later  went  to  Fergus  Falls,  where  he  died,  and 
the  next  was  Doctor  Avery,  who  later  went  to  Idaho.  Dr.  Harry  Pritchett 
and  Doctor  Good  located  at  Alexandria  about  that  time,  the  former  of 
whom  later  moved  to  Perham  and  the  latter  sold  his  practice  to  Dr.  J.  J. 
Volker,  who  is  still  engaged  in  practice  at  Alexandria.  Dr.  E.  E.  Buell 
succeeded  to  the  practice  of  Doctor  Jordon  and  is  still  in  practice.  In  1904 
Dr.  C.  L.  Cole  established  an  office  at  Alexandria  and  is  still  there,  and  in 
1906  Dr.  C.  C.  Strang,  present  mayor  of  Alexandria,  opened  an  office  for 
the  practice  of  his  profession  and  is  still  thus  engaged  there.  The  latest 
dentist  to  locate  at  the  county  seat  is  Dr.  L.  W.  Prescott,  who  opened  an 
office  there  in  the  summer  of  19 16. 

The  chiropractic  profession  is  represented  by  Dr.  D.  E.  Wittenburg, 
and  the  osteopaths  l^y  Dr.  J.  A.  McCabe. 

Banks   and  Banking 

The  early  banks  of  Douglas  county  were  private  institutions,  often 
carried  on  along  with  some  other  business.  When  the  county  was  unde- 
veloped it  was  only  natural  that  interest  rates  were  high.  It  was  no  uncom- 
mon thing  for  a  money  lender  to  ask  as  high  as  twenty-five  or  thirty  per  cent 
interest  during  the  early  days  of  settlement.  As  land  values  increased,  inter- 
est rates  were  lowered,  and  developed  farms  afforded  good  security  for  loans. 
Later  the  rates  were  regulated  by  law  and  today  the  farmers  and  business 
men  of  Douglas  county  are  able  to  secure  all  the  money  they  need  for  legiti- 
mate enterprises  at  rates  as  reasonable  as  any  county  in  the  state. 

There  are  now  four  national  and  thirteen  state  banks  in  Douglas  county. 
In  1915  these  banks  had  capital  and  surplus  of  $529,500,  and  total  deposits 
of  $3,459,159.68.  It  is  estimated  that  two-thirds  of  these  deposits  belong 
to  farmers.  These  figures  represent  a  per  capita  deposit  of  $195.  In  the 
following  paragraphs  brief  mention  is  made  of  the  officers  and  the  financial 
condition  of  all  the  banks  in  Douglas  county. 


The  First  National  Bank  of  Alexandria  is  the  oldest  financial  institu- 
tion in  the  county.  In  1868  a  private  bank  was  established,  called  the  Bank 
of  Alexandria,  of  which  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen  was  president;  C.  H.  Raiter,  vice- 
president,  and  G.  B.  Ward,  cashier.  In  1883  this  business  was  converted  into 
a  national  bank,  called  the  First  National  Bank  of  Alexandria.  The  present 
officers  are:  C.  J.  Gunderson,  president;  C.  H.  Raiter,  vice-president;  A.  H. 
Gregersen,  vice-president;  P.  O.  Unumb,  cashier;  C.  F.  Raiter,  assistant 
cashier.  Directors:  C.  J.  Gunderson,  C.  H.  Raiter,  Fred  von  Baumbach, 
P.  O.  Unumb,  A.  H.  Gregersen,  F.  C.  Raiter  and  Theodore  Bordsen. 

The  principal  items  from  the  statement  at  the  close  of  business  on  June 
30,  1916,  are  as  follows:  Capital  Stock,  $60,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided 
profits,  $39,551.86;  deposits,  $766,533.15;  loans  and  discounts,  $681,563.18; 
cash  assets,  $158,257.71. 



The  Farmers  Xational  Bank  of  Alexandria  was  chartered  on  June  12, 
1901.  The  first  officers  were  as  follow:  Tollef  Jacobson,  president:  J-  H. 
Letson,  vice-president :  Andrew  Jacobson,  cashier ;  H.  A.  Schaefer,  assistant 
cashier.  The  bank  has  the  same  officers  in  1916  with  the  addition  of  H.  A. 
LeRoy  as  vice-president. 

The  principal  items  from  the  statement  at  the  close  of  business  on  June 
30,  igi6,  are  as  follows:  Capital  stock,  $100,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided 
profits,  $31,424.33;  deposits,  $805,516.14;  loans  and  discounts,  $722,314.15; 
cash  assets,  $118,184.05.  The  building  in  which  the  Farmers  National  is 
hriused  was  erected  in  1914  and  is  one  of  the  handsomest  bank  buildings  in 
the  state.  It  is  of  Maine  granite  and  with  a  marble  interior,  erected  at  a 
cost  of  about  $65,000. 


The  Douglas  County  State  Bank  was  established  on  June  10,  1886,  at 
Alexandria.  The  first  officers  were :  Joseph  U.  Barnes,  president ;  William 
Moses,  vice-president ;  H.  A.  Barnes,  cashier.  The  first  board  of  directors 
consisted  of  Joseph  U.  Barnes,  William  Moses,  G.  A.  Kortsch,  Henry  A. 
Barnes,  E.  J.  Phelps,  W.  L.  Barnes  and  E.  A.  Merrill.  The  present  officers 
are :  G.  A.  Kortsch,  president :  W.  K.  Barnes,  cashier ;  O.  W.  Landeen, 
assistant  cashier. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  bank  had:  Capital, 
$50,000.00:  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $11,724.34;  deposits,  $202,271.58; 
loans  and  discounts,  $213,961.65;  cash  assets,  $37,556.34. 


The  Osakis  State  Bank  was  organized  in  ]\Iay,  1900.  The  first  officers 
were:  H.  A.  Shedd,  president;  W.  P.  Long,  vice-president;  Carl  E.  Oberg, 
cashier.  First  board  of  directors :  H.  A.  Shedd,  W.  P.  Long  and  \\'.  B. 
Lvons.  The  original  capital  stock  was  $10,000.  The  present  officers  of  the 
bank  are :  F.  H.  Borchert,  president ;  W.  P.  Long,  vice-president ;  Clyde  W. 
Long,  cashier;  C.  E.  Belding,  assistant  cashier.  Directors:  F.  H.  Borchert, 
W.  P.  Long  and  \Y.  B.  Lyons. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  condition  of  the  bank 
was  as   follows:     Capital   stock,  $25,000.00;   surplus   and   undivided  profits. 


$11,653.40;   deposits,  $309,396.70;   loans  and   discounts,   $334,486.11;   cash 
assets,  $27,838.34. 


The  First  National  Bank  of  Osakis  was  organized  on  June  9,  1903, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $25,000.00.  The  first  officers  were :  Tollef  Jacob- 
son,  president;  Andrew  Jacobson,  vice-president;  Nels  M,  Evenson,  cashier. 
The  present  officers  are:  Nels  M.  Evenson,  president;  James  A.  Caughren, 
vice-president;  G.  R.  Lee,  cashier;  D.  B.  McCleery,  assistant  cashier. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  May  i,  1916,  the  bank  showed  the  following 
financial  condition:  Capital  stock,  $25,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided  profits, 
$13,340.34;  deposits,  $285,766.89;  loans  and  discounts,  $239,646.75;  cash 
assets,  $79,300.84. 


The  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Evansville  was  established  in  1882.  The 
present  officers  are  as  follow:  G.  H.  Raiter,  president;  O.  C.  Amundson, 
vice-president;  Joseph  Mathison,  cashier;  V.  F.  Johnson,  assistant  cashier. 
A  recent  statement  of  the  bank  showed  the  following  condition:  Capital 
stock,  $10,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $7,500.00;  deposits,  $131,- 
000.00;  loans  and  discounts,  $118,000.00;  cash  assets,  $26,000.00. 


The  Evansville  State  Bank  was  established  on  October  i,  1902,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $10,000.00.  The  first  officers  were:  Tollef  Jacobson,  presi- 
dent; Andrew  Jacobson,  vice-president;  Oscar  Lindstrom,  cashier;  O.  J. 
Wallen,  assistant  cashier.  In  1904  O.  J.  Wallen  was  elected  cashier.  In 
May,  1912,  the  capital  stock  was  increased  to  $25,000.00,  and  a  surplus  of 
$5,000.00  was  set  aside.  The  present  officers  are :  John  Anderson,  presi- 
dent; A.  J.  Ostrom,  vice-president;  O.  J.  Wallen,  cashier;  J.  T.  Larson, 
assistant  cashier. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  condition  of  the  bank  was : 
Capital  stock,  $25,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $11,013.60;  deposits, 
$216,714.14;  loans  and  discounts,  $217,443.47;  cash  assets,  $27,168.92. 



The  Brandon  State  Bank  was  organized  in  1902,  with  a  capital  stock 
of  $10,000.00.  O.  F.  Olson  was  the  president  and  Theodore  F.  Olson  was 
the  cashier.  On  June  16,  1916,  this  institution  was  converted  into  the  First 
National  Bank  of  Brandon,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $25,000.00.  Toilet 
Jacobsen  is  president  and  Ferd  Swenson  is  cashier. 

Statement  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Brandon  at  the  close  of  busi- 
ness on  August  6,  1916:  Capital  stock,  $25,000.00;  surplus,  $10,000.00; 
deposits,  $211,932.72;  loans,  $179,414.91;  cash  assets,  $45,368.95. 


The  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Brandon  was  organized  on  No\-ember  11, 
1910.  Its  first  officers  were:  P.  O.  Unumb,  president;  B.  T.  Teigen,  vice- 
president;  George  Drexler,  cashier;  A.  B.  Burkee,  assistant  cashier.  Mr. 
Drexler  died  on  April  13.  1914,  and  was  succeeded  by  A.  B.  Burkee  as 
cashier.     The  present  assistant  cashier  is  Edwin  Berg. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  statement  of  the  bank 
was  as  follows:  Capital  stock,  $15,000.00;  surplus,  $4,000.00:  deposits, 
$255,112.54;  loans  and  discounts,  $250,716.55;  cash  assets,  $18,330.67. 


The  First  State  Bank  of  Carlos  was  organized  on  Septemlier  5,  1904, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $10,000.00.  The  first  officers  were:  S.  .\.  Netland. 
president;  A.  O.  Netland,  vice-president;  James  B.  Hove,  cashier.  The 
present  officers  are:  James  B.  Hove,  president;  A.  ]\I.  Kohlhaas,  vice-presi- 
dent ;  Edward  B.  Dahlsten,  cashier. 

The  principal  items  from  the  statement  at  the  close  of  business  on  June 
30,  1916,  are  as  follow:  Capital  stock,  $10,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided 
profits,  $3,264.34;  deposits,  $158,338.44;  loans  and  discounts,  $145,795.76; 
cash  assets,  $19,850.29. 


The  Garfield  State  Bank  was  organized  on  IMarch  2-j,  1905,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $10,000.00.  The  first  officers  were:  Harry  Dranger,  presi- 
dent; Ferd.  Swenson.  cashier.     The  present  officers  are:     Ferd.   Swenson, 


president;   John   A.    Linnard,    vice-president;    Theodore    Walstad,    cashier; 
George  Roche,  assistant  cashier. 

At  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  condition  of  the  bank 
was  as  follows:  Capital  stock,  $15,000,00;  .surplus,  $3,000.00;  deposits, 
$193,427.53;  loans  and  discounts,  $185,442.04;  cash  assets,  $19,461.59. 


The  Nelson  State  Bank  was  incorporated  on  April  23,  1907,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $12,000.00.  The  officers  were:  James  Manuel,  presi- 
dent; H.  J.  Ernster,  cashier.  Directors:  C.  H.  Larson,  T.  A.  Erickson  and 
George  Stromlund.  The  present  officers  are:  C.  H.  Larson,  president;  F. 
Otto  Swenson,  vice-president;  George  Stromlund,  cashier;  Ida  A.  Erickson 
and  Hanna  M.  Stromlund,  assistant  cashiers.  T.  A.  Erickson  and  Nels 
Sather  are  on  the  board  of  directors. 

At  the  close  of  inisiness  on  June  30,  1916.  the  condition  of  the  bank 
was  as  follows:  Capital  stock,  $12,000.00;  surplus,  $3,448.63;  deposits, 
$124,867.82;  loans  and  discounts,  $120,367.25;  cash  assets,  $13,305.79. 


The  First  State  Bank  of  Kensington  was  established  in  1909.  The 
present  officers  are:  C.  H.  Raiter.  president;  H.  Thorson,  vice-president; 
O.  W.  Harrison,  cashier ;  C.  D.  Sampson,  assistant  cashier.  The  principal 
items  from  the  statement  at  the  close  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  are  as 
follow:  Capital  stock,  $15,000.00:  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $6,100.83; 
deposits,  $209,222.86;  loans  and  discounts,  $200,195.40;  cash  assets, 


The  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Forada  was  organized  in  19 13,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $10,000.00.  The  first  officers  were:  Fred  C.  Meade,  presi- 
dent; John  Lorenz,  vice-president;  Henry  Daniels,  cashier.  The  present 
officers  are:  Theodore  Aune,  president;  John  Lorenz,  vice-president;  N.  P. 
Norling,  cashier. 

At  the  close  of  Ijusiness  on  June  30,  19 16,  the  statement  of  the  bank 
showed  the  following  condition:  Capital  stock,  $10,000.00;  surplus  and 
undivided  profits,  $2,269.94;  deposits,  $48,078.80;  loans  and  discounts,  $49,- 
333.78;  -cash  assets,  $4,130.05. 



The  Alelby  State  Bank  was  estalilished  in  1914.  Tlie  present  officers 
are:  E.  A.  Jewett,  president;  H.  M.  Palmquist,  vice-president;  J.  L.  Everts, 
cashier.  A  statement  of  the  bank  for  June  30,  1916,  shows  the  following 
condition:  Capital  stock,  $10,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $2,- 
228.39;  deposits,  $44,489.89;  loans  and  discounts,  $48,466.00;  cash  assets, 


The  German  American  State  Bank  of  jNlillerville  was  chartered  on  May 
II,  1914,  and  opened  for  business  on  August  i,  1914.  The  present  officers 
are:  Tollef  Jacobson,  president;  Frank  Buscher,  cashier.  Directors:  Tol- 
lef  Jacobson,  Ferd.  Swenson,  F.  G.  Dobmeyer,  P.  B.  Lorsung  and  Frank 

At  the  cjose  of  business  on  June  30,  1916,  the  condition  of  the  bank  was 
as  follows:  Capital  stock,  $10,000.00;  surplus  and  undivided  profits,  $2,- 
124.30;  deposits,  $61,616.88;  loans  and  discounts,  $54,538.16;  cash  assets, 


Military  Annals. 

On  the  lawn  of  the  Douglas  county  court  house  there  stands  a  beautiful 
gray  granite  monument,  surmounted  by  a  life-size  bronze  figure  of  a  soldier 
standing  at  guard.  On  the  face  of  the  granite  shaft  there  is  carved  a  repro- 
duction of  the  familiar  emblem  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  and  on 
the  left  side  of  the  shaft  there  is  carved  the  following  inscription: 


1861  TO  1865 


REV.    T.    W.    CRITCHETTE,    D.    D., 

COMMANDER    OF    J.    L.    REYNOLDS    POST    NO.     5 1,    DEPT.    OF    MINN., 

G.    A.    R..    THE    W.    R.    C.    AND    THE    CITIZENS    OF    DOUGLAS    COUNTY. 

DEDICATED    MAY   3O,    I916. 

Douglas  count}-  not  having  had  a  formal,  separate  civic  entity  during 
the  period  of  the  Civil  War,  it  having  teen,  previous  to  the  spring  of  1866, 
attached  to  Stearns  C(iunt}-  for  civil  purposes,  the  military  annals  of  the 
region  now  comprised  within  the  boundaries  of  Douglas  county  hardly  can 
be  regarded  as  those  of  the  latter  county,  but  rather  of  Stearns  county,  to 
which  it  then  was  attached.  When  the  Civil  ^^'ar  broke  out  there  were  not 
manv  settlers  in  the  territory  now  comprised  within  Douglas  county  and  of 
these  all  but  a  very  few  scattered  and  left  during  the  time  of  the  Indian  up- 
rising in  the  next  year,  the  story  of  which,  together  with  a  history  of  the 
estalilishment  of  the  old  stockade  at  Alexandria,  following  the  outbreak,  is 
told  in  an  earlier  chapter.  Of  the  few  settlers  in  this  region,  however,  a 
goodlv  percentage  responded  to  the  call  to  arms  and  joined  the  forces  of 
the  state  of  Minnesota  in  aiding  to  put  down  the  rebellion  of  the  Southern 
states,  this  percentage  having  been  sufficiently  high  to  obviate  the  necessity 
for  the  exercise  of  the  draft  throughout  this  region.  At  the  close  of  the 
war  and  upon  the  re-establishment  of  a  sense  of  security  against  the  Indians 
in  this  section,  settlement  became  quite  rapid  and  among  these  settlers  were 


many  of  the  veterans  of  the  Civil  War,  who  came  out  here  seeking  new 
homes  in  this  promising  region.  These  veterans  in  the  due  course  of  time 
formed  local  posts  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  one  at  Osakis  and  one 
at  Alexandria,  and  the  rosters  of  these  posts  may  therefore  very  properly 
be  regarding  as  continuing  the  military  annals  of  the  county  in  so  far  as 
the  Civil  ^^^ar  is  concerned. 

JOHN    L.    REYNOLDS    POST    NO.    5I. 

The  charter  of  John  L.  Reynolds  Post  No.  51,  Grand  Army  of  the 
Republic,  Department  of  ^linnesota.  was  granted  at  Stillwater  on  October 
29,  1883,  John  P.  Rea  then  being  department  commander  and  Samuel  Bloo- 
neir,  assistant  adjutant-general,  following  l>eing  the  charter  members  of  the 
post :  Horatio  Jenkins,  Thomas  F.  Cowing,  Lewis  J.  Brown,  James  S.  Chap- 
man, John  B.  Cowing,  Henry  K.  White,  Buel  Chidester,  William  E.  Chid- 
ester,  Andrew  J.  Ames,  Charles  Schultz,  Lewis  S.  Hill,  William  H.  Hutchin- 
son, Joseph  Gilpin,  Charles  Perkins  and  Ole  J.  Urness.  The  post  held  its 
first  meeting  in  Cowing's  Opera  Hall  at  Alexandria  on  October  29,  1883, 
and  W.  H.  Harrington,  chief  mustering  officer  of  the  Department  of  ]\Iinne- 
sota.  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  installed  the  post  and  officers  of  the 
same,  the  officers  being  as  follow :  Commander,  Horatio  Jenkins ;  senicjr 
vice-commander,  Thomas  F.  Cowing;  junior  vice-commander,  William  H. 
Sanders;  surgeon,  Lewis  J.  Brown;  chaplain,  James  S.  Chapman;  quarter- 
master, J.  B.  Cowing;  adjutant,  WilHam  E.  Chidester;  officer  of  the  day, 
Henry  White ;  officer  of  the  guard,  Buel  Chidester ;  sergeant-major,  Andrew 

John  L.  Reynolds  Post  grew  in  strength  of  numljers  and  in  local  influ- 
ence with  the  passing  of  years  until  its  roster  came  to  number  one  hundred 
and  seventy-nine,  the  meml^ers,  in  addition  to  those  mentioned  above  being 
as  follow :  Hiram  Shippey,  Hiram  P.  James,  James  A.  Shotwell,  William  A. 
Downs,  Oliver  B.  Cooley,  A.-  H.  Taylor,  George  A.  Whitcomb,  Francis 
Giles,  Charles  E.  Jenkins,  F.  C.  Meade,  William  P.  Burgan,  G.  J.  Strang. 
Samuel  J.  Johnson,  James  Shaver,  George  E.  Ke}-es,  Knute  Nelson,  Leon- 
ard West,  Henry  H.  Brown,  David  Johnson,  Peter  Lundgren,  W.  H.  Hal- 
stad,  W.  C.  Roland,  John  Lindquist,  John  Barnard,  Hamilton  Tavlor,  F.  G. 
Stevens,  N.  N.  Hardy,  Fred  von  Baumbach,  A.  A.  Brown,  James  C.  Miller. 
Royal  Colby,  Dennis  Crandall,  \\'.  R,  Franklin,  James  A.  Miller,  C.  \\'.  Co- 
field.  Moses  Fredenberg,  Isaiah  Johnson,  Cah'in  .\bbott,  .Albert  Hubljell. 
Rial  Catlin,  Thomas   Kinney.   Mathias   Swap,   Joseph   Cramer.   William   H 


Countryman,  R.  B.  Oliver,  George  W.  Frost.  Paul  Paulson,  Carl  W.  Wood- 
ward. Xels  Abrahamson,  H.  L.  Lewis,  James  F.  Dicken,  William  L.  'Slc- 
Kenzie,  William  P.  Rogers,  Daniel  Allee,  Martin  J.  Norde,  Johnson  Baker, 
Christopher  Halvorsen,  George  W.  Gardner,  Thomas  Bratton.  John  N. 
Shelru,  George  W.  Partridge,  Olaf  Dahlheim,  James  Madison,  John  Sund- 
blad,  Andrew  J.  Urness,  George  G.  ^Mitchell,  William  Hounsell,  James  J. 
McQuillan,  Luther  South,  James  R.  Patten,  Olaf  Fahlin,  Philander  Brooks, 
Gilbert  Olson,  John  Olson,  Jr.,  Moses  Ingersoll,  H.  G.  Fladeland,  Cyrus  B. 
Chase.  James  W.  Roath.  Henry  Johnson,  Fred  Prodger,  Samuel  Jones,  John 
Peterson.  Andrew  Burkee,  John  X.  Hanson,  John  A.  Anderson,  Nicholas 
Mager,  Peter  Smith,  John  DeBilzen,  August  Wilm,  J.  L.  Kasson,  J.  C. 
Terrvl,  Gustav  Olason,  William  Ziska,  John  A.  Johnson,  Charles  Laurel, 
\\'illiam  Kapphahn,  Joshua  M.  Doudna,  Alonzo  Kellogg,  Laurentz  Johnson, 
Justus  O.  Kellogg,  Nicholas  Renkes,  John  Hobart,  John  E.  Allen,  William 
A.  Baile}-,  John  C.  Carley,  Francis  W.  Frederick,  John  Moses,  James  Fitz- 
gerald, Frank  Webber,  Frank  H.  Colby,  George  H.  Ostrum,  William  Mc- 
Crory,  William  B.  Dow,  Olie  Olson,  Olie  Brandson,  Charles  Buscher,  Charles 
H.  Wright,  Ed.  Peterson,  Josiah  Kimball,  James  H.  Abbott,  Nicholas  Sand- 
strom.  Nelson  Peck,  Almon  Warner,  Stephen  W.  Miller,  Theo.  A.  Emerson, 
August  Gutzman,  George  A.  Freundenberg,  \"alentine  Nichols,  Egbert  Ful- 
lerton,  Gilbert  Hayford,  Samuel  Laws,  Alvin  Milligan,  John  R.  Moran, 
James  Bright,  Jesse  Barrick,  Amos  Bacon,  William  A.  McDonald,  Henry 
Haner,  Solomon  Demming,  David  R.  B.  Hall,  Edward  Alger,  Joseph  Alger, 
Benjamin  W.  Noe,  Charles  W.  Sutton,  P.  L.  Letherman,  R.  Larson,  Vincent 
Cooley,  Chris  McCabe,  Frank  J.  Stevens,  Thomas  Cooper,  Henry  Yerigen. 
Charles  F.  McKillips,  William  Cort,  James  Goddard,  James  Watters,  Rev. 
T.  W.  Critchette,  D.  D.,  Melvin  Cushman,  George  Mathison,  Gottlieb  Grie- 
bio,  Lewis  S.  Patten  and  Melvin  Churchman,  besides  whom  the  names  of 
John  Anderson,  Thomas  Carpenter  and  William  Wagoner  are  mentioned  on 
the  roll  as  veterans  not  members  of  the  post. 

With  the  passage  of  time  and  in  consequence  of  death  and  removals, 
the  present  membership  of  the  post  has  dwindled  down  to  thirty-two.  Meet- 
ings are  held  in  a  room  on  the  second  floor  of  the  court  house,  provided 
through  the  courtesy  of  the  county  commissioners,  and  the  present  (1916) 
officers  of  the  post  are  as  follows:  Commander,  Rev.  T.  W.  Critchette,  D. 
D. ;  senior  vice-commander,  Thomas  Cooper;  jimior  vice-commander,  Frank 
F.  Stevens;  officer  of  the  day,  Luther  South;  officer  of  the  guard,  Henry 
A'earkin;  adjutant,  Melvin  Cushman;  quartermaster,  James  Watters,  and 
chaplain.  T.  W.  Critchette. 


JOHN    KENNEDY    POST   NO.    4I. 

John  Kennedy  Post  No.  41,  Department  of  Minnesota,  Grand  Arm}-  of 
the  Republic,  was  instituted  at  Osakis  on  May  27,  1885,  with  M.  D.  Judkins, 
W.  H.  Crows,  F.  A.  Caswell,  William  Johnson,  S.  R.  Smith,  M.  Johnson, 
W.  H.  Stevens,  V.  A.  Edgerly,  John  Bailor,  L.  E.  Stallcop,  H.  H.  Sander- 
son, J.  B.  Johnson,  B.  W.  Viles,  H.  O.  Whipple,  John  Casterline,  J.  H. 
Passon,  John  Hoosline,  E.  J.  Wickwire,  Stephen  John,  J.  B.  Sherman,  J.  H. 
Rock,  W^  B.  Lyons,  A.  O.  Chapin,  E.  G.  Pike,  C.  N.  Tubbs,  C.  W.  B.  Taylor 
and  Paul  Harmon  as  charter  members  and  the  following  officers :  Com- 
mander, Joseph  Bird;  senior  vice-commander,  Levi  Stallcop;  junior  vice- 
commander,  I\Iark  D.  Judkins,  and  adjutant,  \\\  H.  Crows.  Kennedy  post 
remained  active  for  many  }"ears,  but  in  course  of  time  its  ranks  l>ecame  so 
thinned  b}"  death  and  removals  that  it  finally  disbanded.  At  one  time  the 
post  was  a  strong  organization,  owned  their  own  building  and  held  their 
meetings  with  due  regularity.  But  as  the  years  advanced  death  entered  the 
ranks,  many  moved  away,  interest  subsided  and  it  was  found  impossible  to 
maintain  the  post.  Following  is  a  complete  roster  of  the  post,  sixty-seven 
in  all:  M.  D.  Judkins,  William  H.  Crowe,  F.  A.  Caswell,  S.  R.  Smith, 
Morgan  Johnson,  William  H.  Stevens,  V.  A.  Edgley,  John  Bailor,  Levy 
Stalcap,  H.  H.  Sanderson,  J.  B.  Johnson,  C.  N.  Tiebs,  E.  G.  Pike,  O.  O. 
Chapin,  O.  A\\  Tiger,  B.  W.  Viles,  Paul  Harmon,  H.  O.  Whiffle,  John  Cas- 
terton,  John  Hoostine,  P.  H.  Pason,  E.  Wickwire,  John  Stephen,  John  B. 
Scherman,  John  H.  Rock,  W^  B.  Lyons,  William  Johnson,  James  H.  Fisher, 
W.  W.  Wood,  AL  W.  Adley,  Joseph  Bird,  James  Stanley,  William  Millard, 
William  Curtis,  'SL  G.  Tixley,  John  R.  Lysing,  David  Chapman,  Webster 
Howard,  Sam  Gonser,  J.  H.  Mann,  O.  H.  P.  Fans,  George  Haskins,  John 
Debord,  Rubin  L.  Buck,  Calvin  Ripley,  B.  D.  Judkins,  A.  O.  Berry,  R.  B. 
Saterlee,  J.  B.  Perkins,  D.  A.  Edwards,  Alexander  Brink,  Charles  Peterson, 
William  Knowles,  Jacob  Bowman,  John  Kileble,  L.  P.  Beeding,  Dennis 
Huntley,  William  Schroeder,  A.  J.  Marrow,  John  Shaw,  Ruben  Skeesucker, 
V.  Warren,  W.  W.  Gorden,  R.  Tilton,  Dennis  Harden,  M.  Tilton,  R.  H. 
Belnap,,  C.  S.  Grover. 


On  the  25th  of  May,  1898,  just  one  month  after  the  declaration  of  war 
l:)et\veen  the  United  States  and  Spain,  President  McKinley  issued  his  second 


call  for  troops.  The  patriotic  fervor  was  at  its  height  throughout  the  county. 
At  the  city  of  Alexandria  there  was  organized  a  company  of  volunteers,  one 
hundred  and  forty  strong,  which  was  promised  a  place  in  the  Fifteenth  Regi- 
ment, Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  but  like  a  good  many  other  like 
organizations,  it  was  doomed  to  be  disappointed,  for  there  were  sixty  such 
companies  and  only  twelve  could  be  used  at  this  time,  and  the  Alexandria 
volunteers  were  asked  to  wait  for  the  Sixteenth.  In  the  first  few  days  of 
July  a  number  of  the  boys  went  to  the  cities  and  enlisted  in  other  companies 
rather  than  wait  for  the  promised  Sixteenth  Regiment. 

Those  enlisting  in  Company  B,  under  Capt.  John  W.  Fineout,  were  as 
follows :  Asa  P.  Brooks,  Frank  R.  Beisholdt,  Erik  Florman,  Martin  Jensen, 
WiUiam  F.  Miller,  John  O'Farrell,  Henry  T.  Ronning,  Benjamin  F.  Gaskill, 
Bendix  N.  Bekker,  William  Gauthier,  Louis  O.  Lund,  David  Myers,  Oscar 
I.  Peterson  and  Carl  C.  A'anDyke,  all  of  Alexandria. 

Those  enlisting  in  Company  G,  under  Capt.  L.  S.  Nelson  were  as  fol- 
lows :  William  A.  Downs,  George  A.  Fish,  Edward  P.  Lampman,  Ovey  V. 
Shippey,  Henry  C.  Eichman,  Carl  J.  King  and  Frank  L.  Lampman,  all  of 
Alexandria,  and  Nick  Sward,  of  Nelson  Station. 

They  were  first  stationed  at  the  state  fair  grounds,  at  Camp  Ramsey, 
named  in  honor  of  the  first  governor  of  Minnesota,  and  there  on  July  18, 
1898,  the  regiment  was  mustered  in  as  a  body.  On  August  2^^  the  entire 
regiment,  except  Company  G  was  moved  to  Ft.  Snelling,  on  account  of  the 
epidemic  of  typhoid  fever  which  had  taken  a  strong  hold  on  the  boys  at 
Camp  Ramsey.  Company  G  was  left  to  police  the  grounds  and  followed  the 
main  body  the  next  day.  Although  several  of  the  boys  from  Douglas  county 
fell  a  prey  to  the  dreaded  disease,  they  were  all  fortunate  in  recovering.  Not 
so  with  all  in  the  regiment,  however,  for  a  great  number  died.  On  the  15th 
of  September  the  boys  left  for  Camp  Meade,  Pennsylvania.  On  November 
15  the  boys  again  moved,  this  time  to  Augusta,  Georgia,  where  they  remained 
until  they  were  mustered  out  on  March  27,  1899.  In  addition  to  those  volun- 
teers from  Douglas  county  mentioned  above,  there  were  about  half  a  dozen 
who  enlisted  in  various  other  regiments. 

Fraternal  and  Benevolent  Societies. 

The  spirit  of  fraternity  in  the  way  of  formal  organizations  of  the  vari- 
ous secret  societies  began  early  to  be  manifested  in  Douglas  county  after 
the  rough  edges  of  pioneer  living  had  been  somewhat  worn  off,  and,  although 
this  community  is  not  so  strongly  marked  by  the  presence  of  secret  societies 
as  are  some  communities  in  the  state,  there  have  been  from  the  beginning 
some  well-organized  and  influential  fraternal  associations  in  the  county. 
Some  of  these  have  maintained  their  organization  in  compact  form;  others 
have  flourished  for  a  time  and  then  gone  down  through  a  decline  in  interest 
on  the  part  of  their  respective  memljers.  The  majority  of  the  lodges  in  the 
county  at  present  are  those  organized  for  insurance  purposes  rather  than 
for  any  other  reason  and  the  social  side  of  these  latter  associations  has  never 
been  very  strongly  played  up,  the  members  keeping  up  their  "dues"  in  behalf 
of  the  insurance  feature,  but  giving  little  attention  to  the  fraternity  idea 
that  is  made  much  of  by  some  such  associations  in  other  communities.  The 
majority  of  these  have  no  corporate  existence  and  some  do  not  even  main- 
tain lodge  headquarters.  An  effort  has  been  made  to  obtain  a  complete  list 
of  the  various  fraternal  and  benevolent  societies  in  the  county,  but  the  Hsl 
which  follows  does  not  purport  to  be  complete,  not  a  few  of  the  societies 
thus  approached  for  information  failing  to  supply  the  necessary  data  to 
make  up  a  report  on  the  same. 

The  first  "lodge"  to  file  articles  of  incorporation  in  Douglas  county  was 
Alexandria  Lodge  No.  54,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  which  on 
]\Iay  I,  1876,  was  incorporated  with  the  following  charter  members:  B. 
Nicholas,  W.  L.  McCallum,  Evison  Atkinson,  August  Kortsch  and  Samuel 
Beidelman,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  W.  L.  McCallum, 
noble  grand;  Evison  Atkinson,  vice-grand,  and  Fred  von  Baumbach,  sec- 

The  second  was  Ida  Grange  No.  395,  incorporated  on  June  4,  1877,  with 
the  following  charter  members :  E.  H.  Alden,  Scharlatte  Alden,  Alexander 
Hasbrook,  James  F.  Dicken,  Jerome  Dicken,  Joseph  Pennar.  Abner  Darling, 


Reuben  Ecker.  Rebecca  A.  Ecker,  Elizabetb  Bedman.  Heiir)'  Alden  and  Henry 
H.  Brown. 

On  March  14,  1895,  Brandon  Lodge  No.  224,  Independent  Order  of 
Odd  Fellows,  was  instituted  with  F.  W.  Ruppelius,  Herman  Nootnagel, 
Gustavus  Gunther,  Rudolph  Wagner,  Joshua  M.  Doudna  and  the  following 
officers:  Noble  grand,  F.  W.  Ruppelius;  vice-grand,  Herman  Nootnagel, 
and  secretary,  L.  E.  Williams. 

Douglas  Encampment  No.  47,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  ac- 
cording to  its  articles  of  incorporation  filed  in  the  office  of  the  register  of 
deeds,  was  instituted  on  September  25,  1897,  with  George  G.  S.  Campbell, 
James  Walker,  James  H.  ^'an  Dyke,  A.  G.  Sexton,  A.  W.  Curtis,  Rudolph 
Wegener,  J.  A.  ]\IcKay,  Fred  von  Baumbach,  H.  K.  White.  George  F.  \Miit- 
comb,  J.  E.  Lundgren,  Hugo  Lundbohm,  Wego  ^^'erner,  F.  E.  FrankHn, 
Michael  Hickey,  Gilbert  Sargent,  N.  P.  Jacobson,  Charles  Culross,  J.  P. 
Simonson,  H.  J.  Boyd,  A.  M.  Kohlhaas,  H.  T.  Halvorson,  William  McKay, 
R.  J.  McNeil,  P.  Atkinson,  Jolm  Templeton,  Thomas  Hall,  S.  W.  McEwan 
and  A.  E.  Shippey,  charter  members. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  December  7,  1898,  Alexandria  Lodge  No.  185, 
Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen,  was  incorporated  with  the  following 
charter  members :  Arthur  S.  Mason,  Leon  E.  Waite,  Simon.  R.  Drum, 
Cyrus  T.  Allen,  C.  W.  Ridley,  D.  J.  Jones,  Fred  C.  Meade,  George  R. 
Auxer,  O.  J.  Reynolds,  H.  G.  Atwood,  L.  C.  Atwood.  O.  A.  Bailor,  G.  B. 
Carlton.  C.  L.  Gilbert,  C.  H.  Kline,  C.  N.  ]\Iitchell  and  .V.  D.  Sargent,  with 
the  following  officers:  :Master  workman,  William  E.  Kellogg;  foreman, 
J.  W.  Robards;  overseer,  Nels  Erickson;  recorder,  L.  C.  Atwood;  financier, 
J.  E.  Peterson;  receiver,  Charles  S.  Brown;  guide,  A.  E.  Shippey;  inside 
watch,  Hugo  Heere :  outside  watch,  J.  L.  Burgan. 

Alexandria  Lodge  No.  133,  Knights  of  Pythias,  at  Alexandria,  was 
incorporated  on  December  13,  1898,  said  lodge  having  been  instituted  on 
June  13,  1894,  the  charter  members  being  F.  B.  A'an  Hoesen,  Charles  S. 
Mitchell,  L.  E.  Waite,  George  E.  Soper,  N.  W.  Hicks,  G.  A.  Kortsch,  W.  K. 
Barnes,  Milo  Strieker,  Alex.  Jacobson,  Walter  E.  Peck,  H.  K.  White,  George 
S.  Spaulding,  G.  T.  Morrisse,  H.  T.  Halvorson,  George  F.  Whitcomb,  Glaus 
J.  Gunderson,  J.  H.  Letson,  N.  L.  Page,  W.  F.  Jordan,  C  H.  Raiter,  S.  D. 
Moles,  H.  W.  Allen,  R.  J.  McNeil,  George  L.  Treat,  G.  B.  Ward,  ^^'.  T. 
Cowing,  E.  P.  Wright,  C.  A.  Benson,  P.  O.  Unumb,  H.  Jenkins,  Sr.,  W.  F. 
Sundblad,  S.  W.  McEwan,  N.  .P.  Ward,  D.  J.  Jones,  H.  J.  Boyd  and  Joseph 
F.  Hieljel,  the  officers  at  the  time  of  incorporation  having  been  as  follow: 
Chancellor    commander.    ToUef    Jacolison;    vice-chancellor,    ]\Iiles    Strieker; 


prelate.  W.'H.  Thompson;  master  of  work,  W.  T.  Hendren;  keeper  of  record 
and  seal,  Joseph  F.  Hiebel;  master  of  exchequer,  P.  O.  Unumb;  master  at 
arms,  Andrew  Jacobson;  trustees,  Charles  S.  Mitchell,  H.  K.  White  and 
W.  K.  Barnes.  This  lodge  is  no  longer  active,  having  surrendered  its 
charter  some  years  ago. 

Urness  Camp  No.  5521,  ]\Iodern  Woodmen  of  America,  in  the  town  of 
Urness,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  camp  rooms  on  July  25,  1899,  was  incor- 
porated, the  officers  of  the  camp  at  that  time  being  as  follow:  Venerable 
counsel,  Oscar  Erickson :  worthy  advisor,  John  A.  Urness;  banker,  E.  G. 
Erickson;  clerk,  Oscar  Lindstrom;  escort,  John  G.  Doobin;  watchman,  John 
J.  Bugge;  sentry,  Ole  A.  Johnson;  managers,  Henry  N.  Hanson,  P.  J.  Bugge 
and  Nels  J.  Urness.  The  charter  members  of  this  camp  were  Peder  J.  Bugge, 
John  J.  Bugge,  John  G.  Doobin,  Erick  G.  Erickson,  Oscar  Erickson,  Henry 
N.  Hanson,  Ole  A.  Johnson,  Oscar  Lindstrom,  Charles  S.  Peterson,  Albert 
Ouam,  Andrew  Ouam.  John  A.  Urness,  Ole  K.  Urness,  Nils  J.  Urness  and 
Thomas  Thompson. 

The  Scandinavian  Mutual  Aid  Association  Siloah,  of  Holmes  City,  was 
incorporated  on  December  18,  1899,  an  association  for  relief  in  sickness, 
accident  or  death,  the  articles  of  incorporation  being  signed  by  the  follow- 
ing officers:  President,  H.  L.  Lewis,  vice-president.  Per  J.  Holm,  secretary, 
R.  \'allquist;  treasurer,  Jens  Backelin;  directors  at  large,  P.  J.  Christopher- 
son  and  John  Holmstedt. 

Perlbandet  Lodge  No.  49,  Independent  Order  of  Good  Templars,  was 
incorporated  on  Novemljer  30,  1910,  with  the  following  officers:  President, 
Peter  Hoglin;  vice-president,  Jennie  Johnson;  secretary,  Ole  Wallner;  treas- 
urer, Andrew  Hjelm;  trustees,  Albert  Hanson,  Paulus  Paulson  and  P.  J. 

Besides  the  Grand  Army  Post  and  the  W'oman's  Relief  Corps,  which 
are  treated  of  in  the  chapter  relating  to  military  annals,  there  are  at  Alexan- 
dria, the  county  seat,  lodges  and  societies  as  follow:  Constellation  Lodge 
No.  81,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons;  Lyra  Chapter  No.  166,  Order 
of  the  Eastern  Star:  Alexandria  Lodge  No.  54,  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows;  Douglas  Encampment  Xo.  47,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows; 
Canton  Caledonia,  Patriarchs  Militant;  Lady  of  the  Lake  Lodge  No.  173, 
Daughters  of  Rebekah ;  Alexandria  Homestead  No.  589,  Brotherhood  of 
American  Yeomen;  Alexandria  Lodge  No.  185,  Ancient  Order  of  United 
Workmen;  St.  Mary's  Court  No.  1067,  Catholic  Order  of  Foresters;  Alex- 
andria Lodge  No.  904,  Modern  Brotherhood  of  America;  Park  Region  Camp 
No.  2416,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America;  Maple  Camp  No.   2064.  Royal 


Neighl)ors;  Alexandria  Tent  No.  65,  Knights  of  the  Maccabees,  and  a  lodge 
of  the  Ladies  of  the  Maccabees;  Alexandria  Lodge  No.  357,  American 
Nobles:  Alexandria  Council  No.  1715,  Knights  and  Ladies  of  Security; 
Alexandria  Observatory  No.  89,  North  Star  Lodge,  an  active  branch  of  the 
Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union,  the  Douglas  County  Humane  So- 
ciety and  the  Douglas  County  Agricultural  Society. 

woman's,  christian  temper.ance  union. 

The  Alexandria  branch  of  the  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union 
vifas  organized  at  a  meeting  held  at  the  Methodist  church  in  February,  1908, 
presided  over  by  Miss  Green,  with  the  following  charter  members :  Mrs. 
George  E.  Tindall,  Mrs.  Fred  Williams,  Mrs.  Francis  Davis,  Mrs.  Ida  Tart, 
Mrs.  Orin  Kellogg  and  Mrs.  Otto  Landeen,  the  first  officers  being  as  follow : 
President,  Mrs.  Martha  Williams;  vice-president,  Mrs.  Francis  Davis;  secre- 
tary, Mrs.  Orin  Kellogg:  treasurer,  Mrs.  Otto  Landeen.  The  union  now 
has  a  membership  of  sixty-six  and  is  officered  as  follow:  President,  Mrs. 
Eva  Wold;  vice-president,  Mrs.  Leonora  Squires;  corresponding  secretary, 
Mrs.  Anna  Poalson;  recording  secretary,  Mrs.  AHce  Haskins;  treasurer,  Mrs. 
Martha  Lobeck.  At  Evansville,  Brandon,  Garfield,  Kensington,  Ida  and 
Nelson  there  are  also  active  branches  of  this  form  of  social  work,  the  cor- 
responding secretary  of  the  union  at  Evansville  being  Mrs.  W.  M.  Thomp- 
son; Garfield,  Mrs.  Anna  Loren;  Kensington,  Mrs.  Agnes  Osterberg;  Bran- 
don Young  Peoples  Band,  Reuben  Hermanson;  Ida  Young  Peoples  Band, 
Miss  Belle  Angus,  and  Nelson  Young  Peoples  Band,  Emmaline  Younger. 


The  Douglas  Chapter,  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union,  at  Alex- 
andria, was  organized  on  November  4,  1914.  The  first  officers  were  as  fol- 
low: Mrs.  Etta  Mulligan,  president;  Mrs.  Ethel  Kinney,  vice-president;  Mrs. 
Katherine  Brandt,  recording  secretary;  Mrs.  Eunice  Franklin,  correspond- 
ing secretary:  Mrs.  Anna  Helming,  treasurer. 

The  active  charter  members  were :  Mrs.  Etta  Mulligan,  Mrs.  Katherine 
Brandt,  Mrs.  Eunice  Franklin,  Mrs.  Ethel  Kinney,  Mrs.  Anna  Helming. 
Mrs.  Mable  Reynolds,  Mrs.  Ida  Hanson,  Miss  Eva  Whiting,  Mrs.  Jessie 
Walters,  Mrs.  Mary  Larsen,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Sherwood,  Mrs.  Maud  Larson, 
Mrs.  Cornelia  Osten-Sacken.  Mrs.  Lillian  Bovd,  Mrs.  Louise  Wedum,  Mrs. 

l)()i;i;las  and  grant  counties,  Minnesota.  295 

.■\iigeline  Hounsell,  Mrs.  Delia  Nelson,  Mrs.  Ida  Lor,  Mrs.  Florence  Hicks, 
Mrs.  Bertha  Osborn.  Mrs.  Mary  Geer  and  Mrs.  Freudenberg. 

The  honorary  charter  members  were:  S.  C.  Nelson,  R.  C.  Franklin, 
E.  J.  Brandt,  Elmer  Watters,  John  T.  Flanagan  and  Fergus  A.  Flanagan. 
The  present  officers  are :  Miss  Eva  Whiting,  president;  Mrs.  Louise  Wedum, 
vice-president;  Miss  Mae  Cowan,  recording  secretary;  Mrs.  Henrietta 
Morris,  corresponding  secretary;  Mrs.  Anna  Helming,  treasurer.  The 
chapter  now  has  fift^•-four  active  members  and  nineteen  honorar)-  members. 


A  dispensation  was  granted  to  organize  Constellation  Lodge  No.  81, 
Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  at  Alexandria  on  February  25,  1869. 
The  lodge  was  duly  organized  on  March  8,  1869,  with  the  following  officers: 
N.  B.  Patterson,  worshipful  master:  L.  ^^^  Kilbourne.  senior  ma,ster;  F.  B. 
Van  Hoesen,  junior  warden;  John  D.  Aldrich,  junior  deacon;  \A'.  T.  Eng- 
lish, senior  deacon :  L.  W.  Rima,  tyler ;  George  F.  Cowing,  treasurer ;  L.  G. 
Sims,  secretary.  The  charter  of  the  lodge  was  received  on  January  27,  1870. 
The  lodge  now  has  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  fifteen,  with  the  fol- 
lowing officers:  W.  J.  Sheldon,  worshipful  master;  J.  H.  Stevens,  senior 
warden;  H.  E.  Leach,  junior  warden;  C.  C.  Strang,  senior  deacon;  A.  M. 
Foker,  junior  deacon;  C.  H.  Raiter,  senior  steward ;  F.  Garvey,  junior  stew- 
ard; C.  Fiskness,  tyler;  C.  F.  Raiter,  treasurer;  J.  A.  Kinney,  secretary. 

OSAKIS   LODGE   NO.    l8o. 

Osakis  Lodge  No.  180,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  was  organ- 
ized at  Osakis  on  May  5,  1888,  by  Deputy  Grand  Master  Bridgman,  of 
Star  in  the  ^^'est  Lodge  No.  60,  at  Sauk  Center,  Minnesota.  The  charter 
members  were:  W.  H.  Crowe,  J.  H.  Rock,  H.  Chalfant,  G.  R.  Babbitt,  W. 
P.  Long,  W.  B.  Lyons,  C.  Nelson  and  L  P.  Schei.  The  first  officers  were: 
VV.  H.  Crowe,  worshipful  master;  J.  H.  Rock,  senior  warden;  H.  Chalfant, 
junior  warden ;  W.  B.  Lyons,  secretary ;  W.  P.  Long,  treasurer.  This  lodge 
holds  its  meetings  in  the  Masonic  hall  in  the  Caughren  block.  The  officers 
for  1916  are:  C.  G.  Millard,  worshipful  master;  G.  L.  Bryant,  senior 
warden;  L.  M.  Thorbum,  secretary;  J.  M.  Curtis,  treasurer. 

Evansville  Lodge  No.  214,  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  at 
Evansville,  was  organized  on  May  25,  1894,  with  the  following  charter 
members :    Charles  W.  Webb,  Christ  Nelson,  P.  J.  Wrangelborg,  Olaf  Dahl- 


heim  and  F.  N.  Miner,  the  first  elective  officers  being  as  follow :  Wor- 
shipful master,  Charles  \\'.  Webb;  senior  warden,  Christ  Xelson;  junior 
warden,  P.  J.  Wrangelborg ;  treasurer,  Olaf  Dahlheim;  secretary,  F.  N. 
Miner.  The  lodge  has  a  present  membership  of  thirty-six  and  the  pres- 
ent (1916)  officers  are  as  follow:  Worshipful  master,  Allen  H.  Nelson; 
senior  warden,  E.  L.  Anderson;  junior  warden,  A.  C.  Hanson;  treasurer, 
C.  W.  Webb;  secretary,  H.   E.  Alstead. 


Alexandria  Lodge  No.  54,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  was 
instituted  on  April  18,  1876,  at  Alexandria,  with  the  following  charter  mem- 
bers: B.  Nichols,  \y.  L.  McCalum,  Evison  Atkinson,  August  Kortsch  and 
Samuel  Beidleman.  The  first  officers  were  as  follow :  Noble  grand,  W.  L. 
McCalum ;  vice-grand,  E.  Atkinson ;  recording  secretary,  Fred  von  Baum- 
bach;  treasurer,  August  Kortsch.  The  present  membership  of  the  lodge 
numbers  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  and  the  present  officers  are :  Noble 
grand,  L.  P.  Schroeder;  vice-grand,  A.  C.  Jensen;  recording  secretary,  John 
C.  Antonson ;  financial  secretary,  F.  E.   Franklin ;  treasurer,  C.   H.  Jensen. 

Douglas  Encampment  No.  47,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  was 
instituted  on  September  25,  1897,  i^i  Odd  Fellows  hall  at  Alexandria  with 
the  following  charter  memljers :  George  G.  S.  Campbell,  James  Walker, 
James  H.  \'an  Dyke,  A.  G.  Sexton,  A.  W.  Curtis,  Rudolph  Wegener,  J.  A. 
McKay,  F.  von  Baumbach,  H.  K.  White,  George  F.  Whitcomb,  J.  E.  Lund- 
gren,  Hugo  Lumbohm,  Wego  Werner,  F.  E.  Franklin,  Michael  Hickey, 
Gilbert  Sargeant,  N.  P.  Jacobson.  Charles  Culross,  J.  P.  Simonson,  H.  J. 
Boyd,  A.  M.  Kahlhaas,  H.  T.  Halverson,  W.  W..  McKay,  R.  J.  McNeal, 
Parnell  Atkinson,  John  Templeton,  Thomas  Hall,  S.  W.  McEwan  and  A.  E. 
Shippey.  The  first  officers  were  George  G.  ,S.  Campbell,  James  Walker, 
James  H.  Van  Dyke,  A.  G.  Sexton,  R.  Wegener  and  J.  A.  McKay.  The 
present  membership  of  the  Encampment  is  thirty-one  and  the  present  officers 
are  Fred  Radecop,  N.  N.  Akesen,  A.  E.  Alger,  G.  A.  Anderson,  F.  E. 
Franklin,  F.  T.  Geer  and  Richard  Chase. 

Canton  Caledonia  No.  18,  Patriarchs  Militant,  Independent  Order  ,of 
Odd  Fellows,  was  instituted  on  February  10,  19 10,  in  Odd  Fellows  hall  at 
Alexandria,  with  the  following  charter  members:  J.  E.  Lundgren,  F.  E. 
Franklin,  J.'  S.  McKay,  A.  H.  McKay,  L.  C.  Atwood,  J.  A.  McKay,  S.  B. 
McKay,  George  M.  \'iering,  A.  E.  Shippey,  R.  A.  McKay,  G.  A.  Anderson. 
J.  A.  Munkberg,  John  S.  Lien,  Casper  Hanson,  F.  T.  Geer,  Elmer  E.  Peter- 


son,  E.  C.  Oppel  and  A.  G.  Sexton.  The  first  officers  were  as  follow :  Cap- 
tain, J.  E.  Lundgren ;  lieutenant,  F.  E.  Franklin ;  ensign,  J.  S.  McKay ;  clerk, 
A.  H.  2\IcKav;  treasurer,  L.  C.  Atwood.  The  present  membership  is  sixteen 
and  the  present  officers  are:  Captain,  F.  T.  Geer;  lieutenant,  J.  A.  McKay; 
ensign,  L.  S.  Kent;  clerk,  E.  E.  Franklin;  treasurer,  G.  A.  Anderson. 

Lady  of  the  Lake  Rebekah  Lodge  No.  173,  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  was  instituted  on  April  8,  1898,  in  Odd  Fellows  hall  at  Alexandria, 
with  the  -following  charter  members :  J.  E.  Lundgren,  Mary  J.  Campbell, 
William  McKay,  E.  C.  Raiter,  Nina  Pratt,  John  Templeton,  Julia  Baumbach, 
F.  C.  Oppel,  G.  G.  S.  Campbell,  Lillian  R.  Boyd,  J.  A.  McKay,  Ella  M. 
Sweet,  Maud  McKay,  Charles  J.  Lindstrom,  B.  T.  Emerson,  Claudia  Stevens, 
R.  J.  McNeal,  Henriette  Wilson,  Millie  O.  Sexton,  Ollie  Rodgers,  Caroline 
Lindstrom,  George  E.  Whitcomb,  Winnie  Van  Loon,  May  Hall,  A.  G.  Sex- 
ton, Sarah  Walker,  Cora  M.  Brooks,  R.  Wegener,  Mary  E.  Geer,  Marie 
Walker,  Thomas  Hall,  F.  von  Baumbach,  L.  S.  Kaiser,  E.  E.  Robinson,  C. 
Tart,  A.  W.  Curtis,  A.  E.  Shippey,  F.  T.  Geer,  Charlotte  Campbell,  J.  H. 
Van  Dvke,  Ellen  M.  Kaiser,  Louise  C.  Kortsch,  S.  S.  Pratt,  Anna  Temple- 
ton,  Emma  L.  Shippey,  E.  E.  Dent  and  Alice  E.  McNeal.  The  first  officers 
were  as  follows  :  Noble  grand,  Ella  M.  Sweet ;  vice-grand,  Louise  C.  Kortsch ; 
recording  secretary,  Charlotte  Campbell;  financial  secretary,  Winona  Sex- 
ton ;  treasurer,  Maud  McKay.  The  present  membership  is  seventy-six  and 
the  present  officers  are  :  Noble  grand,  Ida  Alger ;  vice-grand,  Clara  Schroed- 
er:  recording  secretary,  Josephine  Satterlee;  financial  secretary,  E.  E. 
Franklin;  treasurer,  Mattie  Allen. 


Alexandria  Homestead  No.  589,  Brotherhood  of  American  Yeomen, 
was  organized  on  March  28,  1902,  at  a  meeting  in  E.  E.  Buell's  office  in  the 
city  of  Alexandria,  the  meeting  being  called  to  order  by  C.  W.  Collinge, 
tleputy.  On  April  2,  1902,  the  first  officers  of  the  Homestead  were  elected, 
as  follow :  Past  foreman,  E.  A.  Hensel ;  foreman,  E.  E.  Buell ;  master  of 
ceremonies,  Frank  Raiter;  master  of  accounts,  Nelse  Erickson;  correspond- 
ent, Newton  Trenham ;  chaplain,  James  L.  Alton ;  overseer,  Frank  Miller ; 
watchman,  S.  R.  Sweet;  sentinel,  Charles  S.  MitcheU,;  guard,  ^^'illianl  E. 
Xesbitt;  lodge  deputy.  Roljert  Brough.  The  first  regular  place  of  meeting 
was  in  the  Knights  of  Pythias  hall,  also  known  as  the  N.  P.  Ward  hall,  and 
at  that  time  it  was  decided  to  meet  on  the  first  Friday  of  each  month.  This 
date  was  afterward  changed  to  the  first  and  third  ^^londavs  of  each  month. 


and  those  are  still  the  meeting  nights  of  the  order.  The  original  charter 
became  lost  in  the  early  existence  of  the  order  and  a  new  one  was  issued  by. 
the  home  ofifice.  The  charter,  as  it  is  now,  has  the  following  names  enrolled: 
James  L.  Alton,  Xels  Erickson,  Eugene  Hensel,  William  E.  Nesbitt,  Orin 
Kellog,  Ripley  C.  Bondurant,  Annie  E.  Roberts,  Ragna  Olson,  Claud  E. 
Colin-,  Edmund  H.  Gilmore,  Daniel  Stromlund,  John  E.  Peterson,  Lewis 
Stewert  Kent,  William  J.  Young,  Theodore  L.  Bordsen,  Frank  E.  Raiter, 
Robert  Brough,  Xoah  P.  \\'ard,  Peter  O.  Bolin,  Ouincy  M.  Gilmore,  Grace 
M.  .\iton,  John  Eiden,  Charles  Daniels,  Byron  A.  Strieker,  Ida  Young, 
Adelbert  E.  Shippey,  John  Swenson,  Elmer  T.  Drum,  H.  T.  Holverson, 
Joseph  J.  Mode,  Samuel  James,  Lyman  C.  Atwood,  Stephen  R.  Sweet,  E.  C. 
Wagoner,  Frank  C.  Olson,  Franklin  B.  McKenzie,  Nellie  L.  Nesbitt,  Charles 
A.  Benson,  Arthur  S.  Mason,  John  Johnson,  Hermon  Thompson,  Jessie  A. 
Strieker,  Enock  F.  Nelson,  George  Washington  Ramsdell,  Bertha  McGray, 
Clarence  W.  Lee,  Alatilda  Nelson,  John  A.  ]McCabe,  Anton  Kust,  David 
Nelson,  Louis  C.  Lamser,  Jennie  Alton,  Magnus  Munson,  \'irgil  E.  Hawley, 
M.  J.  Sweet,  James  G.  Crozier,  B.  W.  Mitchell,  Clell  Blanchard,  James  A. 
Kinney,  Rienhard  Merki,  Elmer  E.  Peterson,  Thomas  R.  Aiton,  Alice  O.  Far- 
rar,  William  Erickson,  Peter  R.  Sorenson,  Carl  K.  McGray,  Amelia  A. 
Daniels,  Gustus  C.  Preston.  Charles  E.  Farrar,  Ethel  Kinney,  Clara  Merki, 
Elmer  Roberts,  Laura  Bondurant  and  Fred  Raiter.  The  present  officers  of 
the  Homestead  are:  Foreman,  William  A.  Downs:  master  of  ceremonies, 
E.  E.  Evans;  master  of  accounts,  Nels  Erickson;  correspondent,  Nellie  L. 
Nesbitt;  chaplain,  Jessie  O.  Waters;  overseer,  William  E.  Nesbitt;  Lady 
Rowena,  Lillian  B.  Downs;  Lady  Rebecca,  Laura  Bondurant;  watchman, 
William  J.  Young;  sentinel,  \\'ilmott  L.  Lawson.  The  Homestead  now 
meets  in  Raiter's  Hall  and  has  a  present  membership  of  one  hundred  and 


Lodge  No.  904,  ^Modern  Brotherhood  oi  America,  was  organized  at 
Alexandria  on  July  12,  1901,  with  the  following  charter  members:  Frank 
S.  Fredenburg,  Herman  S.  Anderson,  Theo.  F.  Damask,  Clarence  H.  Yeri- 
gan,  Charles  E.  Aiton,  Edwin  P.  Wright,  Nathan  A.  Blanchard,  Constant 
Larson,  Carlos  Whitcomb,  George  Gustafson,  James  L.  Aiton,  Emil  A. 
Polzine,  Rol^ert  W.  McFarlane,  Samuel  A.  Engstrom,  John  Milligan.  N. 
Gauthier,  Olof  Sutherland,  Michael  Milligan,  Charles  H.  Gabion,  Nels  E. 
Johnson,  Nels  Erickson,  William  Lee,  Edwin  D.  JMaxon,  Axel  R.  Diseth, 
George   P.    Craig,   Eugene   L.    Norton,    Andrew   Westlund,    Frank   Scriven, 


Arnold  F.  Will,  Oscar  H.  Gahlom,  Lewis  C.  Nelson,  Irwin  A.  Lee,  Gustaf 
A.  Diseth,  Andrew  Broms,  Ernest  De  F.  2\Iaxon  and  Lyman  C.  Atwood. 
Lodge  records  were  all  destroyed  by  tire  on  P'ebruarv  26,  1913,  when  the 
Gunderson  and  Raiter  buildings  were  burned.  The  alxive  is  taken  from  a 
duplicate  charter  which  was  furnished  after  the  fire.  Policies  issued  at  the 
date  of  organization  are  signed  by  Ernest  D.  Maxon,  president,  and  Geo. 
P.  Craig,  secretary.  Meetings  are  held  in  Raiter's  Hall  on  the  fourth  Fri- 
day evening  of  each  month.  The  present  membership  of  the  lodge  is 
twenty-one,  and  the  present  officers  are  as  follow :  D.  B.  Shepard,  presi- 
dent; W.  C.  Nass,  vice-president;  George  P.  Craig,  secretary;  W.  E.  Xesbitt. 
treasur'/r:  H.  S.  Anderson,  conductor;  S.  A.  Engstrom,  chaplain;  G.  A. 
AndersVm,  inside  guard;  J.  L.  .\iton,  outside  guard. 


The  Douglas  County  Humane  Societ}-  was  organized  on  June  21,  1904, 
with  the  following  charter  members :  J.  S.  Cowen,  John  J.  .\llen,  Cleveland  ■ 
H.  Hicks,  Maurice  Cohn,  Constant  Larson,  H.  S.  Campbell,  C.  A.  Benson 
and  Frank  Stevens.  The  first  officers  were:  President,  X.  P.  Ward;  secre- 
tary, Cleveland  H.  Hicks;  treasurer,  \\'.  K.  Barnes.  The  present  officers  are: 
President,  Frank  M.  Stevens;  secretary,  George  I...  Treat;  treasurer,  W.  K. 
Barnes.  The  present  membership  is  about  one  hundred  and  seventy-five. 
Though  the  society  was  organized  at  Alexandria,  the  membership  is  from  all 
parts  of  the  county.  During  the  twelve  years  since  its  organization  the 
society  has  investigated  more  than  ninety  complaints  of  cruelty,  seventy-five 
of  which  have  been  complaints  of  cruelty  to  animals;  eleven  of  crueky  to 
children,  and  four  of  cruelty  to  adults.  There  have  been  nine  prosecutions 
of  cruelty  to  animals  \vith  eight  convictions.  Twenty-eight  animals  have 
been  killed  by  order  of  the  society,  and  thirteen  children  have  been  taken 
from  their  parents  on  account  of  cruelty  and  neglect  and  sent  to  the  State 
Public  School  at  Owatonna  on  complaint  of  the  society,  whose  motto  is : 
"We  speak  for  those  that  cannot  speak  for  themselves." 


Alexandria,  the   County   Seat. 

Beautiful  for  location.  Alexandria,  "Lady  of  the  Lakes,"  county  seat 
of  Douglas  county,  occupies  a  charming  and  most  advantageous  position  in 
the  delightful  park  region  of  Minnesota  and  has  for  many  years  enjoyed 
its  well-merited  reputation  as  one  of  the  prettiest  and  most  flourishing 
county-seat  towns  in  the  state.  In  the  beginning  it  was  fortunate  in  being 
settled  by  an  intelligent  and  enterprising  class  of  citizens  and  the  high  stand- 
ard of  citizenship  then  established  has  ever  been  maintained,  its  business, 
school  and  church  privileges  being  second  to  no  other  city  of  its  size  and  the 
equal  of  those  of  much  larger  places.  Its  miles  of  cement  sidewalks,  well- 
graded  streets,  attractive  homes,  spacious  and  well-kept  lawns  and  abundance 
of  shade  trees  combine  to  make  Alexandria  an  ideal  place  of  residence,  ren- 
dered all  the  more  attractive  by  its  proximity  to  the  chain  of  seven  lakes, 
pronounced  by  ^^'arren  L^pham,  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  to  be 
the  finest  chain  (jf  lakes  in  the  state  and  whose  shores  are  lined  with  summer 
cottages,  club  houses  and  resort  hotels,  making  the  city  the  center  of  the 
summer  tourist  business  throughout  the  park  region,  greatly  swelling  the 
population  during  the  summer  months. 

According  to  the  census  returns  of  1910  Alexandria  then  had  a  popu- 
lation of  three  thousand  and  one,  but  conservative  estimates  now  place  the 
population  at  between  thirty-three  hundred  and  thirty-five  hundred  and 
continued  building  operations  point  to  a  rapidly  increasing  population.  The 
cit^'  has  several  thriving  manufacturing  establishments,  substantial  banking 
institutions  and  business  houses  and  has  excellent  facilities  as  a  market  for 
grain  and  produce,  with  an  outlet,  by  way  of  the  Great  Northern  railway  and 
the  "Soo"'  line,  to  three  of  the  best  markets  in  the  Northwest,  St.  Paul, 
[Minneapolis  artd  Duluth. "  It  has  a  handsome  postoffice  building,  erected  by 
the  federal  government  at  a  cost  of  sixty  thousand  dollars,  a  fine  lilirary 
containing  some  nine  thousand  volumes,  two  fine  grade  school  buildings,  a 
new  high-school  building  erected  at  a  cost  of  seventy  thousand  dollars,  three 
banks  with  combined  deposits  of  more  than  one  and  one-half  million  dol- 
lars, the  Douglas  county  buildings,  eleven  churches,  three  commercial  hotels, 
besides  the  adjacent  summer  hotels,  and  three  enterprising  and  well-conducted 

East   side   of   Main    street,    pUutoiiraphecl    iii  IsKi.       Tlie   largo  liuiiaing  is   the   old  Dougla 
House,  a  location  now  oceiiiiieil  by  the  James  Walker  store. 

Looking  north  along  Main  street  from  Campbell's  Mi 

THE   IlirivS   IK^MESTEAD. 
Home   of    Willi.iui    E.    Hii-ks.    one   «t   tlw   cliief    iiromoters   of   the 
Alexjindria    towusite.    in    the    latter   sixties:    a    sample   of   the   kind   of 
Imiiaiiiirs   in   wliieli   the   very   liest   of   the   pioneers   liad   to   live.     This 
was  one  of  the  best   honses  in  Dou.ulas  county  at  that   time. 











R  A  KAIX. 


n    ISTC.    f( 

llowia.^'    ;l    1 

e;ivy   rain   st 

ohiirds  storo 

riiis  seeue   was  direi'tly   in   front   of 


newspapers.  The  city  government  is  up-to-date  and  energetic  and  the  city 
owns  its-  own  electric  Hght  and  waterworks  plant  and  the  general  attractive- 
ness of  the  main  business  street  is  enhanced  by  a  half  mile  of  l)rilliant  boule- 
vard lights.  As  the  commercial  center  of  the  county,  all  lines  of  general 
business  are  well  represented  and  some  of  its  banks  and  commercial  houses 
would  do  credit  to  a  town  of  many  times  its  population. 


In  an  earlier  chapter  relating  to  the  early  settlement  of  Douglas  county, 
the  historv  of  the  beginning  of  things  in  Alexandria  is  set  out  at  consid- 
erable length,  as  it  was  then,  as  now,  the  central  point  in  the  communit\- 
and  its  early  history  was  practically  identical  with  that  of  the  county,  all 
matters  of  interest  in  and  to  the  county  clustering  about  the  county  seat.  In 
1865  the  second  store  in  the  county  was  opened  at  Alexandria  by  Thomas 
F.  Cowing,  J.  H.  A^an  Dyke  still  running  his  sutler's  store,  mentioned  in 
the  earlier  chapter,  at  that  time.  Mr.  Cowing  had  just  completed  a  term  of 
service  in  the  army  and  he  erected  a  little  log  building  and  opened  up  a 
small  stock  of  general  merchandise,  later  building  a  larger  store  room  and 
extending  his  stock,  remaining  in  business  for  many  years  thereafter.  His 
father,  Thomas  Cowing,  had  come  to  Douglas  county  in  1861,  settling  on 
a  farm  near  the  present  site  of  Holmes  City,  and  when  the  Indian  out- 
break occurred  left  with  his  family,  but  when  the  soldiers  established  the 
stockade  at  Alexandria  he  returned  and  shortly  afterward  erected  a  log 
house  in  which  for  some  time  he  conducted  a  hotel,  later  engaging  in  the 
mercantile  business.  In  1866  William  E.  Hicks,  a  New  Yorker,  whose  activi- 
ties in  promoting  the  development  of  Alexandria  are  mentioned  more  at 
length  elsewhere  in  this  volume,  started  the  third  store,  building  a  log  store 
building  which  he  stocked  with  a  line  of  general  merchandise.  In  that  same 
\-ear  Hicks  Iwught  the  townsite,  which  meantime  had  concentrated  in  the 
hands  of  two  or  three  persons,  one  of  whom  was  Judge  Gregory,  who  had 
expended  monev  and  labor  and  had  encountered  hardships  in  behalf  of  Alex- 
andria. Almost  immediately  afterward  Hicks,  in  connection  with  Thomas 
Cowing,  erected  a  saw-mill  on  Long  Lake  and  in  the  following  year  began 
the'  erection  of  the  Alexandria  flouring  mill,  completed  in  1869  and  a  few 
years  later  sold  to  G.  G.  S.  Campbell.  Hicks  also  erected  a  hotel,  the  Wood- 
hull  House,  and  in  the  fall  of  1868  started  the  Alexandria  Post,  the  first 
newspaper  in  Douglas  county.  In  the  same  year  he  was  elected  to  the  Legis- 
lature and  continued  to  take  an  active  interest  in  the  work  of  developing  the 


new  town  until  his  death  in  1874.  His  widow  is  still  Hving  in  Alexandria, 
occupying  the  building  at  the  corner  of  Sixth  avenue  and  H  street,  erected 
by  her  husband  back  in  the  old  days. 

In  the  meantime  other  lines  of  business  gradually  were  being  developed 
in  the  new  settlement  and  there  presently  came  to  be  quite  a  village  at  the 
site  of  the  old  Kinkaid  settlement  at  the  junction  of  the  two  pretty  lakes, 
Agnes  and  Winona.  In  the  chapter  relating  to  newspapers  there  is  set  out, 
in  a  review  of  the  history  of  the  Post,  a  list  of  the  merchants  doing  business 
at  Alexandria  when  the  Post  was  established  and  it  will  not  be  necessary 
to  repeat  the  same  here.  One  of  the  causes  of  the  considerable  impetus 
given  to  business  and  the  rapid  growth  of  population  in  the  new  settlement 
was  the  establishment  in  the  winter  of  1868-69  of  a  government  land  office 
at  Alexandria.  It  was  in  February,  1869.  that. the  land  office  was  opened, 
with  Lewis  Lewiston,  of  St.  Cloud,  as  register,  and  J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  of 
Alexandria,  as  receiver.  The  office  at  farst  was  located  in  the  building  which 
then  was  being  used  as  a  court  house.  In  June,  1869,  Lewiston  was  suc- 
ceeded as  register  bv  L.  K.  Aaker,  then  of  Goodhue  county,  and  in  the 
winter  of  1874  Warren  Adley  became  receiver,  Soren  Listo,  of  Brecken- 
ridge,  succeeding  Aaker  as  register  the  following  spring,  and  in  the  follow- 
ing winter  the  office  was  moved  to  Fergus  Falls,  but  by  that  time  almost 
all  the  tillable  land  in  this  region  had  been  taken.  It  is  undoubted  that 
the  land  office  was  a  great  factor  in  the  development  of  Douglas  county  and 
gave  an  impetus  to  trade  and  every  branch  of  business  at  Alexandria,  which 
thus  was  the  headquarters  for  a  very  wide  territory  throughout  the  North- 
west, settlers  driving  there  to  mill  even  from  the  Red  River  settlement  and 
Rush  Lake,  distances  of  more  than  one  hundred  miles,  and  for  several  years 
during  the  early  seventies  the  town  was  constantly  full  of  people,  hotels 
crowded  and  all  places  where  accommodations  could  be  furnished,  either  for 
man  or  beast,  taxed  to  their  utmost.  In  the  fall  of  1878  the  railroad  reached 
Alexandria  and  the  day  on  which  the  first  train  rolled  into  the  town,  the 
5th  of  November  it  was,  was  made  a  gala  day  in  the  village,  which  ever  since 
has  been  gradually  developing  into  its  present  substantial  state. 


Bv  an  act  of  the  Legislature  approved  February  20,  1877.  the  following 
described  territory  in  the  county  of  Douglas,  state  of  Minnesota,  to-wit: 
Lots  5  and  6  in  section  18,  the  north  half  of  section  19,  the  north  half  of 
the  southwest  quarter,  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  and  the  north 


half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  19,  all  in 
ownship  1^8  of  range  T^y,  "be  and  the  same  is  hereby  set  apart,  constituted 
and  incorporated  as  the  village  of  Alexandria.  *  *  *  ^nd  the  inhabit- 
ants of  said  territory  shall  form  and  constitute  a  municipal  corporation  and 
shall  ha\-e  the  powers  possessed  by  municipal  corporations  at  common  law," 
etc.,  and  James  H.  Van  Dyke,  Lewis  I.  Brown  and  Fred  von  Baumbach 
were  appointed  to  call  and  give  notice  of  the  first  election  in  said  village. 

Pursuant  to  legal  notice  dated  March  5,  1877,  and  signed  by  the  above 
named  persons,  the  legal  voters  of  the  village  of  Alexandria  met  at  the  court 
house  on  March  12  of  that  same  year,  at  nine  o'clock  a.  m.,  the  meeting 
being  called  to  order  by  J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  and  on  motion  L.  I.  Brown  and 
Thomas  Cowing  were  elected  judges  and  Theodore  Bordson,  clerk  of  elec- 
tion and  the  election  by  ballots  proceeded  with  the  following  result:  Presi- 
dent, F.  B.  Van  Hoesen ;  trustees,  John  Sundblad,  Charles  Schultz  and  John 
Kron;  recorder,  Fred  von  Baumbach;  treasurer,  John  B.  Cowing;  justice  of 
the  peace,  A.  J.  Ames,  and  constable,  Frank  Reynolds. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  village  council  was  held  on  I\Iarch  17,  1877,  and 
the  recorder  was  instructed  to  obtain  from  St.  Paul  books  for  the  use  of 
the  treasurer  and  recorder  and  all  blanks  needed.  At  the  meeting  on  April 
3,  ordinances  were  adopted  relating  to  licenses  and  relating  to  police  regu- 
lations, racing  of  horses  and  fast  driving.  At  the  next  meeting  ordinances 
were  adopted  relating  to  health  and  to  cattle  running  at  large  and  Frank 
Reynolds  was  appointed  pound  master.  At  the  meeting  on  April  18  an  ordi- 
nace  was  adopted  relating  to  the  incumbering  of  certain  streets  and  a  commit- 
tee was  appointed  to  see  that  chimneys,  stove  pipes  and  fire-places  were  kept 
in  safe  condition,  and  Chester  Van  Dyke  was  elected  street  commissioner. 
At  the  meeting  on  May  i,  John  Abercrombie  was  employed  to  survey  the 
chief  streets  of  the  village  for  the  purix)se  of  establishing  a  grade.  On  May 
15  the  council  approved  the  bonds  of  five  applicants  for  liquor  license  and 
on  June  8  James  Walker  was  appointed  village  constable  to  fill  a  vacancy 
created  by  the  resignation  of  Frank  Reynolds,  whose  bill  for  services  had 
been  scaled  fnim  $33.10  to  $20.60  at  the  previous  meeting  of  the  council. 
At  that  same  meeting,  "it  having  been  reported  to  the  council  that  the  drug 
stores  were  in  the  practice  of  retailing  liquor  without  license,  a  motion  was 
adopted  appointing  Charles  Schultz  a  committee  to  consult  with  Knute  Nel- 
son about  bringing  action  against  said  stores  for  selling  liquor,"  and  the 
minute  of  the  next  meeting,  June  10,  noted  that  "the  president  and  recorder 
were  requested  to  notify  Mess.  Sims  &  Nelson,  druggists,  that  the\-  must 
take  out  a  license   for  selling  liquors;"  and  thus  the  new  village  began  to 


exercise  its  authority  and  to  get  under  headway  as  a  governing  body.  On 
December  15  of  that  first  year  of  the  village  organization  the  resignation 
of  Fred  von  Baumbach,  recorder,  was  accepted  and  George  H.  Roe  was 
appointed  to  fill  the  unexpired  term. 

On  January  i,  1878,  the  second  village  election  was  held,  with  the  fol- 
lowing result :  President,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen ;  trustees,  L.  K.  Aaker,  George 
A.  Freundenreich  and  G.  C.  Sims ;  recorder,  W.  F.  Ball ;  -treasurer,  J.  B. 
Cowing;  justice  of  the  peace,  H.  H.  Wilson;  constable^  James  Walker.  At 
the  meeting  of  the  council  on  January  10,  following,  the  bonds  of  Charles 
Volk,  B.  A.  Li\-ingston,  Aberle  &  Aberle  and  \'an  Dyke  &  Larson,  as  liquor 
dealers,  were  approved,  the  license  fee  at  that  time  being  noted  at  seventy- 
five  dollars.  On  March  7  a  special  election  was  held  for  the  purpose  of 
electing  a  justice  of  the  peace  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation 
of  A.  J.  Ames,  and  H.  Shippey  was  elected. 

The  next  annual  election  was  held  on  January  7,  1879,  with  the  following 
result:  President,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen;  trustees,  John  N.  Herder,  H.  H.  Wil- 
son and  T.  F.  Cowing;  recorder,  George  W.  Robards,  treasurer,  Theodore 
Bordson;  justice  of  the  peace,  Hiram  Shippey;  constable,  James  Walker. 

1880 — President,  Thomas  Cowing;  trustees,  C.  F.  Canfield,  Frank 
RcAUolds  and  M.  J.  Norde ;  recorder,  James  Purdon ;  treasurer,  Ole  Narver- 

1881 — President,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen;  trustees,  James  Walker,  Charles 
Robards  and  John  Sundblad;  recorder,  N.  J.  Trenham;  treasurer,  George 
C.  Sims;  constable,  Len  West.  In  March  of  that  year  the  Legislature  granted 
to  the  village  a  new  charter  and  on  March  15  an  election  was  held  under 
the  charter,  with  the  following  result :  President,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen ;  coun- 
cilmen,  C.  T.  Robards,  for  one  year ;  C.  W.  Cofield,  for  two  years,  and  John 
Sundblad,  for  three  years;  recorder,  N.  J.  Trenham;  treasurer,  George  C. 
Sims;  assessor,  James  Fitzgerald;  marshal,  Len  West;  justices  of  the  peace, 
William  McAboy  and  James  Fitzgerald. 

1882 — President,  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen;  councilman,  John  Kron;  recorder, 
N.  |.  Trenham;  treasurer,  G.  C.  Sims;  assessor,  James  Fitzgerald;  marshal, 
John  Knapton.  'Tn  favor  of  restraining  horses,  etc.,"  43  Votes;  against  the 
same,  150. 

1883 — President,  H.  H.  Wilson;  recorder,  N.  J.  Trenham;  treasurer, 
G.  C.  Sims;  councilman,  N.  P.  Ward;  assessor,  W.  H.  Sanders;  marshal, 
Charles  Culcross. 

1884 — President,  F.   B.  Van  Hoesen;  recorder,   N.  J.  Trenham;  treas- 




on  (lra\yin,Et  of  the  cabin  erected   by 

)  settle  at  Alexandria,  wbicli  was  nai 

Alexander  Kinkaid. 

Kinkaid   brothers 
in  honor  of 





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Mr.    KiiitM-   \vc:iriii:;   .■inrou. 


urer,  G.  C.  Sims;  councihiKin,  P.  Arnott;  assessor,  James  Fitzgerald;  marshal, 
John  JNIetcalf. 

1885 — President,  H.  H.  Wilson;  recorder,  George  H.  Brundage;  treas- 
urer, George  C.  Sims ;  councilmen,  John  Kyed  and  G.  A.  Kortsch ;  marshal, 
John  Metcalf ;  assessor,  J.  H.  \'an  D}'ke. 

1886 — President,  H.  H.  Wilson;  recorder,  George  H.  Brundage; 
treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  councilman,  John  Sundblad ;  marshal,  John 
Knapton ;  assessor,  J.  H.  \'an  Dyke.  Favoring  liquor  license,  221,  votes ; 
against,  86. 

1887 — President,  X.  L.  Page;  councilman,  Theodore  Johnson;  recorder. 
F.  A.  Reimer;  treasurer,  G.  C.  Sims;  assessor,  J.  H.  Van  Dyke;  justices 
of  the  peace,  J.  H.  Van  Dyke  and  F.  G.  Stevens;  marshal,  A.  W.  DeFrate. 

1888 — President,  N.  L.  Page;  councilman,  Fred  von  Baumbach; 
recorder,  A.  G.  Sexton;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  assessor,  J.  H.  Van 
Dyke;  marshal,   A.   W.   DeFrate.      ^ 

1889 — President,  James  Walker;  councilman,  J.  H.  Letson;  recorder, 
A.  G.  Sexton;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  assessor,  J.  H.  Van  Dyke;  jus- 
tices, J.  H.  Van  Dyke  and  George  L.  Treat;  marshal,  C.  W.  Cofield.  A 
proposition  to  bond  the  village  for  the  construction  of  a  waterworks  plant 
was  carried  and  a  similar  proposition  to  bond  the  village  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  sewer  system  was  rejected.  Waterworks  bonds  to  the  amount 
of  eighteen  thousand  dollars  were  issued  in  that  same  spring.  In  December 
of  that  year  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider  the  advisability  of  pur- 
chasing from  J.  B.  Hardebeck  the  electric  light  plant,  which  had  been  oper- 
ated as  a  private  enterprise,  and  the  same  presently  was  taken  over  by  the 
village  for  the  sum  of  eight  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  and  has  since 
been  operated  as  a  municipal  plant,  in  connection  with  the  waterworks 

1890 — President,  X.  P.  Ward;  councilman,  Ruljert  INIcCrory;  recorder, 
A.  G.  Se.xton;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  assessor,  J.  H.  Van  Dyke;  jus- 
tice, W.  E.  Chidester;  marshal,  C.  Hanson. 

1891 — President,  X.  P.  Ward;  councilman,  Fred  von  Baumbach; 
recorder,  X.  W.  Hicks;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  assessor,  S.  M.  Thomp- 
son ;  justice,  F.  G.  Stevens ;  marshal,  Frank  Reynolds. 

1892 — President,  James  Walker;  councilman,  Richard  Dent;  recorder, 
X.  W.  Hicks;  assessor,  James  S.  Chapman;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson; 
justice,  James  F"itzgerald ;  marshal,  Chester  Van  D\ke.    • 

1893 — President,  James  Walker;  councilman,  \\'illiam  AlcCrorv; 
( 20)  .  . 


recorder,  James  Fitzgerald;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  assessor,  James  S. 
Chapman ;  justice,  W.  B.  Mitson ;  marshal,  C.  B.  Van  Dyke.  W' hole  number 
of  votes  cast,  349. 

1894 — President,  R.  McCrory;  councilman.  Fred  von  Baumbach; 
recorder,  James  Fitzgerald;  treasurer,  G.  G.  S.  Campbell;  justice,  J.  A. 
McKay;  marshal,  Peter  BoHn;  assessor,  J.  A.  McKay;  street  commissioner, 

A.  E.  Shippey.  For  license,  282;  against,  167.  Whole  number  of  votes 
cast,  479. 

1895 — President,  R.  McCrory;  councilman,  Robert  Walkter ;  recorder, 
James  Fitzgerald;  treasurer,  S.  M.  Thompson;  marshal,  J.  S.  Lampman,  jus- 
tice, W.  B.  Mitson;  assessor,  George  Whitcomb;  street  commissioner.  C.  B. 
Van  Dyke.     License,  yes,  251;  no,   193. 

1896 — President,  O.  J.  Robards;  councilmen,  R.  J.  iMcXeil  and  W.  K. 
Barnes;  recorder,  James  Fitzgerald;  treasurer,  S.  Al.  Thompson;  assessor, 
G.  F.  Whitcomb;  marshal,  J.  S.  Lampman;  justice,  A.  A.  Brown:  street 
commissioner,  C.  B.  Van  Dyke.     License,  yes,  266;  no,  274. 

1897 — President,  N.  P.  V\^ard ;  councilmen,  J.  F.  Hiebel  and  M. 
Kraemer;  recorder,  James  Walker;  treasurer,  W.  F.  Sundblad;  marshal,  C. 

B.  Van  Dyke;  justice,  W.  B.  Mitson;  assessor,  WiUiam  Van  Dyke;  street 
commissioner,  G.  R.  Morse.     License,  yes.  259;  no.  255. 

1898 — President,  N.  P.  Ward:  councilman,  T.  R.  Aiton ;  recorder, 
James  Walker;  treasurer,  William  F.  Sundblad:  justice,  Joseph  Gilpin; 
assessor,  William  Van  Dyke;  marshal,  C.  H.  Klein;  street  commissioner, 
Nick  Menkes. 

1899 — President,  X.  P.  Ward;  councilman  M.  Kraemer;  treasurer,  W. 
F.  Sundblad,  recorder,  James  Walker:  justice,  W..  B.  Mitson;  marshal.  F. 
E.  Franklin;  assessor,  James  H.  Wettleson ;  street  commissioner,  Nick 

1900 — President,  N.  P.  Ward;  councilman,  C.  Aberle;  treasurer,  W.  F. 
Sundblad ;  recorder,  James  Walker ;  justice,  Joseph  Gilpin ;  assessor,  William 
Van  Dyke;  marshal,  L.  S.  Kent;  street  commis,sioner,  A.  E.  Shippey. 
License,  yes,  307;  no.   241. 

1901 — President,  George  G.  S.  Campbell:  councilmen,  John  Anderson 
and  H.  T.  Halvorson;  treasurer,  Joseph  F.  Heibel ;  recorder,  W.  F.  Sund- 
blad: justices,  W.  B.  Mitson  and  J.  A.  McKay;  assessor,  William  A'an  Dyke; 
marshall,  C.  Fiskness ;  street  commissioner,  Nick  Henkes. 

1902 — President-,  G.  G.  S.  Campbell;  councilman,  Herman  Nootnagel: 
recorder,  W.  F.  Sundblad:  treasurer,  Joseph  F.  Heibel;  assessor,  William 
Van  Dyke;  street  commissioner,  Nick  Henkes;  marshal,  Christ  Fiskness. 


1903 — President,  X.  P.  Ward;  councilman,  Michael  Kraemer ;  recorder, 
W.  B.  ]Matson;  treasurer,  L.  S.  Atwood;  justice,  F.  E.  UUman ;  marshal, 
Christ  Fiskness. 

1904 — President,  John  Anderson;  councilmen,  William  Moses  and  J. 
A.  Prodger;  recorder,  W.  B.  Mitson. 

1905 — President,  John  Anderson;  councilman,  AI.  D.  Freshenburg; 
recorder,  L.  C.  Atwood;  treasurer,  Charles  J.  O'Brien. 

-  1906 — President,  Toleff  Jacohson ;  recorder.  W.   B.   Mitson;  treasurer, 
C.  J.  O'Brien. 

1907 — President,  Toleff  Jacohson;  recorder,  W.  B.  Alitson ;  treasurer, 
C.  J.  O'Brien;  justices,  F.  E.  Ullman  and  William  \'an  Dyke. 

1908 — President,  Andrew  Jacohson;  recorder,  W.  B.  Mitson;  treasurer, 
C.  J.  O'Brien;  marshal,  J.  R.  Cowing;  street  commissioner,  C.  J.  Hollrjuist. 
In  the  meantime  the  city  charter  having  been  adopted,  the  next  election  was 
held  under  that  charter. 

1909 — Mayor,  Gustav  A.  Kortsch;  treasurer,  C.  J.  O'Brien;  justices, 
\Mlliam  \'an  Dyke  and  Joseph  Gilpin;  aldermen,  ]\Iatt  Habener,  P.  O. 
Unumb,  J.  A.  Prodger,  H.  S.  Campbell  and  W.  E.  Xesbett.  License,  yes, 
365 ;  no,  275.  Recorder  Mitson  acted  as  clerk  of  the  council  until  that 
body  presently  appointed  C.  J.  Sundblad  to  the  position  of  city  clerk,  which 
position  he  ever  since  has  held. 

1910 — Mayor,  John  J.  Anderson;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  aldermen. 
Matt  Haberer,  P.  O.  Unumb  and  H.  S.  Campbell. 

191 1 — Mayor,  Michael  Kraemer;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  aldermen. 
Robert  Peacock.  W.  W.  Sheldon;  justices.  Joseph  Gilpin  and  William  \'an 

1912 — Mayor,  Alfred  A.  Secord ;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  aldermen. 
Matt  Haberer,  P.  O.  Unumb  and  H.  S.  Campbell  License,  yes,  328;  no, 
374.     Total  number  of  ballots  cast,  735 

1913 — Mayor,  Louis  Ginther;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  justice,  William 
\'an  Dyke;  aldermen,  J.  F.  Anderson  and  W.  \\'.  Shekkm.  License,  for. 
373  ;  against,  291. 

1914 — Mayor,  Louis  Ginther;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  aldermen. 
Matt  Haberer  and  H  S.  Campbell.  Total  number  of  votes,  636.  License, 
for,   347;  against,   287. 

1915 — Mayor,  Louis  Ginther;  treasurer,  Xels  Erickson;  justice,  E.  F. 
Xelson;  aldermen,  J.  F.  Anderson  and  W.  W.  Sheldon.  License,  for,  ^^y. 
against.  305.  May  31.  1915,  Douglas  county  voted  "dry"  and  the  .Alexan- 
dria saloons  were  closed  in  six   months. 


1916 — Mayor,  Dr.  C.  C.  Strang;  treasurer,  Nels  Erickson;  aldermen, 
C.  \'.  Anderson,  P.  O.  Unumb  and  T.  H.  Weatherhead.  Total  vote  cast, 
621.  The  present  city  council  consists  of  C.  V.  Anderson,  P.  O.  Unumb, 
J.  F.  Anderson,  T.  H.  Weatherhead  and  W.  VV.  Sheldon,  representing  the 
five  wards  in  the  city,  respectively.  The  city  clerk  is  C.  J.  Sundblad  and  the 
city  attornc}'  is  Constant  Larson.  C.  A.  Johnson  is  superintendent  of  the 
board  of  public  works  and  the  commissioners  of  the  same  are  Louis  Ginther, 
N.  P.  Ward  and  Dr.  E.  E.  Buell,  C.  J.  Sundblad  being  secretary  of  the  board. 
The  chief  of  the  effective  volunteer  fire  department  is  L.  S.  Kent  and  the 
chief  of  police  is  Jerry  Callaghan.  Nicholas  Hankes  is  street  commissioner, 
also  under  appointment  by  the  council,  and  the  city  health  officer  is  Dr. 
L.  W.  Saterlee.  The  city  hall,  a  substantial  two-story  brick  structure, 
erected  in  1882,  affords  headquarters  for  the  city  clerk,  the  police  and 
fire  departments  and  a  well-equipped  public  rest  room.  The  city  jail  adjoins 
the  city  hall  on  the  south  and  the  waterworks  reservoir  occupies  premises 
adjoining.  The  city  schools,  a  history  of  which  is  set  out  in  the  chapter  relat- 
ing to  education,  are  admirably  maintained  and  a  Carnegie  library,  situated 
across  the  street  from  the  new  high-school  building,  is  an  excellent  adjunct 
to  the  same. 


The  first  postoffice  in  Douglas  county  was  established  at  Alexandria 
very  shortly  after  the  beginning  of  the  settlement  there  in  1858  and  it  is 
the  recollection  of  Mrs.  Fanny  Van  Dyke  that  her  father,  Charles  Cook, 
was  the  first  person  there  to  be  put  in  charge  of  the  mails,  which  were 
carried  between  St.  Cloud  and  Ft.  Abercrombie  by  the  mail  carrier,  Evans, 
after  whom  the  village  of  Evansville  later  came  to  be  named.  Upon  Cook's 
return  East  the  charge  of  the  little  local  mail  was  taken  over  by  Alexan- 
dria Kinkaid  and  was  distributed  to  the  settlers  from  his  cabin  until  J. 
H.  \'an  Dyke  started  his  store  at  the  settlement,  when  the  "office"  was 
moved  to  that  center  of  congregation  and  \'an  Dyke  presently  was 
appointed  postmaster,  continuing  to  hold  his  commissi<)n  until  his  resig- 
nation in  1866,  at  which  time  Robert  Wyman,  who  was  running  a  hotel  in 
the  stockade  abandoned  by  the  soldiers  in  that  year,  was  appointed  and  he 
was  succeeded  in  turn  by  T.  F.  Cowing,  N.  B.  Patterson,  Charles  T.  Sims, 
1874;  Sophus  N.  Miller,  1876;  Lorenzo  G.  Sims,  1880;  Sophus  N.  Miller, 
1883;  Dr.  Godfrey  Vivien,  1887,  and  he  by' J.  H.  Van  Dyke,  who  was  suc- 
ceeded bv  his  widow,  Mrs.  Fanny  \^an  Dyke,  who  served  for  three 
terms,    she   being   succeeded   by    Charles    S.    Mitchell,    who   served    for   one 


term,  being  succeeded  by  H.  K.  White,  who  died  in  office  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  deputy,  Robert  K.  Brough,  present  incumbent,  who  has  held 
the  office  continuously  since  in  December,  1908.  Following  an  ample  appro- 
priation by  Congress,  the  present  handsome  postoffice  building  was  erected 
at  a  cost  of  about  sixty  thousand  dollars,  one  of  the  most  substantial  build- 
ings in  a  town  the  size  of  Alexandria  in  the  state,  and  was  opened  for 
business  on  February  22,   191 1. 


Alexandria  has  a  well-organized  Commercial  Club  and  its  commercial 
and  industrial  interests  are   represented  by  the   following  concerns : 

Alexandria  Auto  Company,  garage  and  machine  shop;  Alexandria  Citi- 
ccn,  J.  A.  Kinney,  proprietor,  newspaper  and  job  printing;  Alexandria  Con- 
fectionery Company,  candy  manufacturers,  ice  cream,  and  restaurant;  Alex- 
andria Boat  Works,  E.  G.  Erickson,  proprietor,  manufacturers  of  boats; 
Alexandria  Hardware  and  Lumber  Company,  J.  A.  \Vedum,  president, 
hardware,  lumber,  farm  machinery,  coal,  bicycles,  paints  and  oils;  Alexan- 
dria Electric  Supply  Company,  motorcycles  and  electrical  supplies;  Alexan- 
dria Milling  Company,  E.  G.  Olson,  president,  flour  and  feed  grinding;  Ales- 
aiidria  Post-News,  E.  E.  McCrea,  proprietor,  newspaper  and  job  printing; 
x\merican  Laundry,  Lackey  and  Olson,  proprietors,  general  and  family  laun- 
dry; Alexandria  .Soda- Water  W^orks,  Michael  Kraemer,  proprietor,  soft- 
drinks  bottling  works;  Alexandria  Telephone  Company,  C.  H.  Raiter,  presi- 
dent, local  and  long-distance  service;  Alexandria  Potato  Warehouse  Asso- 
ciation, buyers  and  shippers  of  jxitatoes;  Atlantic  Elevator  Company,  grain 
and  coal;  Anderson  Furniture  Company,  Carl  X.  Anderson,  proprietor,  fur- 
niture, undertaking,  carpets,  rugs,  pianos,  sewing  machines,  bicycles,  pic- 
ture framing  and  trunks;  Anderson,  John  F.,  cement  works  and  contractor; 
Aiton  &  Anderson,  plastering  contractors:  Aiton,  Thomas  R.,  contractor  and 
brick  layer;  Alexandria  Tire  X'ulcanizing  Company,  Breese  Brothers,  pro- 

Baker  Weedless  Fish  Hook  Company,  J.  Griebler,  F.  W.  Becker,  manu- 
facturers of  fishhooks;  Blake's  Hotel,  C.  J.  Blake,  proprietor,  summer  hi)tel; 
Boyd,  Dr.  L.  M.,  physician,  specialist  in  eye,  ear.  throat  and  nose:  Bronis 
Cutlery  Works,  J.  M.  Broms,  proprietor,  factory  and  general  repairs;  Broms 
Tire  Repair  Co.,  Anton  Broms,  auto  tires  and  repairs;  Brown  Brothers  & 
Chapin,  farm  machinery,  vehicles  and  automobiles;  Buell,  Dr.  Eugene  E., 
dentist;  Birchard,  Mrs.  B.  J.,  flower  store;  Brophy,  G.  S.,  second-hand  store; 
Bjorklund,  .\.  W.  T.,  plumbing  and  heating. 


Cable,  John  W.,  blacksmith  shop;  Campbell,  George  G.  S.,  flour  and 
feed  store,  and  elevator;  Carlson,  John  A.,  groceries  and  crockery:  Central 
House,  L.  Michaelson,  proprietor,  hotel;  Chase,  Richard,  dray  line;  Colbjorn- 
sen  &  Wegener,  clothiers  and  tailors;  Cole,  Dr.  C.  L.,  dentist;  Cowen,  John 
S.,  real-estate  dealer:  Costello,  Sherman,  restaurant;  Cowing-Robards  Com- 
pany, hardware,  agricultural  implements,  plumbing,  heating  and  coal;  City 
Flower  Store,  Mrs.  ]\Iyra  Pennar,  proprietor;  Cozy  Theatre;  Chidester,  Buel, 
real  estate  and  insurance :  Central  House,  feed  barn. 

-  Dickinson  Inn,  Harry  L.  Dickinson,  manager,  summer  hotel ;  Douglas 
County  Bank,  G.  A.  Kortsch,  president ;  W.  K.  Barnes,  cashier :  Drum, 
Simon  R.,  pianos. 

Eagle  Clothing  Company,  The,  C.  A.  Kolstad,  president  and  manager; 
Edwards.  W.  C,  veterinarian;  Earl  I.  Best  Lumber  Company,  lumlaer  and 
fuel;  European  Hotel,  William  Heyer,  proprietor;  Eickmann.  cigar  manu- 

Falconer,  Dr.  Thomas,  veterinarian;  Farmers  National  Bank,  Tollef 
Jacobson,  president,  Andrew  Jacobson,  cashier;  First  National  Bank,  C.  J. 
Gunderson,  president,  P.  O.  Unumb,  cashier;  Franklin,  F.  E.,  real  estate 
and  insurance;  Fredenburg,  Moses  D.,  machine  shop;  Fair  Store,  The,  C.  E. 
Mabee,  proprietor,  variety  store. 

Gamble-Robinson  Company,  H.  N.  Doyle,  manager,  wholesale  fruits 
and  groceries;  Goodwin,  Albert  G.,  real  estate  broker;  Great  Northern 
Express  Company,  W.  L.  Lawson,  agent;  Gregersen,  A.  H.  and  Company, 
dry  goods  and  groceries;  Grieljenow,  Herman  H.,  groceries:  Gunderson  & 
Leach,  Claus  J.  Gunderson,  Hugh  E.  Leach,  lawyers;  Gilbertson,  A.,  soft 
drinks  and  billiards. 

Hammar,  IMrs.  ^larv,  restaurant;  Hanson,  Dean,  harness;  Halverson 
Furniture  Company,  furniture,  undertaking,  rugs,  wall  paper,  picture  fram- 
ing: Hanson,  J.  R.,  furs  and  electric  wiring;  Haskell,  Dr.  A.  D.,  physician 
and  surgeon;  Herberger-Wettleson  Company,  dry  goods;  Herbert,  F.  O., 
groceries;  Herbert,  Cyril,  billiard  hall;  Hoglund,  J.  L.,  jeweler;  Holverson, 
Henry  T.,  druggist  and  optician;  Howard  Theatre,  C.  P.  Hanke,  proprietor; 
Hande  and  Tonsager,  laarber  shop;  Hopson,  A.,  barber  shop. 

Johnson,  P.  A.,  photographic  studio;  Johnson,  Charles  A.,  granite  monu- 
ments and  tombstones;  Johnson,  E.  W.,  tailor  and  cleaner. 

Keene,  Dr.  L.  M.,  physician  and  surgeon;  Kent's  Bus  and  Transfer, 
L.  S.  Kent,  proprietor:  Kitzke,  Miss  Clara  A.,  millinery:  Knapton  Sisters, 
millinery;  Koyle,   Kittle,  millinery. 

Larson,    Constant,    lawyer:   Letson    House,    Louis   Ginther,    proprietor. 


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hotel:  Levin,  Albert,  barber  shop;  Loo  Land  Company,  real  estate;  Ludke- 
Luckert  Company,  wholesale  groceries;  Lindquist,  Albert  V.,  photographic 
studio;  Lundberg,  Levine  A.,  restaurant. 

McKav,  J.  A.,  real  estate;  McCabe.  Dr.  John  A.,  osteopath;  iSLinhat- 
tan  Oil  Company.  W.  V.  Abercromliie.  agent:  Motor  Inn  Garage  Company, 
garage.  automo1>ile  dealers  and  auto  repair  shop;  Moore,  John  L..  restau- 
rant; Minnesota  House  Feed  Barn.  William  Hagan,  proprietor. 

National  Contracting  Company,  J.  A.  Shulind,  president,  general  con- 
tracting; North  American  Storage  Company,  F.  R.  Noonan,  manager,  cold 
storage  and  creamery,  dealers  in  Initter  and  eggs. 

Olson,  Frank  C,  plumliing  and  heating;  Oppel,  C.  and  Company  (C. 
and  F.  C.  Opel,  H.  Paulson),  shoes. 

Purdon,  Andrew,  wagon-maker:  Pederson,  photos:  Pennar,  Alex.,  con- 
tractor; People's  Store  (Ferdinand  F.  and  Carrie  Wellin),  dry  goods  and 
millinery:  Peterson  Brothers,  garage  and  auto  machine  shop;  Peterson,  C. 
O.,  drugs,  books  and  stationery;  Peterson,  P.  M.  &  Company,  painters  and 
decorators;  Prescott,  W.  L.,  real  estate:  Prescott.  Dr.  Laurel,  dentist;  Prod- 
ger,  J.  A.  auto  livery;  Park  Region  Echo,  Carl  Wold,  proprietor,  newspaper 
and  job  printing;  Paulus,  William,  contractor. 

Quality  Bakery  and  Lunch  Rooms. 

Radecop,  Fred  C,  blacksmith  shop;  Raiter  Brothers,  shoes  and  rub- 
bers; Raiter,  Fred  C,  meat  market;  Renner,  J.  AL,  plumbing,  heating  and 
general  repairs;  Rul.  Wegener  Brewing  Company,  H.  Birkhofer,  president; 
Ruud,  Dr.  M.  B.,  physician  and  surgeon. 

St.  Anthony  and  Dakota  Elevator  Company,  Ft.  S.  Campbell,  agent, 
elevator:  St.  Paul  Bakery,  Joseph  Leuthner,  proprietor,  commercial  bak- 
ing; Satterlee.  Dr.  L.  W..  homeopathic  physician:  Satter,  Andrew,  livery 
and  feed  stable ;  Seeger.  Andrew,  pop  corn,  fruit,  tobacco ;  Sheldon  Clothing 
Company,  clothing  and  gentlemen's  furnishers;  Shepard,  D.  B.,  contractor; 
Shoppey's  Bowling  Alleys:  Secord.  Alfred  A.,  real  estate;  Standard  Oil 
Company,  H.  A.  Schroeder,  agent;  Stevens,  F.  M.,  auto  and  horse  livery; 
Strandberg,  C.  A.,  wood  dealer;  Strang,  Dr.  C.  C,  dentist:  Strieker,  Frank 
W.,  painter  and  decorator:  Swenson's  dray  and  ice  line;  Syvrud  &  Meyers, 
automobile  dealers  and  auto  livery;  Syvrud  &  Hanson,  real  estate:  Stoppel, 
Mrs.  Max.  millinery:  Stoppel,  Helmuth  J.,  barber  shop. 

Thompson,  Albert,  garage,  auto  supplies  and  repairs:  Thornton.  Ralph 
S..  law\-er:  Treat,  George  L.,  lawyer  and  real  estate:  Thompson,  Herman 
T.,  barber  shop. 

Unumb.  E.  O.,  dry  goods,  clothing  and  groceries. 


Van  Dyke,  Lafayette,  cigar  manufactory;  \>nne\vitz  Brothers,  meat 
market;  \'olker,   Dr.   J.   J.,   dentist. 

Walker,  William,  groceries;  Ward,  N.  P.,  groceries  and  crockery; 
Weatherhead,  T.  H.,  dray  and  ice  line;  Weber,  Barney,  pool  and  billiard 
hall;  Weeker,  A.  O.,  tailoring;  Wittenburg,  Dr.  D.  E.,  chiropractor;  Western 
Express  Company,  O.  F.  Ehlers,  agent;  \Vestman,  Wilhelm,  photographic 
studio;  Wagoner,  Edward  C,  pianos. 

The  Commercial  Club  of  Alexandria  was  incorporated  on  ]\larch  i8, 
1907,  the  names  of  the  incorporators  being  A.  H.  Gregerson,  G.  A.  Kortsch, 
Horatio  Jenkins,  Ezra  E.  McCrea,  Fred  C.  Oppel,  E.  Eugene  Buell,  G.  B. 
Ward,  Constant  Larson,  H.  T.  Halvorson,  H.  A.  LeRoy  and  O.  Hen- 
nings  and  the  following  officers:  President,  A.  H.  Gregerson;  first  vice- 
president,  G.  A.  Kortsch ;  second  vice-president,  Horatio  Jenkins ;  corre- 
sponding and  recording  secretary,  Ezra  E.  McCrea ;  financial  secretary,  Fred 
C.  Oppel;  treasurer,  E.  Eugene  Buell;  executive  committee,  A.  H.  Greger- 
son. Ezra  E.  McCrea,  G.  B.  Ward,  Constant  Larson,  H.  T.  Halverson,  H. 
A.  LeRoy  and  O.  W.  Hennings.  The  present  officers  of  the  Commercial 
Club  are  as  follows:  President.  J.  H.  Wettleson;  first  vice-president.  Andrew 
Jacobson;  second  vice-president,  H.  S.  Campbell;  corresponding  and  record- 
ing secretary,  George  L.  Treat;  financial  secretary,  J.  W.  Knox,  and  treas- 
urer, G.  A.  Kortsch.  There  are  also  live  commercial  clubs  at  Osakis,  Bran- 
don and  Evansville,  which  look  after  the  commercial  interests  of  those  towns 
and  besides  these  there  are  numerous  farmers  clubs  in  the  county,  which 
have  proved  and  are  proving  of  large  value  in  their  respective  rural  com- 
munities. There  are  also  a  number  of  farmers'  co-operative  associations 
for  conducting  elevators,  potato  "warehouses,  the  shipping  of  live  stock  and 
other  products  of  the  farm,  the  buying  of  farm  machinery  and  other  bulky 
merchandise  at  wholesale,  besides  a  number  of  very  effective  local  creamery 


The  fine  public  library  at  Alexandria  had  its  beginning  in  a  reading 
club  started  in  the  village  days  of  that  city  as  early  as  1878,  a  small  circu- 
lating library  being  established  at  that  time.  While  Senator  Nelson  was 
serving  in  the  state  Senate  he  was  instrumental  in  ha\ing  enacted  the  pres- 
ent admirable  public  library  law  in  Minnesota  and  under  the  provisions 
of  that  law  there  was  organized  the  Alexandria  Free  Public  Library,  which 
has  had  a  continuous  and  successful  existence  ever  since.  For  a  time  after 
the  village  bought  the  building  since  used  as  a  city  hall,   the  books  of  the 


library  association  were  lioused  in  the  hall  of  that  building,  now  used  as 
a  town  hall,  and  during  George  G.  S.  Campbell's  incumbency  as  president 
of  the  village  he  was  alile  to  secure  from  Andrew  Carnegie  a  donation 
Si  ten  thousand  dollars  for  the  erection  of  a  Carnegie  free  public  library  in 
Alexandria.  .\  choice  lot  across  the  street  from  the  high-school  property 
was  obtained  and  the  present  handsome  public  library  was  erected,  an  addi- 
tional two  thousand  dollars  later  being  secured  from  the  old  iron  master 
to  complete  the  same.  There  are  about  nine  thousand  volumes  in  the  library 
and  one  thousand  four  hundred  and  eighty-nine  cards  were  in  circula- 
tion in  the  summer  of  19 16,  a  fair  index  of  the  popularity  of  the  library 
among  the  reading  people  of  the  city  and  vicinity.  The  present  library 
board  is  composed  of  the  following  members:  G.  A.  Kortsch,  president; 
George  G.  S.  Campbell,  secretary:  Constant  Larson,  H.  A.  LeRoy,  U.  P. 
Ward,  E.  E.  McCrea,  Airs.  Anna  \'olker,  Knute  Nelson  and  Mrs.  W.  F. 
Sundblad.  Margaret  A.  McCord  is  the  librarian  and  the  city  treasurer  acts 
as  treasurer  of  the  board.  Under  the  will  of  the  late  F.  B.  Van  Hoesen 
the  library  board  received  a  legacy  of  five  thousand  dollars,  the  income 
from  which  is  to  be  applied  ■  to  library  purposes  forever  and  this,  in  addi- 
tion to  the  small  tax  levied  for  librar}-  purposes  maintains  the  librar\-  in 
admirable  fashion. 


Incorporated  Towns  and  Villages. 

Very  few  counties  in  the  state  having  the  population  claimed  by  Doug- 
las county  can  pride  themselves  of  so  many  incorporated  towns  and  villages. 
Geographically,  they  are  apportioned  with  regularity,  which  fact  goes  to 
show  that  they  were  located  to  meet  the  demands  and  needs  of  the  sur- 
rounding communities  and  not  to  appease  the  selfish  ambitions  of  some 
ambitious  person.  Each  tow^n  and  village  has  shown  growth  and  prosperity 
and  in  each  case  has  become  a  commercial  center  and  trading  point  for  the 
surrounding,  community. 


In  the  eastern  edge  of  the  county  on  the  Great  X'orthern  Railway,  and  on 
the  shore  of  the  most  picturesque  lake  in  JNIinnesota,  is  located  Osakis,  the 
second  village  in  size  and  importance  in  the  county.  The  history  of  the 
village  is  somewhat  obscure  but  it  is  known  that  with  the  coming  of  the 
early  settlers,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Peter  Botneau,  a  Canadian  half-breed 
Indian,  had  a  camp  one  mile  east  of  where  the  village  now  stands.  His 
camp  was  on  the  dividing  line  between  the  Sioux  Indians,  who  inhabited 
the  prairie,  and  the  Chippewa  Indians  who  lived  in  the  timbered  region. 
Therefore  he  called  his  place  "Sakis,"  which  meant  a  place  of  danger.  \Mth 
the  coming  of  some  English  settlers  they  added  the  prefix  "O"  and  thus  the 
village  took  on  the  name  of  Osakis. 

Early  in  the  history  of  Douglas  county,  a  few  white  settlers  had  gathered 
near  Osakis  Lake,  attracted  by  the  great  beauty  of  the  place,  locating  just  over 
the  line  in  Todd  county,  and  one  of  them,  John  Potter,  in  1859,  made  a 
claim  where  Osakis  now  stands.  In  1859  the  stages  began  running  here  on 
their  way  to  Ft.  Abercrombie,  and  this  was  one  of  the  stations.  When  the 
Indian  outbreak  came  in  1862  all  the  settlers  abandoned  their  claims  and 
left  for  safety,  and  many  never  returned.  However,  along  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  sixties,  Daniel  Stevenson,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Minnesota,  pur- 
chased the  land  and  laid  out  a  town.  Among  the  first  settlers  were  the 
Gordon  boys  who  took  up  their  residence  on  the  bank  of  the  lake.  The  first 
store  in  the  \illage  was  erected  by  James  Chambers  in    1866  and  he   con- 


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tinned  to  hand  out  merchandise  and  groceries  for  several  years.  The  year 
of  1867  brought  several  newcomers  to  the  village.  In  January  of  the 
same  year  Warren  Adley,  who  for  several  years  had  been  engaged  in  the 
hotel  business,  erected  a  commodious  hotel,  and  around  his  establishment 
clustered  several  homes  and  buildings  of  a  various  nature.  Henry  Stone 
established  a  general  store  where  the  Brown  implement  store  is  tixlay.  On 
May  25,  1867,  Mr.  Sanderson  opened  a  tow  mill  and  did  an  active  business 
for  some  time.  Among  other  early  settlers  not  already  mentioned  were: 
Thomas  Adams,  J-  C.  Stone,  Leon  Faille,  A.  M.  Giddeon,  A.  S.  Worden, 
John  McKinsey,  W.  H.  Stevens,  W.  P.  Long  and  \V.  H.  Crowe.  A  large 
majority  of  male  settlers  were  single  men.  For  instance,  in  the  summer 
of  1886  there  were  ten  young  single  men  in  the  village  and  all  lived  in  two 
small  houses.  There  was  not  a  girl  eligible  to  marriage  in  manv  miles. 
Finall}-,  in  the  summer  of  1868,  Mrs.  Tannehill  moved  into  the  village  with 
five  beautiful  and  charming  daughters.  At  once  there  began  a  spirited 
and  lively  contest  among  the  young  men  to  win  the  hearts  of  these  fair 
maidens.  So  persistent  were  the  attentions  of  the  young  men  that  the  con- 
test was  not  long  drawn  out  and  in  a  very  few  months  ]\Irs.  Tannehill 
was  alone. 

The  first  fire  in  the  village  occurred  in  1887  when  the  old  railroad 
eating  house,  built  in  1879,  was  burned  to  the  ground;  the  second  fire 
occurred  on  January  16,  1889,  when  the  building  belonging  to  George 
Frye  and  Adley's  barn  burned:  the  third  fire  was  on  May  18,  1890,  but 
not  a  great  loss  was  sustained. 

The  first  passenger  train  came  through  the  village  November   i,   1878. 

The  first  wooden  sidewalk  was  laid  by  William  H.  Crowe,  as  was  also 
the  first  cement  sidewalk  in  May,  1881. 

The  village  became  an  incorporated  district  on  February  21,  18S1.  with 
the  following  officers:  President,  W.  P.  Long:  recorder,  ^^'illiam  H. 
Crowe :  treasurer,  J.  B.  Bird.  At  the  present  time  Osakis  has  a  village  form 
of  government  with  the  following  officers:  Mayor,  L.  D.  Bentlev;  recorder, 
S.  J.  Lyons;  treasurer,  D.  B.  McCleery;  Robert  Metcalf,  William  Brown  and 
William  Baker;  justices,  W.  B.  Lyons  and  C.  S.  French:  constables,  R.  H. 
Belknap  and  Mike  Clifford. 

The  business  and  professional  interests  of  the  village  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1916  were  in  the  hands  of  the  following:  Allen,  H.,  contractor 
and  builder;  Anderson  Bros.  &  Baker,  hardware  and  implements:  Anderson, 
Mrs.  A.  B.,  milliner;  Austin,  G.  A.,  real  estate. 

Belknap  &  Son,  livery;  Bentley,  L.  D.,  real  estate;  Berg,  Carl,  contrac- 


tor  and  luiilder;  Bjorklund,  Alexander,  contractor  and  Ijuilder;  Bjorklund, 
John,  shoe  shop;  Borschert,  F.  H..  attorney;  Brown  Bros.  Implement  Com- 
pany, farm  implements  and  automobiles;  Bryant.  G.  L.,  veterinary;  Buck, 
Charles,  stone  mason. 

Caughren,  H.  J.,  department  store;  Christensen,  Peter,  ditch  and  tiling 
contractor;  Cagley,  Roy,  restaurant;  Christensen,  C.  'SI.,  ditch  and  tiling 
contractor;  City  Hotel,  \\..  S.  Garner;  Cobb,  R.  E.  &  Company,  branch  pro- 
duce dealer;  Cowen,  L.  C.  summer  resort. 

Davis,  Henry,  power  saw  rig. 

Earle,  M.  A.,  contractor  and  builder;  Electric  light  plant.  S.  ]\I.  Lowery, 
manager;  Empress  Theatre,  E.  H.  Voss;  Engells.  P.  A.,  blacksmith  and 
wagon  shop;  Erwin,  S.  E.,  harness  and  shoe  shop;  Evenson,  O.  C,  con- 
tractor and  builder. 

Fairhaven  summer  resort,  C.  H.  Comport,  proprietor;  Faille.  A.  'SI., 
carpenter   and  builder:    Fearing  &   Conley.   li\-ery  and    feed   stable;    Fezler, 

F.  H..  auctioneer;  First  National  Bank,  Nels  M.  Evenson,  president;  Fisher, 
X.  E.,  live  stock  shipper;  Finneke,  Andrew,  contractor  and  builder:  French, 
C.  S.,  licensed  embalmer;  Flynn,  Ray  Auto  Co.,  Ray  Flynn,  manager;  Fry, 
\'erne,  painter  and  decorator. 

Garber,  Louis,  proprietor  People's  Bargain  Store;  Gilkinson,  Dr.  A. 
J.,  phvsician  and  surgeon;  Gingery,  H.  E.,  lumber,  grain  and  coal;  Gresty, 

G.  \Y.,  real  estate:  Great  Northern  Railroad  and  Express  Company,  H.  F. 
Greeley,  agent. 

Harris  Land  Company,  real  estate;  Harden,  D.  A.,  painter  and  deco- 
rator; Hagen,  William,  wagon  shop;  Hanson,  Xels,  contractor  and  builder; 
Harsh  Bros.,  shippers  of  ice;  Herberger-Cruse  Company,  department  store; 
Hedberg,  J.  A.,  furniture  and  undertaking;  Hengstler,  Dr.  \\'.  H.,  physi- 
cian and  .surgeon;  Hicks  &  Robertson,  sale  and  feed  stable:  Hotel  Idle- 
wilde.  summer  resort.  E.  R.  Ruggles,  proprietor:  Hause,  C.  W'.,  restaurant; 
Howe,  B.  E.,  auctioneer:  Hawlett,  John,  painter  and  plasterer;  Hyland,  W. 
H.,  clothing;  Ideal  Cafe,  A.  S.  Jackson;  Ingersoll.  H.  A.,  pool  and  billiards. 

Tacobson,  H.  J.,  milkman;  Jenkins,  S.  G.,  auctioneer;  Johnson,  W., 
boatman:  Johnston,  Chas.,  carpenter  and  builder;  Johnson.  L.  J.,  milkman; 
Jorgenson,  Peter,  tailor. 

Kirk,  William,  street  sprinkler:  Kirk,  Leslie,  auto  livery:  Kulstad, 
Oscar,  laundry;  Kline  Oil   Company,  Charles  Kline,  manager. 

Lakeside  Ice  Company,  Lake  House;  Lamphear,  G.  E.,  general  mer- 
chandise: LaMont,  Lou  E.,  milliner:  Larson,  Peter,  blacksmith  and  wagon- 
shop:   Lane,   Ralph,  dray  line;  Langston,   William,   auto  repair  shop;  Lenz 







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Summer  Hotel,  James   .\.    Xorris.  proprietor:  Long,   Dr.    C".   M.,   physician 
and  surgeon;  Lyons,  W.  R.,  justice  of  peace;  Ludwig,  A.  A.,  attorney. 

■  ]\Iadson,  J-  'SI.,  insurance  and  notary  public;  Mann,  Mrs.  Lucy,  dress- 
maker; Mix,  Herman,  carpenter  and  builder;  McCleery,  D.  B.,  real  estate; 
Mix  &  Sampson,  dray  line. 

North  American  Storage  Co.    ( branch ) ,  Geo.   Buck,  manager. 

Osakis  Creamery  Compan}-. 

Osakis  Commercial  Club,  C.  H.  Bronson,  president;  Osakis  Milling 
Co.,  H.  E.  Gingery,  president;  Osakis  Meat  Market,  B.  C.  Blakeslee;  Osakis 
State  Bank,  F.  H.  Borschelt,  president;  Osakis  Telephone  Company,  F.  B. 
Cannada,  proprietor;  Osakis  Rcviezv,  C.  H.  Bronson,  proprietor;  Osakis 
public  school,  E.  N.  Hamilton,  superintendent;  Osakis  Roller  Mill,  H.  W. 
Smith;  01son"s  \'ariety  Store,  A.  Olson;  Olson,  R.  A.,  photographer. 

Park  Region  Hospital,  Drs.  Gilkinson  and  Hengstler;  Palmatier,  H., 
barber;  Palmer,  H.,  auctioneer;  Palmatier  &  Earle,  barbers;  Penfield,  Mrs. 
dressmaker;  Phelps.  Warren,  contractor  and  builder;  Postoffice,  F.  H. 
Borchert,  postmaster.    S.   L.   Lyons,   assistant;   Poncelet,   Michael,   plasterer. 

Ouinn,  Frank,  real  estate  and  insurance. 

Rellar,  Frank,  well  driller;  Riis,  Laura,  dressmaker;  Ruggles,  E.  R., 

Shinners.  \\'.  E.,  real  estate;  Skuey,  J.  J.  &  Co.,  general  store;  Smith,  C. 
J\L,  barber;  Smith,  H.  W.,  feed  mill;  Spaulding,  H.  H.,  restaurant;  Stev- 
ens, G.  T.,  real  estate;  Steintl,  V.,  blacksmith  and  wagonshop;  Stewart,  R.  E., 
dentist;  Stratemeyer,  E.  H.,  shoe  shop;  Swore,  Knute,  general  store;  Stand- 
ard Oil  Co.   ( branch  )  ;  Sutliff.  Pearl,  dressmaker. 

Thornburn  &  Larson,  dentists;  Thoma,  G.  AL,  bakery;  Thompson  & 
Son,  live  stock  shippers;  Togstad  Bros.,  jewelery  and  opticians. 

Von  Retter,  P.  J.,  tailor. 

Wigal,  Marv,  milliner :  W'oodard  Hospital.  Mrs.  A.  A.  Woodard ;  With- 
ers, H.  W.,  pool  and  billiards. 

Yates,  ^V.  A.,  lumber  and  coal:  Yates  &  Nelson,  automobile  repair  shop. 
Zimmerson,  J.  P..  stone  mason. 

A  conservative  estimate  of  Osakis'  population  would  be  one  thousand 
four  hundred  people,  which  numl)er  is  increased  during  the  summer  months 
by  tourists  who  visit  the  summer  resorts  for  rest  and  recreation.  Beautifully 
situated  on  the  shore  of  the  most  picturesciue  lake  in  Minnesota,  Osakis  is 
favored  in  the  beauty  and  scope  of  its  natural  surroundings. 

Osakis  is  an  enterprising  city  of  modern  conveniences  for  comfort 
and  advancement,  including  one  of  the  best  high  schools  in  the  central  part 


of  the  state,  churches,  fraternal  and  civic  societies,  a  well-equipped  volun- 
teer fire  department,  an  active  commercial  club,  excellent  rural  route  facili- 
ties, electric  and  power  service,  local,  long  distance  and  rural  telephone 
service,  water-works,  sewerage,  miles  of  cement  walks,  and  in  fact  all 
improvements  that  go  to  make  up  a  modern,  progressive  and  up-to-date 
city.  The  majority  of  the  business  blocks  are  of  brick  thus  giving  the  town 
a  substantial  and  metropolitan  appearance.  A  school  building  has  just  been 
completed  at  a  cost  of  seventy  thousand  dollars  and  is  a  model  of  its  kind. 
As  a  market  town  Osakis  is  pre-eminent  among  the  cities  and  villages 
in  this  section  of  the  state.  A  large  merchant  flour-mill,  a  roller  feed-mill, 
two  grain  elevators,  two  potato  warehouses,  creamery,  and  a  market  for 
straw,  baled  hay,  eggs,  poultry,  vegetables  are  provided  to  furnish  an  outlet 
for  everything  the  farmer  produces. 


The  village  owns  its  own  water  system  which  furnishes  adequate  fire 
protection  and  provides  water  service  for  many  families.  A  water  tower 
and  tank  provide  immediate  pressure  in  case  of  fire  until  the  pump  at  the 
pumping  station  may  be  put  into  operation. 

The  village  has  day  and  night  electric  service  furnished  by  the  Osakis 
Milling  Company  and  the  service  is  equal  to  the  best  found  in  the  larger 

The  Osakis  Telephone  Company  has  an  extensive  s}'stem  with  over  two 
hundred  subscribers  and  connecting  with  eleven  farmer's  lines. 


Among  the  most  successful  manufacturing  institutions  of  the  county 
is  the  four-hundred-barrel  merchant  flour  mill  erected  at  a  cost  of  fifty 
thousand  dollars.  The  famous  "O-sa-kis"  brand  is  a  household  word  not 
only  through  this  part  of  Minnesota  but  in  neighboring  states.  In  connec- 
tion with  the  mill  the  company  has  an  elevator  of  thirty-thousand-bushel 
capacity  and  equipped  with  all  the  latest  machinen,'.  A  spur  track  provides 
adequate  and  economical  facilities.  The  company  grinds  nearly  one-half 
million  bushels  of  wheat  annually,  operating  day  and  night  and  giving 
employment  to  about  twenty  people. 

The  Osakis  Co-operative  Creamery  is  owned  and  managed  by  farm- 
ers.    The  company   was  incorporated  in    1897  and  has  enjo\ed  prosperity 


ever  since.  In  1914  a  new  building-  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  six  tivnisand 
dollars.  The  plant  is  equipped  with  all  the  modern  machinery  and  the 
products  command  a  premium  in  the  New  York  market.  The  report  of 
the  output  for  the  year  of  191 5  is  not  at  hand- but  for  1914  the  amount  of 
butter  turned  out  amounted  to  three  hundred  and  thirty-eight  thousand  one 
hundred  and  forty-five  pounds.  At  the  present  time  the  creamery  has  over 
three  hundred  patrons. 

Among  other  manufacturing  industries  is  a  roller  feed  mill,  eciuipped 
with  an  electric  motor  for  power  purposes,  so  that  the  farmer  can  have 
his  feed  ground  while  he  waits. 

A  tile  and  cement  factory  has  been  in  operation  for  the  last  few  }-ears 
and  has  enjoyed  success  and  prosperity.  In  September,  191 5,  the  com- 
pany moved  into  a  larger  and  more  convenient  building  erected  by  the  com- 

The  \illage  has  a  planing  and  moulding  mill  and  several  iron  and 
wood-work  shops  that  give  employment  to  several  people, 


The  religious  and  social  life  of  the  village  is  all  that  could  be  desired. 
There  are  four  churches,  including  the  Caiholic  with  Rev.  Fatlier  A^'essen- 
dorf  as  pastor;  the  Danish  Lutheran,  Rev.  P.  C.  Paulsen,  pastor:  the 
[Methodist,  Rev.  Edward  Kaneen,  pastor :  the  Presbvterian,  the  pastor  to 
be  supplied. 

Many  fraternal  organizations  are  represented,  most  of  them  maintain- 
ing lodge-rooms.  Among  the  number  represented  are  the  following :  Masons, 
Eastern  Star,  Improved  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  Woodmen  of  America, 
Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen,  Degree  of  Honor,  Knights  of  Macca- 
bees and  Danish  Brotherhood. 


Osakis  has  a  wide-awake  commercial  club  of  seventy  members.  The 
club  maintains  nicely  furnished  rooms  in  the  Caughren  block  with  reading 
tables,  writing  desks,  billiard  and  card  room  and  all  modern  conveniences, 
including  janitor  service.  The  present  officers  include  the  following  well- 
known  business  men:  President,  C.  H.  Bronson:  vice-president,  E.  X. 
Hamilton:  secretary,  E.  R.  Ruggles:  treasurer,  G.  R.  Lee;  executive  com- 
mittee, Nels  Evenson,  George  Herberger,  H.  E.  Gingery,  F.  H.  Bnrchert 
and  D.  W.  Henstler. 



While  the  early  records  were  burned  in  a  fire  that  destroyed  the  Osakis 
l)0stcffice  se\eral  years  ago,  it  is  kn.own  tliat  tlie  Osakis  postotifice  was 
estabhshed  'in  1865,  and  the  first  postmaster  was  Donald  Stevenson,  the 
earliest  pioneer  and  townsite  proprietor.  Air.  Stevenson  was  succeeded  as 
postmaster  in  1867  by  J.  B.  Johnson,  who  fur  many  years  kept  the  postoffice 
in  his  store  building.  Short!}-  after  the  railroad  reached  Osakis  in  1878. 
Rasmus  Flore  was  made  postmaster.  Mr.  Flore  was  succeeded  by  John  H. 
Rock  who  held  the  office  a  numlser  of  years  and  under  whose  incumbency 
the  office  reached  the  presidential  class.  Air.  Rock  was  a  Republican  and 
when  Cleveland  became  President  was  succeeded  by  Frank  J.  Herberger, 
a  prominent  young  merchant  of  the  village.  Upon  the  return  of  a  Repub- 
lican administration  Mr.  Herberger  was  succeeded  by  Gilbert  Sargent,  who 
died  after  holding  the  office  five  years,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Harry 
C.  Sargent,  who  was  postmaster  for  four  years,  and  was  one  of  the  young- 
est postmasters  in  the  state  holding  a  presidential  postoffice.  Harry  Sargent 
gave  way  to  Clement  H.  Bronson,  editor  of  the  Osakis  Rcz'ieiv,  who  was 
appointed  to  the  office  in  February,  1907,  by  President  Roosevelt  and  was 
re-appointed  by  President  Taft  in  191 1.  Air.  Bronson  served  until  June  i. 
1915,  when  a  change  of  administration  resulted  in  the  naming  by  Presi- 
dent Wilson  of  the  present  postmaster,  Frank  H.  Borchert,  president  of  the 
Osakis  State  Bank.  The  present  efficient  assistant